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U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE
Admiral DAVID D. PORTER, U. S. Navy, 1873
Rear Admiral EDWARD SIMPSON, U. S. Navy, Oct. 1885-Ocr. 1887
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UNITED STATES NAVAL INSTITUTE
Vol. 45, No. 4 APRIL, 1919 Whola No. 194
U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD.
A decoration in the sense here used is a badge or mark of honor to be worn upon the person as a reward for eminent or conspicuous service in battle or for honorable participation in a particular battle or campaign. Such decorations are usually bestowed by order of the sovereign or chief executive of a nation or by enactment of the parliamentary or congressional body. In many countries decorations are also bestowed for conspicuous services to the state in peace time as well as for notable achievements in the fields of art and literature. They include medals, crosses, campaign badges and ribbons and the stars and ribbons that constitute the insignia of the orders of knighthood.
War decorations may be primarily divided into several classes: the insignia of the orders of knighthood conferred for service in war, war crosses, special service medals, general service medals, long service medals, good conduct medals and badges, and medals or badges awarded for excellence in target shooting. The first class is unknown in the army and navy of the United States of America, since clause 8 of section 9 of Article I of the Constitution provides that "no title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress,