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In addition to the foregoing payments, Germany will also be required to deliver additional bonds for 40,000,000,000 marks, when the commission determines that this shall be done. These three payments of twenty, forty, and forty billions bring the total to 100,000,000,000 gold marks.
Beyond this total, the commission is empowered to fix anything more that may be required to cover Germany's indebtedness.
" In other words,” concluded the eminent American authority who framed the terms and furnished the foregoing summary, "a commission is set up with power to collect from Germany to the utmost of her capacity to pay. within the limitation of her indebtedness."
The allotment of the 100,000,000,000 marks among the allied and associated powers has not yet been finally decided, but a tentative arrangement makes the allotment of France about 55 per cent of the total, Great Britain's allotment between 20 and 30 per cent, and the allotment of the United States between 2 and 5 per cent.-N. Y. Times, 15/4.
DATE SET FOR GERMAN DELEGATES On April 15 a formal invitation was issued by the Council of Four to the German Government to send its representatives to Versailles on April 23. It was stated that the German mission would probably number about 200 persons. The Paris Temps stated on April 16 that Germany would be allowed only until May 15 to decide whether or not she would sign the treaty.
FRANCE AND BRITAIN IN CLOSER AGREEMENT It is learned that the new arrangement between France and Great Britain, which some describe as a defensive alliance, is stronger than the old entente cordiale in that it contains a definite agreement on Great Britain's part to use her military forces in defence of France should the latter be attacked by an enemy.
The provision for the employment of military forces was not contained in the agreement itself, but in a separate note signed by Sir Edward (now Viscount) Grey, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs—this note giving assurance that Great Britain would come to the assistance of France if necessary. A mere note, however, has no definite binding force, and the new undertaking on Great Britain's part is understood to be much more formal and final.
This arrangement between Great Britain and France is of interest in its bearing on the character of the undertaking sanctioned by President Wilson for American assistance to France in the event of German aggression.
How far the American assurances go is not yet disclosed, but the inference is drawn from the character of the British agreement that the President has met the French half way in their demand for special guarantees from Great Britain and America for the protection of the French frontiers from enemy attack.
American officials decline to say whether Mr. Wilson has actually given Premier Clemenceau a signed document containing assurances which, as has been stated in Paris despatches to The New York Times, engage the President of the United States to lay before Congress information of any enemy attack on France with the recommendation that such an attack be considered a casus belli by the United States.
French officials, however, continue to back up their statements that satisfactory guarantees have been given by President Wilson on behalf of the United States, and American officials have not withdrawn their admission that guarantees that satisfy French apprehensions have been furnished by the President.-N. Y. Times, 20/4.
GREAT BRITAIN BY-ELECTIONS AGAINST LLOYD GEORGE — By-elections in West Leighton, which in December gave a coalitionist candidate a majority of 6000 over his Liberal opponent, resulted in the election of a Liberal by a majority of 2000. Central Hull in April also went Liberal for the first time since it became a parliamentary constituency. While these elections indicated a change of sentiment since December, they were interpreted in England as a vote for a “clean peace" and a “ Wilson peace." Commander Hull, the victor in the Hull election, said that he interpreted it as a warning "that if the government and the Big Four in Paris could not make a just peace soon they must give way to persons who could, but if Lloyd George was standing by President Wilson and resisting Chanvinistic demands for an unclean peace of the old-fashioned sort, then Hull's vote would strengthen him very much."
PERSONAL AND PARLIAMENTARY TRIUMPH FOR LLOYD GEORGE.—During a flying visit to England, Premier Lloyd George, on April 16, answered his opponents in a vigorous speech in the House of Commons. Without revealing the terms of the Treaty, the premier declared that his pledges to the country would be embodied in the document. He bitterly attached Lord Northcliffe and his newspapers, creating apparently a permanent breach between himself and Northcliffe press. He declared that “complete understanding on the great fundamental peace questions” existed at the Conference. Referring to Russia, he denied that the question of recognition of the Bolsheviki had been even discussed, but added, " I would rather leave Russia Bolshevist until she sees her way out of it than to see Britain bankrupt." Munitions would be supplied to the opponents of the Bolsheviki, and forces would be organized in all allied countries "bordering on the Bolshevist territory, from the Baltic to the Black Sea-Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Rumania.” While the premier's speech was regarded as a parliamentary victory, it failed to silence opposition to his leadership.
QUIET RESTORED IN EGYPT.-An official statement issued at the headquarters of General Allenby, Special High Commissioner for Egypt and the Sudan, to-day, reads:
“Since noon yesterday quiet has prevailed throughout Egypt. An attempt on Thursday to tamper with a railway resulted in five arrests, while attempts to interfere with telegraphic communication resulted in the village of Beni Sembil being surrounded and given three days in which to produce the guilty persons. On Friday two rioters were killed and one was wounded when they were caught cutting telephone wires near Quesna."-N. Y. Times, 13/4.
SOVIET RULE IN HUNGARY On March 22 Count Karolyi, Provisional President of the Hungarian People's Republic, resigned together with his Cabinet and turned the government over to Socialist-Communistic control. Upon resigning, Count Karolyi issued the following manifesto appealing to “the proletariat of the world” against the designs of the Allies in Hungary:
“The Entente Mission declared that it intends to regard the demarcation line as the political frontier. The aim of further occupation of the country is manifestly to make Hungary the jumping-off ground and the region of operations against the Russian Soviet army which is fighting on our frontier. The land evacuated by us, however, is to be the pay of the Czech troops, by means of whom the Russian Soviet army is to be overcome.
“As Provisional President of the Hungarian People's Republic, I turn as against the Paris Peace Conference to the proletariat of the world for justice and support."
What Is LEFT OF HUNGARY Austria, as it will be, is represented by the unshaded portion. The status of the other areas is as follows: Bohemia, Moravia, and Austrian Silesia will go to Czechoslovakia; Galicia is in dispute between the Poles and Ukrainians; Transylvania and the Bukowina will go to Rumania ; the Banat is in dispute between the Jugoslav's and Rumanians; Croatia, Slavonia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina will be taken by the Jugoslavs; Dalmatia is in dispute between the Italians and Jugoslavs, but late cables say it will go to the latter on the understanding that Italy shall have Fiume; Istria probably will go to Italy with the Trentino; the Tyrol probably will go in part to İtaly.-.V. Y. Times, 30/3.
Without opposition, and apparently with the sanction of the former ruling powers, a “Revolutionary Government of Workers', Peasants', and Soldiers' Councils " at once took control in Hungary and issued a proclamation declaring "a dictatorship of the proletariat " and a policy of socialization of property and "armed alliance with the proletariat of Russia.” Alexander Garbai became Premier or President of the New Government, and Bela Kun Foreign Minister.
On March 28, it was reported that Hungary had declared war on Serbia, Rumania, and other surrounding states, with promises of support from the Soviet Government of Russia.. At the same time, however, the Hungarian Foreign Minister, Bela Kun, assumed a less hostile tone toward the Entente and gave assurances for the safety of foreign missions at Budapest. Rumanian armies, in cooperation with French forces, proceeded early in April to occupy the new eastern line of demarcation fixed by the Paris Conference.
GENERAL SMUTS FAILS TO MAKE TERMS.--General Smuts, as emissary of the Peace Conference, on April 5. submitted proposals to the new Hungarian Government to the effect that a neutral zone be established along the new line of demarcation, that the armistice terms of November 13 be continued, that the blockade be raised, and that Hungarian representatives be sent to Paris to confer before final determination of political frontiers. These terms the Hungarian Government refused to accept, but submitted the following counter-proposals to General Smuts on his departure:
“Relying on the good will displayed in such an unaccustomed manner by , you, we beg you to interpret the following proposals to the Entente Powers:
*** First,' the Soviet Government also is disposed to create a neutral zone, but' solely on the condition that the frontier thereof is shifted eastward to the Maros line, and that the Soviet Repúblic shall administer without interference in the territory occupied by the allied troops, thus allowing the Soviet Republic to be re-established in Szegedin and Arad. There shall be free intercourse from the neutral zone both in the direction of Hungary and Rumania and free 'transit 'in the Transylvanian territory occupied by Rumania.
. “Second, At the same time, we request the complete raising of the blockade and the supplying of the republic with coal and fats.. . fisse we
" Third, We request that the proposed, conference should include representatives of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, Bohemia, Rumania, Serbia, Jugoslavia, and German-Austria and that it meet at the earliest moment possible at Prague or Vienna, so as to proceed simultaneously with the Peace Conference,
inel Brit i s . ,' I no pot spretno “ Fourth, we request an exchange of economic representatives between ITungary and foreign states.
“Fifth, we request the Entente Powers immediately to cease the parbarous persecutions to which every labor movement in the occupied regions ; is subjected," 1... ' , sisi : in e 14- d
The document is signed by, Premier, Garbai and Foreign Minister, Bela
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, eft .11n SPARTICIDE OUTBREAK IN SAXONY.-Herr Neuring, War Minister in the government of Saxony, was killed at Dresden on April 12 by a mob of soldiers, who, it was charged, had been refused a hearing. The trouble arose through fear that the reluction of pay to peace rates, ordered by the National Goyernment, would be at once enforced in Saxony. The minister was thrown into the Elbe and shot at and killed as' he attempted to swim
ashore. The official version of the affair attributed it to Russian agents in , the employ of the “Red Soldiers' League.",
Rival GOVERNMENTS IN BAVARIA.—On April 7 the Revolutionary Central Council of Bavaria seized control of the government, proclaimed a Soviet Republic, and announced a provisional cabinet or list of “people's mandatories,” including Dr. William Mühlon as Foreign Minister. Premier Hoffmann, who was in Berlin at the time when his government was overthrown, at once returned, established headquarters at Bamberg, and, with the recognition and support of the Ebert National Government, succeeded on April 12 in reestablishing temporary control in Munich.
During the week of April 20, however, the Bolshevists were again in control, virtual anarchy prevailing in Munich, and an army organized by the Hoffmann Government marching against the city. The peasants, who controlled the situation through possession of the food supply, were reported as still loyal to the Hoffmann Régime.
POLAND Rail ROUTE FOR TROOPS TO POLAND.—On March 26 General Nudant, representing Marshal Foch, presented a note to the German Government demanding a passage through the port of Danzig for the Polish divisions in France under General Haller which were to be sent to Poland. To this request the German Government objected on the grounds (1) that the armistice provided transit of Allied troops through Germany only for employment against Russia, and (2) that, as indicated during the journey of Premier Paderewski across German soil, the landing of Polish troops at Danzig would give rise to opposition beyond the German Government's control.
On April 4, Chairman Erzberger of the German Armistice Commission signed at Spa an agreement providing that the Polish troops should be transported to Warsaw by rail, on the condition, however, that should their passage provoke disturbances, the Allies would claim the right to land all troops at Danzig. This arrangement satisfied Germany and at the same time made possible a more rapid movement of troops. On April 15 the first contingent of the Polish Army started across Germany accompanied by Allied officers.
PADEREWSKI URGES CESSION OF Danzig.—Premier Paderewski arrived in Paris on April 6, with the object of securing the cession of Danzig to Poland. According to unofficial reports, the Council of Four of the Peace Conference decided on April 18 to internationalize the port of Danzig, and give the Poles a "corridor " running from that city to their frontier.
FAR EAST JAPAN'S TROUBLES IN KOREA.—The agitation for Korean independence, which began about March 1, has increased in seriousness. For the most part the revolutionary movement has been passive, the Koreans being without weapons or will for active resistance; but from all reports, the Japanese have resorted to severe measures in its suppression. Representatives of Korea in the United States issued in March a bill of grievances