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reciting the oppressions of Japanese rule during the last ten years, such as enforced use of the Japanese language, compulsory sale of land, military espionage, and restrictions upon education.
A Peking despatch of April 12 stated that a Korean Provisional Government had been formed at Seoul.
CHINA URGES NULLIFICATION OF AGREEMENTS WITH JAPAN.-- Nullification of the 21 demands made by Japan early in 1915 is urged by the Chinese Government in an official statement cabled from Peking and received here to-day.
The Peking statement declares that the Japanese treaties and notes forced upon China in 1915 should be abrogated “because their terms are incompatible with the principles upon which the League of Nations is founded." The statement is largely a reply to a recent statement made by Baron Makino of the Japanese delegation on the position of Japan.
"Since the Japanese delegate in Paris," the Chinese statement says, “has 'pointedly referred to the 21 demands, it is incumbent upon the Chinese Government to draw attention to the fact that China's acquiescence to terms subversive of her own interests were secured by means of an ultimatum to which she was forced to surrender because of the preoccupation of the rest of the world in the European war. It is a fact that the terms were imposed upon China at the point of the bayonet, the example followed being that of Prussia; the extension to 99 years of the lease of Port Arthur and South Manchurian railway concessions being precisely the German Shantung terms.
“In the subsequent agreement secured by Japan under the former Cabinet the principles followed have been equally dangerous, not only to China's liberty of action, but to her very independence.'
The statement says that the claim of Japan to special privileges because the Japanese expelled the Germans from Shantung contrasts oddly with the failure of the Americans to claim the railways and mines of France, although the Germans were expelled from Alsace and Lorraine by the co-operation of the American Army. It says that the American Army of 2,000,000 lost more than 60 times the number of lives that Japan asserts she lost at Tsing-Tao. The statement also comments on the fact that England is not asking Belgium for a single concession, although Flanders “is one vast cemetery where English soldiers are buried."-N. Y. Times, 7/4.
RUSSIA Foop RELIEF FOR Russia. On April 16 an agreement was reached by the Associated Powers to send food to Russia under neutral supervision, though the French representatives raised some objections on the ground that this action might involve recognition of the Soviet Government.
The agreement stipulated that the Bolsheviki must cease hostilities. The relief work was put under a commission of Swiss and Scandinavians headed by Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, the Norwegian explorer. The distribution, it was suggested, should be handled by the Russians themselves.
ITALY ADRIATIC BLOCKADE LIFTED.-The Italian delegation to-day notified the Peace Conference of the lifting of the military and commercial blockade in the Adriatic by which trading returns to conditions before the war, except that, until peace is declared, allied warships will have the right to search merchantmen.
The lifting of the blockade, in the night of complaints which have been made against it, is likely to relieve the food situation in Croatia and pos: sibly further north, in Hungary, German Austria, and. Bohemia.N. Y.. Times, 27/3.
1176480p ;' ;'d bin TRADE REOPENED.—By decision of the military authorities of the Allied Governments, the Rhine has been opened for traffic with Switzerland, and shipments from the United States may now be forwarded to Switzerland by that route. The following countries and places with..
which, by reason
war, have since a the signing of the armistice been opened for the resumption of trade by order Mesopotamia, Serbia and Rumania, the territory included in the line estab lished by Article 3. of the military clause of the armistice protocol of November 3, Czecho-slovakia, Bulgaria, Turkey and Black Sea ports, the German colonies, the occupied territory of Germany, Adriatic ports, Albania and Montenegro, Luxemburg, the territory adjacent to and dependent upon the Adriatic ports, including Albania, Montenegro, Croatia, Slayonia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Dalmatia; Poland, Esthonia, and Gera man Austria. in vs B 1941 2329191 at togvia9vdue am 19
REVIEW OF BOOKS
ON SUBJECTS OF PROFESSIONAL INTEREST “ Naval Power in the war." 'By Commander C. C. Gill, U. S. Navy.' Price $1.50. (Published by George H. Doran Company, New York.)
Chapter 1. The importance of naval power is shown. While admitting the great importance of naval power in the war, it is nevertheless believed that the author's statement, “Naval strategy was the grand strategy of the war," is an exaggeration, Except for strategy in its purely passive form, there was little real strategy in the war on the sea; Von Spee was really the only one who had an interesting strategical problem to solve. It is true that the naval blockade was possibly the one factor which-all the other factors being equal gave the Allies the decision, but a decisive factor is not necessarily the most important factor. As an example, had there been : unity of command in the Allied armies earlier, the war would in all, probability have been decided before the blockade exerted its decisive influence.
Chapter II, Sea power, sea control and the plans of the opposing nations are discussed. Again the author claims that "naval power dominated the military situation."
Chapter III. The strengths of the opposing navies are accurately given.' In the North Sea, the British had 33 vessels of the dreadnought type against 20 for the Germans. In the Mediterranean, France had four dreadnoughts and 18 pre-dreadnoughts against four dreadnoughts and six pre-dreadnoughts for Austria. The opening moves in the North Sea, the escape of the Goeben and Breslau, and the action between the Emden and Sidney are described.
Chapter IV. The action in Heligoland Bight is given in concise form and Vice Admiral Beatty's report quoted in full.
Chapter V. The salient features of the actions off Coronel and Falkland Islands are given. The author's criticism of Sturdee for sending the Bristol, which had three knots more speed than the German light cruisers, in chase of three merchantmen is very proper, but, as he notes, there may have been some good reason for this, and also, when a quick decision is necessary, it is easy for mistakes to be made, and, once made, it is often a greater disadvantage to make changes than to continue the original orders, even though they may not be the best possible.
Chapter VI. The description of the Dardanelles operation is clear and concise. It is one of the best in the book,
Chapters VII-VIII. A short description of the battle of the Dogger Bank is given. The battle of Jutland is described in more detail. It is, however, very difficult to describe such a complicated action without
sketches. Several sketches, even if only approximately correct, give a better idea of such a battle than many printed pages. The comments on the battle are impartial and excellent.
Chapters IX-X. Submarine warfare and anti-submarine tactics are clearly and concisely described. It is believed that the author exaggerates somewhat the submerged speed and radius of the submarine. It is also considered that submarine commanders usually fire at nearer 500 yards than the 1000 yards given by Commander Gill as their normal firing range.
Chapter XI. The part played by the United States is shown by quoting at length from the annual report of the Secretary of the Navy.
Chapter XII. The author discusses the types of naval vessels necessary for a well-rounded navy.
General comment. This book is evidently written for popular consumption. It places before the civilian reader the salient points of the actions in the war and in a general and interesting way shows him the uses of the various types of ships, and the broad outlines of strategy and tactics on
H. H. F.
“A Book of the Sea.” Selected and Arranged by Lady Sybil Scott. (Dedicated to the memory of the officers and men of the mercantile marine and the auxiliary services who have died at sea in the war.) 7 s. 6 d. net. 450 pages. (Oxford University Press, 1918.)
Neatly bound, promising of title, of almost pocket size, this is a book that will be picked up with curiosity by followers of the sea; and it will be an inevitable gift book from kinsfolk and friends. But the nautical reader may be disappointed. It is not a selection of the kind of poetry a sailor is supposed to like; it is not a selection of poems interpreting his feelings, or celebrating the heroic and poetic aspects of his life in peace and war. Rather its main purpose seems to be to illustrate the kind of poetry that, since poetry began, has been inspired by the sea. As the editor says, “ favor has been shown to passages descriptive rather of the influence of the wonder and beauty of the sea on the mind of the poet than of the struggles of the sailor with the wind and waves.” So much by way of classification. The naval reader may find verse more to his taste in Masefield's “Sailor's Garland” or Stone's “ Sea Songs and Ballads.” But in the 450 pages of Lady Scott's volume he will probably find better poetry, and he will surely find many a line or poem that is stirring, memorable, expressive of his own unvoiced feeling or thought.
It is a commonplace that English poetry is filled with the breath of the sea. This might be better illustrated in some other anthology. From this one, the disappointing impression is gathered that later English poetry, to a greater extent than Greek or early English, is the poetry not so much of a sea-faring people, as of people who live near the sea. The sea is there, but felt and interpreted by a shore-dweller rather than a voyager. One who has come from a winter's vigil in northern waters, for instance, might find a more immediate appeal in the Anglo-Saxon “ Sea Farer ” than in anything in Shakespeare. This is a part of it, diluted in modern English:
'. ... How I on the ice-cold sea passed the winter in exile,
Another point apparent in the volume is the refusal of poets to recognize that for almost the last hundred years the great instrument in man's mastery of the ocean has been steam. The selections here are of course chiefly from the past; even so, is it not astonishing that in these 450 pages there are but two suggestions of the fact of modern motive power? One is from Masefield:
“Dirty British coaster with a salt-caked smokestack
Butting through the Channel in the mad March days." The other is in one of the two selections from Kipling, who has seen clearly enough that machinery has not banished romance. Admiral Mahan has somewhere noted this poetic blindness or aversion, quoting as the single exception in his memory the following fine lines from Clough:
“Come back! Come back!
The strong ship follows her appointed way." The passage just quoted has been overlooked in Lady Scott's collection. There are other possible mistakes of both exclusion and inclusion, needless to mention in criticism of a selection in general so well made for its purpose. But since there is prose as well as verse in the volume, space should surely have been found for something from the famous classic "Two Years Before the Mast.” Of a passage in this the poet Rogers used to say that it had “more poetry in it than most modern verse.” One is almost tempted to add that the book has more genuine sea poetry in it than there is in most so-called poetry of the sea.
A. F. W.
* A Review of Studies in Map Reading and Field Sketching." By Lieut. Colonel Wilkinson J. Shaw, P.S.C., M. A. 8 vo., pp. 146. (Published by E. P. Dutton & Company, New York.)
This little volume will be of interest principally to those officers who are not practiced in outdoor sketching and who feel the necessity of “brushing up” in this subject in order to pass creditably an examination for