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sees the object direct. The effect, after a little practice, is that the object is seen as clearly as though there were no sight at all.

The tube is about three feet long and about three inches in diameter, and contains five specially constructed and arranged lenses.

One fact about aerial fighting, however, which has never been mentioned is that, after the first sight has been obtained, the pilot never uses his sight at all. He watches the bullets-literally! That is, he watches the tracer ammunition. One in every three shots is a tracer—a bullet which trails a little path of smoke; and it is much more interesting to watch the tracers than it is to keep the eye on the sights. Most pilots would like to use all tracers if they could, for they kill as readily as the regular bullets. But, unfortunately, tracer ammunition is dirty, and will soon 'choke the bore of the gun. As it is, a great many pilots load their magazines and belts with every other one a tracer, though it is strictly against the rules. The temptation though is too great to be resisted.

The tracer is made the same as the ordinary bullet, except that, in the end, is a small antity of magnesium which ignites. It is not te accurate, as it is lighter and drops a little in its Aight, but it serves its purpose wonderfully.--Scientific American, 15/2.

MISCELLANEOUS 300,000 IN A. E. F. BY JULY I, IS PLAN.--General Pershing Announces Eighteen Divisions to be Returned by that Time.-Announcement by General Pershing's chief of staff that eighteen National Guard and National Army divisions were scheduled to sail from France before July 1 apparently confirms reports which have been current here that the expeditionary forces were to be reduced to a total strength of 300,000 by the end of the current fiscal year.

Calculations in the various War Department bureaus, it is said, have been based upon the 300,000 strength in figuring on the maintenance of the army abroad after July 1.

The announcement from France indicates that in addition to the seven regular divisions now in France and into which presumably men desiring to remain temporarily are being transferred, the American forces after July will include the 78th and 81st National Army divisions and one other division. This would give a nine-division strength for the combatant forces and allow one division for employment as a depot unit.

While the statement from Paris named only eighteen divisions, all others now in France except the seven regular and four National Guard and National Army divisions already are on priority for early return, and have been skeletonized and are returning as casuals.

German shipping, which now becomes available, will be used in the repatriation of the troops. The order of precedence of their return is based on the order of their arrival. The only exceptions to this ruling will be when the availability of rail and sea transportation, the relative location to ports of the controlling military situation makes the exception necessary.

Troops in the service of supply and labor troops will be returned in the order in which their services can be spared, and as far as possible in the order of their arrival in France.-N. Y. Times.

72,951 DEATHS IN OVERSEAS FORCES AND 34,493 AMONG TROOPS AT HOME.The following statistics showing the number of deaths during the war in the American Expeditionary Forces and among troops in the United States have been prepared by Statistics Branch, General Staff, War Department.

Figures for the United States are from April 1, 1917, to February 14, 1919; for the American Expeditionary Forces, to February 16, 1919.

Source of information: Current statistics section and medical records section, Division of Sanitation, Medical Department.

expeditionary United States











107,444 -U. S. Bulletin, 25/2.

The destroyer Ingram, said to be the first vessel in the United States Navy named for a non-commissioned member of the service, was launched at the Fore River plant of the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation at Quincy, Mass., late last week. It was named after Osman Kelly Ingram, chief gunner's mate of the destroyer Cassin, who was killed when that vessel was torpedoed by a German submarine. The Ingram was christened by the sailor's mother, Mrs. M. E. Ingram, of Park City, Ala.-Shipping, 8/3.

CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS REFUND $8,589 Army Pay.—The War Department authorizes publication of the following statement:

The War Department has received from conscientious objectors as refunds of pay the sum of $4,319.82. Conscientious objectors have also refunded their pay through the channel of the Y. M. C. A. to the amount of $270. The Friends' Society had received up to February 15, $4,000 designated for Friends' reconstruction work from conscientious objectors unwilling to accept pay from the army. This makes a total of $8,589.82 thus refunded.-U. S. Bulletin, 28/2.

PROGRESS IN FINDING JOBS FOR RETURNED SOLDIERS AND SAILORS.—More than 75 per cent of the returning soldiers and sailors who need assistance in finding employment are being placed in jobs through the United States Employment Service, the Department of Labor announces.

The employment service is finding that of the average 60,000 men weekly discharged from the army, 30 per cent, or 18,000, must find new work, and that 20 per cent of the total, or 12,000, each week are being placed in employment through the Federal Employment Service and its co-operating welfare, civic, and other organizations. The placement figures are based only upon the reports of men known to have been placed, and it is estimated that at least 5 per cent more are being helped to jobs through the employment service. There is a much higher percentage of men needing new jobs among the soldiers from the industrial centers thran from the agricultural districts.

The employment service is conducting its soldiers' placing work through offices and agents in all demobilization camps and 2000 special bureaus for returning soldiers, sailors, and war workers in the towns and cities. The bureau for returning soldiers and sailors of the United States Employment Service in the District of Columbia, for instance, has thus far received 2113 applications from soldiers for jobs, and of this number has placed all but 50.-U. S. Bulletin, 28/2.


UNITED STATES REVIEW OF REVIEWS, March.—The Navy's New Task, by Secretary Daniels.

ATLANTIC MONTHLY. March.—The Territorial Claims of France, by René Pinon. The Peace Congress and the Balkans, by J. O. Bourchier. Bolshevism: a Liberal View, by H. W. Stanley.

HARPER'S MAGAZINE, March.-How the War Was Won, by General Malleterre.

TIMES CURRENT HISTORY. March.-Heroism of Torpedoed Transports (Official Narratives). Sinking of the Viribus Unitis, by Lieut. Col. R. Rossetti.

WORLD'S WORK. March.-At Home with Admiral Beatty, by Francis T. Hunter. The Surrender of the German Fleet.

FLYING. March.-Value of Dirigibles for Aerial Transports, by Henry Woodhouse. Regulations of Future Air Traffic, by Alan R. Hawley. Aero Radio Surveying and Mapping, by John Hays Hammond.

Pan AMERICAN BULLETIN. December.-Latin-American Trade-A Comparative Survey.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. March 15.—The North Sea Mine Barrage (I), by Capt. Reginald R. Belknap, U. S. N. Future of British Flying, by C. H. Claudy. Reflecting Prisms—Their Use in Place of Mirrors, by Naval Instructor T. V. Baker, R. N.

GREAT BRITAIN ENGINEERING. Feb. 21:-The Industrial Progress of Japan. The Development of Airplanes in the War.

LAND AND WATER. Feb. 20.-Lord Jellicoe's Case, by Arthur Pollen.

FROM FEBRUARY 20 To March 20

PREPARED BY ALLAN WESTCOTT, Associate Professor, U. S. Naval Academy

PROGRESS OF PEACE CONFERENCE INCLUSION OF LEAGUE COVENANT IN PEACE PRELIMINARIES.-At the time of President Wilson's return to Paris on March 14, the Special Commissions on Responsibility for the War, Reparation, Waterways, Boundaries, etc., had progressed with their investigations to a point where many of their conclusions could be presented for final action. M. Pichon, French Foreign Minister, on March 16 stated that German delegates would not be called to Versailles until a complete understanding had been reached among the allied and associated powers. Then the German delegates must either accept the terms and sign, or a state of war would continue.

M. Pichon regarded it as very doubtful if the complete covenant of the League of Nations could be included in the preliminaries of peace, which should be signed at the earliest possible moment. He pointed out that considerable time would be required to hear the views of neutrals, which had been invited, and to dispose of amendments. The issue, he suggested, might be met by a declaration in the treaty of the principles underlying the League, leaving the details in abeyance. American delegates, however, were proceeding on the assumption that the full covenant would be included in the preliminary treaty, and on March 17 it was announced that the Supreme Council had so decided, the covenant to be attached probably as an appendix.

The invitations to neutrals to express their views on the League of Nations was sent out March 14, setting March 20 as the date for the conference on the subject.

Work of the BOUNDARIES COMMISSION.-On March 12 it was agreed by the Supreme Council that the decisions regarding the Turkish, West German, and Adriatic boundaries (between Albania and Jugoslavia) should be made by the Supreme Council rather than the Special Boundaries Commission. The report of the Commission on Polish Boundaries, presented March 17, accords to Poland a “corridor” to the Baltic, including the port of Danzig, with the privilege to Germany of free communication across this strip to East Prussia.

WATERWAYS COMMISSION DECISIONS.-On March 15 the Commission on the International Régime of Ports, Waterways, and Railways continued

its consideration of clauses to be inserted in the peace treaty in regard to the navigation of the Rhine. It was the recommendation of the commission that the Rhine should be opened to all nations without discrimination, under control of a commission similar to that established for the Danube.

The status of the Kiel Canal, according to a report of March 12, was settled by the commission on the basis of freedom of use for all nations for merchant vessels and warships in time of peace, the canal to continue under German ownership and operation. The question of the fortification of the canal was left to military and naval experts. The commission declared the Panama and Suez Canals outside their sphere of action, on the ground that these were not international waterways, each being within one country. The commission in general confined its work to European problems.

GERMANY GRANTED FOOD SUPPLIES.-On March 14 an agreement was signed at Brussels by which Germany was assured immediate delivery of 270,000 tons of food stuffs and the right to purchase 370,000 tons of food per month from enemy and neutral countries until the next harvest, in return for which German shipping as agreed upon would be turned over to the Allies for transport of troops to America and food to Europe.

Negotiations on this subject at Spa in the first weeks of March had failed, owing to the unwillingness of the Allies to make definite promises of food for more than a limited period and the objections of France to any method of payment which might reduce Germany's ability to meet her war obligations.

The first shipment of food under the present arrangement is to be paid for by a deposit of £11,000,000 in gold at Brussels. Future supplies are to be paid for by the export of certain products, such as potash, needed by the Allies.

German ships in Chili, including 36 steamers and 52 sailing vessels, aggregating 241,186 net tons, have been allocated to the United States to use until the peace treaty is signed, when title to them will be determined. About 300,000 tons of German shipping now in German ports have also been turned over to the United States,

ITALY RELEASES SUPPLIES TO SLAVS.-It was announced from Paris on March 7 that at the request of the Supreme Council, Italy had consented to reopen transportation across the Italian-Austrian frontier, closed by Italy since the middle of February. The blockade prevented the movement of food, some 80,000 tons of which had been accumulated by Mr. Hoover at Fiume and Trieste, to supply the Southern Slavs and Czechoslovaks. According to a Washington statement of March 6, the American Government had previously warned Italy that in the event of further delays in the movement of relief supplies to the Slav states, steps would be taken to cut off the flow of American foodstuffs to Italy.

The blockade was due to friction between the Italian forces of occupation and the Slavs, especially at the railroad center of Laibach, out of which an Italian mission was forced on February 19. Food supplies from the

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