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Source of information: Current statistics section and medical records section, Division of Sanitation, Medical Department.
Disease 20,829 32,737 53.566
Battle 48,768 48,768
Other 3,354 '-756 5,"0
Total 72,951 34,493 107,444
—U. S. Bulletin, 25/2.
The destroyer Ingram, said to be the first vessel in the United States Navy named for a non-commissioned member of the service, was launched at the Fore River plant of the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation at Quincy, Mass., late last week. It was named after Osman Kelly Ingram, chief gunner's mate of the destroyer Cassin, who was killed when that vessel was torpedoed by a German submarine. The Ingram was christened by the sailor's mother, Mrs. M. E. Ingram, of Park City, Ala.—Shipping, 8/3.
Conscientious Objectors Refund $8,589 Army Pay.—The War Department authorizes publication of the following statement:
The War Department has received from conscientious objectors as refunds of pay the sum of $4,319.82. Conscientious objectors have also refunded their pay through the channel of the Y. M. C. A. to the amount of $270. The Friends' Society had received up to February 15, $4,000 designated for Friends' reconstruction work from conscientious objectors unwilling to accept pay from the army. This makes a total of $8,589.82 thus refunded.—U. S. Bulletin, 28/2.
Progress In Finding Jobs For Returned Soldiers And Sailors.—More than 75 per cent of the returning soldiers and sailors who need assistance in finding employment are being placed in jobs through the United States Employment Service, the Department of Labor announces.
The employment service is finding that of the average 60,000 men weekly discharged from the army, 30 per cent, or 18,000, must find new work, and that 20 per cent of the total, or 12,000, eath week are being placed in employment through the Federal Employment Service and its co-operating welfare, civic, and other organizations. The placement figures are based only upon the reports of men known to have been placed, and it is estimated that at least 5 per cent more are being helped to jobs through the employment service. There is a much higher percentage of men needing new jobs among the soldiers from the industrial centers than from the agricultural districts.
The employment service is conducting its soldiers' placing work through offices and agents in all demobilization camps and 2000 special bureaus for returning soldiers, sailors, and war workers in the towns and cities. The bureau for returning soldiers and sailors of the United States Employment Service in the District of Columbia, for instance, has thus far received 2113 applications from soldiers for jobs, and of this number has placed all but 50.—U. S. Bulletin, 28/2.
CURRENT NAVAL AND PROFESSIONAL PAPERS
Review Of Reviews. March.—TJie Navy's New Task, by Secretary
Atlantic Monthly. March.—The Territorial Claims of France, by Rene Pinon. The Peace Congress and the Balkans, by /. O. Bourchier. Bolshevism: a Liberal View, by H. IV. Stanley.
Harper's Magazine. March.—How the War Was Won, by General Malleterre.
Times Current History. March.—Heroism of Torpedoed Transports (Official Narratives). Sinking of the Viribus Unitis, by Lieut. Col. K. Rossetti.
World's Work. March.—At Home with Admiral Beatty, by Francis T. Hunter. The Surrender of the German Fleet.
Flying. March.—Value of Dirigibles for Aerial Transports, by Henry Woodhouse. Regulations of Future Air Traffic, by Alan R. Hawley. Aero Radio Surveying and Mapping, by John Hays Hammond.
Pan American Bulletin. December.—Latin-American Trade—A Comparative Survey.
Scientific American. March 15.—The North Sea Mine Barrage (I), by Capt. Reginald R. Belknap, U. S. N. Future of British Flying, by C. H. Claudy. Reflecting Prisms—Their Use in Place of Mirrors, by Naval Instructor T. V. Baker, R. N.
Engineering. Feb. 21:—The Industrial Progress of Japan. The Development of Airplanes in the War.
Land And Water. Feb. 20.—Lord Jellicoe's Case, by Arthur Pollen.
From February 20 To March 20
Allan Westcott, Associate Professor, U. S. Naval Academy
PROGRESS OF PEACE CONFERENCE
Inclusion Of League Covenant In Peace Preliminaries.—At the time of President Wilson's return to Paris on March 14, the Special Commissions on Responsibility for the War, Reparation, Waterways, Boundaries, etc., had progressed with their investigations to a point where many of their conclusions could be presented for final action. M. Pichon, French Foreign Minister, on March 16 stated that German delegates would not be called to Versailles until a complete understanding had been reached among the allied and associated powers. Then the German delegates must either accept the terms and sign, or a state of war would continue.
M. Pichon regarded it as very doubtful if the complete covenant of the League of Nations could be included in the preliminaries of peace, which should be signed at the earliest possible moment. He pointed out that considerable time would be required to hear the views of neutrals, which had been invited, and to dispose of amendments. The issue, he suggested, might be met by a declaration in the treaty of the principles underlying the League, leaving the details in abeyance. American delegates, however, were proceeding on the assumption that the full covenant would be included in the preliminary treaty, and on March 17 it was announced that the Supreme Council had so decided, the covenant to be attached probably as an appendix.
The invitations to neutrals to express their views on the League of Nations was sent out March 14, setting March 20 as the date for the conference on the subject.
Work Of The Boundaries Commission.—On March 12 it was agreed by the Supreme Council that the decisions regarding the Turkish, West German, and Adriatic boundaries (between Albania and Jugoslavia) should be made by the Supreme Council rather than the Special Boundaries Commission. The report of the Commission on Polish Boundaries, presented March 17, accords to Poland a "corridor" to the Baltic, including the port of Danzig, with the privilege to Germany of free communication across this strip to East Prussia.
Waterways Commission Decisions.—On March 15 the Commission on the International Regime of Ports, Waterways, and Railways continued its consideration of clauses to be inserted in the peace treaty in regard to the navigation of the Rhine. It was the recommendation of the commission that the Rhine should be opened to all nations without discrimination, under control of a commission similar to that established for the Danube. The status of the Kiel Canal, according to a report of March 12, was settled by the commission on the basis of freedom of use for all nations for merchant vessels and warships in time of peace, the canal to continue under German ownership and operation. The question of the fortification of the canal was left to military and naval experts. The commission declared the Panama and Suez Canals outside their sphere of action, on the ground that these were not international zuatcmwys, each being within one country. The commission in general confined its work to European problems.
Germany Granted Food Supplies.—On March 14 an agreement was signed at Brussels by which Germany was assured immediate delivery of 270,000 tons of food stuffs and the right to purchase 370,000 tons of food per month from enemy and neutral countries until the next harvest, in return for which German shipping as agreed upon would be turned over to the Allies for transport of troops to America and food to Europe.
Negotiations on this subject at Spa in the first weeks of March had failed, owing to the unwillingness of the Allies to make definite promises of food for more than a limited period and the objections of France to any method of payment which might reduce Germany's ability to meet her war obligations.
The first shipment of food under the present arrangement is to be paid for by a deposit of fn,000,000 in gold at Brussels, Future supplies are to be paid for by the export of certain products, such as potash, needed by the Allies.
German ships in Chili, including 36 steamers and 52 sailing vessels. aggregating 241,186 net tons, have been allocated to the United States to use until the peace treaty is signed, when title to them will be determined. About 300,000 tons of German shipping now in German ports have also been turned over to the United States.
Italy Releases Supplies To Slavs.—It was announced from Paris on March 7 that at the request of the Supreme Council, Italy had consented to reopen transportation across the Italian-Austrian frontier, closed by Italy since the middle of February. The blockade prevented the movement of food, some 80,000 tons of which had been accumulated by Mr. Hoover at Fiume and Trieste, to supply the Southern Slavs and Czechoslovaks. According to a Washington statement of March 6, the American Government had previously warned Italy that in the event of further delays in the movement of relief supplies to the Slav states, steps would be taken to cut off the flow of American foodstuffs to Italy.
The blockade was due to friction between the Italian forces of occupation and the Slavs, especially at the railroad center of Laihach, out of which an Italian mission was forced on February 19. Food supplies from the United States to Italy are said to amount to $60,000,000 monthly, while the relief of the Czechs, Jugoslavs, and Serbians costs almost $20,000,000 monthly.
PROPOSED MILITARY AND NAVAL TERMS
At the session ofthe War Council on March 10 Marshal Foch was generally triumphant in having his conditions accepted. Some important changes were made, however, one of which imposes severer conditions than even Foch proposed.
It was premier Lloyd George who offered this. He asked that the German Army strength should be fixed at 140,000 men. As a result of discussion, it was agreed to fix the army strength at 100,000, or less than half the original maximum recommended under the terms laid down by the Allies.
Germany must raise this force by voluntary enlistment. In order to prevent an army of this size being trained every year, it was provided that the enlistments should be for a period of twelve years. The number of German officers is fixed at 4000, instead of the 6000 as originally contemplated.
All artillery and other equipment in excess of the requirements of the reduced army must be surrendered, and the Imperial General Staff must be abolished.
Other military provisions require the destruction of the Rhine forts and the reduction of the munitions output to the needs of the reduced army.
The naval terms, among other provisions, require the personnel of the German Navy to be restricted to 15,000 men.—N. Y. Times, 11/3.
v Arguments Against Sinking German Battleships.—Prior to President Wilson's return to France, a letter said to have been written by him was published in which he expressed tentative disapproval of the proposal to sink the surrendered German battleships. After his return to Paris, however, he again took up the question. The arguments in favor of sinking the ships are summarized as follows by C. H. Grasty (AT. Y. Times), March 17:
1. In the face of the covenant committal to decreased armament, distribution makes an immediate increase of 30 per cent in allied armaments.
2. As matters stand the American ability to put through a building program creates the possibility of inducing Great Britain to join her in the alternative of scaling down to the lowest point the number of ships consistent with self-protection and maintaining the League, whereas distribution will make new standards to be built up to.
3. Distribution will vastly and unnecesarily increase the burden of taxation.
4. World interests would be subserved by no one power controlling the seas against all comers.
5. The morale of the world requires a dramatic heralding of better days. Distribution is a step in the opposite direction.
6. Destruction preserves entire our moral position with respect to Germany.
7. American interests compel the acceptance of a joint naval burden with Great Britain. Distribution will make that burden too great for America to carry.
8. Finally if the German fleet is thrown among the Allies to be contended for as a prize, it will prove a veritable apple of discord that may make its surrender profit to Germany more than if she had risked her ships in a final battle. The division of naval spoils would be a negation of the principle of co-operation which is the foundation stone of the League.