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gunnery practice with heavy ordnance. On the initial cruise only, a naval gunnery officer should be detailed as an aid to the commanding officer, because of the naval officer's present knowledge of the naval ships and equipment. After that one cruise, the services of the naval man would not be required, as the coast guard officers would have absorbed the essentials necessary and the ships could be safely trusted in their care for all the purposes of training. The practice suggested is essential for both officers and men and its necessity should be recognized. Would it not be desirable to have certain vessels of the navy set aside for manning by the coast guard in case of war? We of the coast guard know that results could be delivered, and the expediency of such a scheme should receive consideration. Reflect for a moment on what is being done by the navy to advance the efficiency of the naval militia, and also the efforts that are being made to induce others from civil life to embark on cruises for training purposes and the degree of instruction given them. One wonders as to what the mental process must be of those who neglect the coast guard and compel it to work out its own salvation with practically no aid of any kind and with an appropriation that is almost pathetic, by reason of inadequacy, to meet even the ordinary running expenses of the service. “It is the shots that hit that count,” we are all taught that; consequently, the batteries of all cruising coast guard ships should be immediately increased to include 4-inch or 3-inch guns, according to the size of the vessel. Real enthusiasm will then be had on the range and the resulting scores will stimulate the crews; they will feel that they are in possession of guns which they may one day have to use for more serious purpose than mere range work. Not long ago an officer of the navy advised against the expense of re-arming the coast guard cutters and suggested that “they could have recourse to rifle fire for offensive and defensive purposes.” The writer again begs to say that he is no prophet, but advances the suggestion that should coast guard vessels be ever called on for defensive or offensive purposes, there will be a most urgent necessity for other than rifle fire in any actions in which they may engage.

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[copyrighted]

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD.

WINNING THE ENGINEERING WHITE E
By Commander Bruce R. Ware, Jr., U. S. Navy

In December, 1915, the U. S. S. Texas was standing about 14th in the engineering competition. She finished the year June 30, 1916, in second place, having gained 13 places in six months; the next year, however, she finished in first place and won the white E.

The first step towards winning the competition was taken at a conference in the senior engineer officer's stateroom. Here it was agreed by all hands, deck, ship and engineers, to get together in earnest in order to win, not only the white E, but the gunnery trophy and the battle efficiency pennant. The order of the day from then on was to be " Co-operation for the ship!"

Therefore, with the welfare of the entire ship in view, each officer was assigned the duties for which he was best fitted. Thus assigned, we all started to get acquainted with our ship. Careful inspections and intensive observations were made of the crew and the machinery. Operating data, pressures and other values were recorded at all points throughout the ship.

About a week before the fleet went to Guantanamo in January, 1916, the data accumulated were analyzed and it was decided to concentrate at once upon the following three points:

1. To get the crew interested.

2. To systematize.

3. To teach and encourage true economy:

The winning of the gunnery trophy proved the success on deck. The co-operation received below from the deck also merits notice. From here on, however, this article will treat with the engineering struggle into the first place.

The three principal points enumerated above were subdivided as follows:

1. To get the crew interested:

a. Publish information.

b. Entertain the crew—make the men happy.

c. Rate our own men up to fill vacancies.

d. Show the men the results of their work.

2. To systematize:

a. Auxiliary watches.

b. Steaming watches.

c. Liberty and leave.

d. Advancements in rating.

e. Organizations:

1. Auxiliary stations.

2. Fire-rooms.

3. Engine-rooms.

4. Power and light.

5. Fresh-water tank—galleys, washrooms and

laundry.

6. Turrets and torpedo-room.

3. To teach and encourage true economy:

a. Calibrate all instruments.

b. Record performances methodically.

c. Evade nothing—analyze performances with accuracy

and fairness.

d. Teach methods of obtaining economy:

1. By illustrated lectures.

2. By personal supervision.

3. By enforcing every order published.

e. Periodical upkeep.

f. Constant study of the machinery installation for im

provement.

g. Constant study of the rules for the engineering com

petitions and explaining them to the officers and men.

h. Coaling ship.

An inspection of the fire-rooms under way disclosed that the men knew practically nothing about intelligent firing, and as the coal that would be used en route to Guantanamo would be an important percentage of the total used for the year, it became 68

Sanitary Report. Monthly.

To: Commander of base.
Form: Letter in accordance with base commander's medical instructions,

31 December, 1917. By: M.O.

Copies to: Base commander (1), force commander (1), through B.C. File: 202.

70 Requests For Transfer. Monthly.

To: Bureau of Navigation.
Form: Letter giving list of all men requesting transfer or exchange.

See BuNav. circular letter 3281-21, May 3, 1912.
By: Commanding officer.
File: 8-1.

Report Of Enlistments. Monthly When Any Occur.

To: Bureau of Navigation.
Form: 4B.

By: Executive officer through C. O.
Ref.: I. 5221 (6).
File: 8-5.

72 Radio Operators Report. Monthly.

To: Bureau of Navigation. Division of Radio, Radio, Va.
Form: N. Nav. 30.
By: CO.

Copies to: F. C. and B. C.
Report also called " Men Detailed for Radio duty Report."

74 Smooth Log Book. Monthly Or When Completed.

To: Bureau of Navigation.

Form: 20.

By: Navigator through C. O.

Copy: Rough, retained on board in loose leaf binder.

Ref.: I. 5221 (4).

Filed: Navigator's log room.

75 Statistical Report. Monthly.

To: Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.

Form: N. M. S. K. (quarterly report form).

By: M.O. through CO.

Copies to: Bu. M. & S. through B.C. (1), base commander (1), force

commander (1), through B.C. File: M. O.'s office.

the lectures, it was necessary to be most clear and to use simple language. They were, therefore, made to realize from the start that there were only three things for them to learn and understand: The necessity of team-work; the proper use of the tools given them; the coal and the air.

THE FIRST TALK

In order to understand the system of firing to be explained to you, it is necessary to' know something about the things you have to use. To burn coal—that is, to have a fire—there must be air passing through the coal. There is something in the air which the fire must have in order to burn and create the heat that is to be passed on to the water in the boiler. This is oxygen, and without it the fire will not bum; if the supply is too small the fire will smoke and there is the loss due to unburned coal going out the smoke-pipe; if there is too much oxygen the combustion will have been completed too soon and only cold air will reach the important parts of the boiler. About 21 parts of the air is oxygen and if it is all used in the furnace you are tending, then you are doing the very best that is possible.

In naval boilers on board ship such perfect combustion cannot be reached and from 12 to 14 per cent C02 formation is considered very good work. The oxygen uniting with the carbon in the coal forms what is known as carbon dioxide (C02) and, as stated, if the smoke-pipe gases contain over 12 per cent the boilers you are firing are doing their duty.

In the plates that I am going to show you I have used colors to designate what is meant. Yellow means that the fire is hot. When you look into the furnace and see a mass of brilliant flames—white-yellowish tongues of fire—that mass or spot needs coaling. Red means that the fire is burning well and should not be disturbed, it may be given a sprinkling of coal. The green is used to indicate green coal—coal that has not had time to burn, or coal that had no air. This part of the fire does not need coal, it may require working by the hoe from above or it may need slicing beneath it. Blue stands for coking—a very bad, wasteful practice, as the air cannot get through the fire and the coal cokes, it does not burn. This blue crust must be broken. The blackis the ash or clinker that must be removed. You should now know what the colors mean when I show you the lantern slides.

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