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(3) Note on economic terms, declaring that 15,000,000 people in Germany were dependent on foreign trade and foreign raw materials, that Germany could not support more than 40,000,000 on her own resources, and that the terms of treaty would mean economic ruin and starvation.

(4) Note on territorial questions, admitting the principle of self-determination in certain instances, but objecting to the sacrifice of territory populated by Germans, and particularly against the Sarre Valley arrangement, the transfer of territory to Belgium, and the evacuation of part of Schleswig.

(5) Note on reparations, assenting to payment but not because of responsibility for the war.

(6) A note submitting a German plan for a league of nations, differing from the Allied plan chiefly in that it provided for the immediate inclusion of all belligerents. This plan was submitted to the Committee on a League of Nations, which found its merits sufficiently paralleled in the plan already incorporated in the Peace Treaty.

OPPOSITION TO TREATY IN GERMANY.-Following the announcement of peace terms, a week of mourning was officially decreed in Germany, the purpose of which was at least in part to lend support to the protests of the German delegates. President Ebert on May 11 declared the treaty a “monstrous document" and that Germany's hopes of America had proved vain. Chancellor Scheidemann in the National Assembly on May 12 pronounced the terms “unacceptable," finding one hundred clauses beginning with “Germany renounces.” The Independent Socialists, on the other hand, insisted that the terms should be accepted and peace declared, though their leader, Hugo Haase, refused to form a government to assume responsibility for signing the treaty.

TREATY VALID WHEN THREE Allied PowerS RATIFY.- Paris, May 16.The German peace treaty, it developed to-day, contains a clause, which has not yet been made public, providing that ratification by Germany and three of the principal associated powers will bring the treaty in force between the ratifying parties, enabling the immediate resumption of trade.

It was pointed out in connection with this stipulation that any nation which withheld ratification after three of the principal powers had ratified would be at a disadvantage in a commercial way, from the fact that the ratifying powers would be able to resume trade relations with Germany at once, while the states which delayed would have no such privilege. V. Y. Times, 1775.

FRENCH TO SUPPLY ARMY OF OCCUPATION.-Paris, May 8.--Neither the United States nor Great Britain will maintain any part of the armies of occupation which by the terms of the treaty will remain on the Rhine for at least 15 years. The occupation of the left bank of the Rhine will be effected by French and Belgian troops, the great majority, of course, being French. These two nations receive practically all of the indemnity for the collection of which allied troops are to be retained on German territory. It was not the wish of Marshal Foch and the French peace delegation that this arrangement be made.

PROPOSED AMERICAN UNDERSTANDING WITH FRANCE On May 8 the following official statement was issued at Paris :

"In addition to the securities afforded in the treaty of peace, the President of the United States has pledged himself to propose to the Senate of the United States, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain has pledged himself to propose to the Parliament of Great Britain, an engagement, subject to the approval of the Council of the League of Nations, to come immediately to the assistance of France in case of unprovoked attack by Germany."

It was later reported that this pledge on the part of the President of the United States was embodied in a letter to Premier Clemenceau, and that the proposal would be presented to the Senate in a form suggesting a defensive alliance.


TREATY The revised covenant of the League of Nations was adopted at a plenary session of the Peace Conference on April 28 without division and without amendments, and is given first place as Section I in the peace treaty.

The document as it there appears (for original see U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE PROCEEDINGS, March, 1919) is outlined as follows in the official summary :

SECTION 1.-League of Nations.-The covenant of the League of Nations constitutes Section I of the peace treaty, which places upon the League many specific, in addition to its general, duties. It may question Germany at any time for a violation of the neutralized zone east of the Rhine as a threat against the world's peace. It will appoint three of the five members of the Sarre Commission, oversee its régime, and carry out the plebiscite. It will appoint the High Commissioner of Danzig, guarantee the independence of the free city, and arrange for treaties between Danzig and Germay and Poland. It will work out the mandatory system to be applied to the former German colonies, and act as a final court in part of the plebiscites of the Belgian-German frontier, and in disputes as to the Kiel Canal, and decide certain of the economic and financial problems. An International Conference on Labor is to be held in October under its direction, and another on the international control of ports, waterways, and railways is foreshadowed.

Membership.-The members of the League will be the signatories of the covenant and other states invited to accede who must lodge a declaration of accession without reservation within two months. A new state, dominion, or colony may be admitted, provided its admission is agreed by twothirds of the assembly. A state may withdraw upon giving two years' notice, if it has fulfilled all its international obligations.

Secretariat.-A permanent secretariat will be established at the seat of the League, which will be at Geneva.

Assembly.-The Assembly will consist of representatives of the members of the League, and will meet at stated intervals. Voting will be by states. Each member will have one vote and not more than three representatives.

Council.—The Council will consist of representatives of the Five Great Allied Powers, together with representatives of four members selected by the Assembly from time to time; it may co-opt additional states and will meet at least once a year. Members not represented will be invited to send

a representative when questions affecting their interests are discussed. Voting will be by states. Each state will have one vote and not more than one representative. A decision taken by the Assembly and Council must be unanimous except in regard to procedure, and in certain cases specified in the covenant and in the treaty, where decisions will be by a majority.

Armaments.—The Council will formulate plans for a reduction of armaments for consideration and adoption. These plans will be revised every ten years. Once they are adopted, no member must exceed the armaments fixed without the concurrence of the Council. All members will exchange full information as to armaments and programs, and a permanent commission will advise the Council on military and naval questions.

Preventing of War.–Upon any war, or threat of war, the Council will meet to consider what common action shall be taken. Members are pledged to submit matters of dispute to arbitration or inquiry and not to resort to war until three months after the award. Members agree to carry out the arbitral award and not to go to war with any party to the dispute which complies with it. If a member fails to carry out the award, the Council will propose the necessary measures. The Council will formulate plans for the establishment of a permanent court of international justice to determine international disputes or to give advisory opinions. Members who do not submit their case to arbitration must accept the jurisdiction of the Assembly. If the Council, less the parties to the dispute, is unanimously agreed upon the rights of it, the members agree that they will not go to war with any party to the dispute which complies with its recommendations. In this case, a recommendation, by the Assembly, concurred in by all its members represented on the Council and a simple majority of the rest, less the parties to the dispute, will have the force of a unanimous recommendation by the Council. In either case, if the necessary agreement cannot be secured, the members reserve the right to take such [action?] as may be necessary for the maintenance of right and justice. Members resorting to war in disregard of the covenant will immediately be debarred from all intercourse with other members. The Council will in such cases consider what military or naval action can be taken by the League collectively for the protection of the covenants and will afford facilities to members co-operating in this enterprise.

Validity of Treaties.-All treaties or international engagements concluded after the institution of the League will be registered with the secretariat and published. The Assembly may from time to time advise members to reconsider treaties which have become inapplicable, or involve danger to peace. The covenant abrogates all obligations between members inconsistent with its terms, but nothing in it shall affect the validity of international engagements such as treaties of arbitration or regional understandings like the Monroe Doctrine for securing the maintenance of peace.

The Mandatory System.—The tutelage of nations not yet able to stand by themselves will be intrusted to advanced nations who are best fitted to undertake it. The covenant recognizes three different stages of development requiring different kinds of mandatories :

(a) Communities like those belonging to the Turkish Empire, which can be provisionally recognized as independent, subject to advice and assistance for a mandatory in whose selection they would be allowed a voice.

(b) Communities like those of Central Africa, to be administered by the mandatory under conditions generally approved by the members of the League, where equal opportunities for trade will be allowed to all members; certain abuses, such as trade in slaves, arms, and liquor will be prohibited, and the construction of military and naval bases and the introduction of compulsory military training will be disallowed.

(c) Other communities, such as Southwest Africa and the South Pacific Islands, but administered under the laws of the mandatory as integral por

tions of its territory. In every case the mandatory will render an annual report, and the degree of its authority will be defined.

General International Provisions.-Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international convention, existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the members of the League will in general endeavor, through the international organization established by the Labor Convention, to secure and maintain fair conditions of labor for men, women and children in their own countries and other countries, and undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants of territories under their control; they will entrust the League with the general supervision over the execution of agreements for the suppression of traffic in women and children, &c.; and the control of the trade in arms and ammunition with countries in which control is necessary; they will make provision for freedom of communication and transit and equitable treatment for commerce of all members of the League, with special reference to the necessities of regions devastated during the war; and they will endeavor to take steps for international prevention and control of disease. International bureaus and commissions already established will be placed under the League, as well as those to be established in the future.

Amendments to the Covenant.--Amendments to the covenant will take effect when ratified by the Council and by a majority of the Assembly.

PRELIMINARY ORGANIZATION OF LEAGUE.—The Organization Committee of the League of Nations met in Paris on May 5. M. Pichon, French Foreign Minister, was elected chairman, and Sir Eric Drummond of Great Britain assumed his duties as Acting Secretary General. Representatives of Belgium, Greece, Spain, and Brazil were present, in addition to those of the five chief nations of the Entente.

MANDATORIES NAMED FOR GERMAN COLONIES.-An official communication on May 7 gave the following account of action taken regarding the German colonies:

“ The Council of Three-M. Clemenceau, President Wilson and Mr. Lloyd George-yesterday decided as to the disposition of the former German colonies as follows:

“Togoland and Kamerun.-France and Great Britain shall make a joint recommendation to the League of Nations as to their future.

“German East Africa.—The mandate shall be held by Great Britain.

“German Southwest Africa.—The mandate shall be held by the Union of South Africa.

“The German Samoan Islands.—The mandate shall be held by New Zealand.

“The other German Pacific possessions south of the equator, excluding the German Samoan Islands and Nauru.-The martdate shall be held by Australia.

Vauru (Pleasant Island).—The mandate shall be given to the British Empire.

“The German Pacific islands north of the equator.—The mandate shall be held by Japan.”

FIUME QUESTION STILL A DEADLOCK On April 23, following repeated and vain efforts of the Council of Four to settle Italy's Adriatic claims, President Wilson issued a public statement setting forth his opposition to the cession of Fiume to Italy. In this state

ment the President showed: (1) that the situation at the time of the secret treaty of London had been completely altered by the entry of new belligerents, the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the armistice terms based on common acceptance of "principles which set up a new order of right and justice”; (2) that if those principles are adhered to, Fiume must serve as an outlet of commerce for the lands to the north and northeast; (3) that Italy no longer is in urgent need of naval protection against Austria-Hungary; and (4) that the concessions offered Italy complete her unity and create no cause for future trouble.

Italian DELEGATES Quit CONFERENCE.—President Wilson's statement was published with the knowledge of Premiers Lloyd George and Clemenceau, who, while they issued no public statements, supported the position taken by the President. Following the publication, the leaders of the Italian delegation, including Premier Orlando and Foreign Minister Sonnino, returned to Italy on April 24. Italian sentiment, which had been stirred to patriotic fervor, gave enthusiastic support to the position taken by the Italian delegates, to such an extent as to make difficult any change of ground. Justifying his withdrawal, Premier Orlando on April 24 issued a long statement declaring that President Wilson had addressed his appeal directly to the Italian people, in contravention of diplomatic usage.

RETURN OF ITALIAN DELEGATES.—In spite of their apparently resolute opposition to any compromise of the Fiume dispute, the Italian leaders returned to Paris on May 7, in time for the presentation of the treaty. They returned at the invitation of the French and British Premiers, who extended it on the ground that Italy was a special ally of their governments through the London agreement.

On May 12 Premier Orlando said, “ There is no change in the situation. Both we and the Americans are now established on the lines of last resistance. It is absolutely a deadlock.” In the meantime Fiume was occupied by 24,000 Italian troops, and the Fiume council had voted for annexation to Italy.

PEACE NEGOTIATIONS WITH AUSTRIA The Austrian peace delegation arrived at St. Germain-en-Laye, a suburb of Paris where the negotiations with Austria are to take place, on May 14, and exchanged greetings with representatives of the Allied Powers with apparently more cordiality than was shown upon the arrival of the German delegates. The Austrian plenipotentiaries included Karl Renner, Chancellor of the Austrian Republic, Dr. Franz Klein, Peter Eichoff, and Dr. Richard Schuler, with a suite of some sixty members. The exchange of credentials was scheduled for May 21 and the presentation of the Austrian terms for June 2. With regard to boundary settlements on the Italian frontier these terms followed in general the arrangements made in London in 1915 between Italy and the Entente.


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