Global Urban Indicators Database: Version 2

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UN-HABITAT, 2002 - 74 страница
 

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Страница 72 - The gross enrolment ratio is the number of students enrolled in a level of education, whether or not they belong in the relevant age group for that level, as a percentage of the population in the relevant age group for that level.
Страница 72 - piped water outside unit, but within 200 metres' refers to units where the piped water is not available to occupants within the unit they reside in, but is accessible within the range of 200 metres, assuming that access to piped water within that distance allows occupants to provide water for household needs without being subjected to extreme effort. 'Other...
Страница 19 - Water is one of the great necessities of human life that is taken for granted in the developed world. A supply of clean water is absolutely necessary for life and health, yet many people of the world do not have access to clean water or can only obtain it at high prices.
Страница 19 - ... water is absolutely necessary for life and health, yet many people of the world do not have access to clean water or can only obtain it at high prices. Many cities do not have a constant, potable water supply. Even in cities which are supplied with clean water, households in some informal areas which are not connected to the network can only buy water from vendors at up to 200 times the tap price, so that much of family income is spent on water. Availability of potable water in urban areas increases...
Страница 26 - Wastewaier treated is taken as zero if not provided. Where City Product was not provided, it was calculated so that City Product x Household size = 0.45 x Mean Household Income (which is similar to the main estimation formula). For most transitional countries, 0.
Страница 20 - While there are many advantages in urban living, mostly involving the cheaper provision of physical and social mfrastructure and the greater availability of employment, the major disadvantages relate to congestion and to the problems of disposal of solid and liquid wastes of people living at high densities, and the local environmental degradation and propensity for health risks that this causes.
Страница 26 - ... complete, robust and precise - so not many variables are suitable. All the underlying data had to be checked for accuracy and completeness. Where there were missing data or based on very inaccurate estimates, they were either replaced by data from another national city of similar size, by country-wide figures (or national urban data, if available) or by figures for a nearby city or place at a similar level of development (but only if absolutely necessary). Also, Formal waste disposal or Wastewater...
Страница 26 - Each sub-index is a combination of several indicators that have been normalized to give a value between 0 and 1 . Because the variables used to make up the CDI are strongly related to each other, there are a number of ways to calculate the CDI that give almost identical results. For this report, the weightings given to each indicator have been initially calculated by a statistical process called Principal Components Analysis and then simplified. This formulation of the index by and large uses the...
Страница 26 - ... identical results. For this report, the weightings given to each indicator have been initially calculated by a statistical process called Principal Components Analysis and then simplified. This formulation of the index by and large uses the same formulae as in UNDP Human Development Report (1999). for the Health, Education and City Product sub-indices. For meaningful ranking of cities, the index requires data that are essentially complete, robust and precise - so not many variables are suitable....
Страница 6 - The house priceto-income ratio and the land development multiplier are notoriously dependent on restrictions on land and housing markets, taking high values in places where land use is restricted or markets undeveloped. The...

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