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Nicolay and Hay's Lincoln ; Greeley's Am. Conflict ; 1170. U. S. Immigration Reports; 1171, 1172. Grant's Memoirs; 1113. Greeley's Am. Conflict (Append.); Dodge's Civil War; 1174. Congressional Report; 1175, 1176. Pollard's Lost Cause; 1177. McPherson's Rebellion, 517; 1178. Goldwin Smith's U. S.; 1179, 1180. Lincoln's Works; 1181. Jackson's Report, Records of the Rebellion, II. 482 ; 1182. Morse's Lincoln, I. 306; 1183. Lincoln's Works; 1184. Lothrop's Seward; 1185. Seward's Works; 1186. McPherson's Rebellion, 342; 1187. Grant's Memoirs ; 1188. Morse's Lincoln; 1189. Welles's (Annals of the War), 24; 1190. Lincoln's Works; 1191. Mahan's Farragut; 1192, 1193. McClellan's Own Story ; 1194. Rope's Pope; Andrews's U. S. ; 1195, 1196. Cooke's Lee; 1197. Lincoln's Works; 1198. Seward's Diplomatic Corresp.; 1199. McPherson's Rebellion ; 1200. Phillip's Speeches.

(References 1201-1300.) 1201. Parton's Butler; 1202. Morse's Lincoln; 12031206. Lincoln's Works; Greeley's Am. Conflict ; 1207. Nicolay and Hay's Lincoln; 1208. Greeley's Am. Conflict; 1209. Lincoln's Works; 1210. Greeley's Am. Conflict; 1211. Report on the Conduct of the War (1865), III. (Misc.) 77; 1212. Greeley's Am. Conflict; 1213. Lincoln's Works, II. ; 1214, 1215. Cooke's Lee; Longstreet's Manassas to Appomattox; 1216. Doubleday's Gettysburg; Century Co.'s Civil War, III. ; 1217, 1218. Grant's Memoirs, I. 443, 444, 449; 1219, 1220. Century Co.'s Civil War, III. ; 1221. Scribner's Civil War, VIII. (Greene's Mississippi), 202 ; 1222. Badeau's U. S. Grant; 1223. Lincoln's Works; 1224. Grant's Memoirs ; 1225. Official Records, XXXII. 176 (Sherman's Report); 1226, 1227. Grant's Memoirs; 1228, 1229. Century Co.'s Civil War, IV.; Grant's Memoirs ; 1230-1232. Greeley's Am. Conflict; Grant's Memoirs ; 1233. Century Co.'s Civil War; Greeley's Am. Conflict; 1234-1236. Badeau's U. S. Grant; Grant's Memoirs; 1237. Grant's Memoirs; 1938. Sheridan's Memoirs ; Davies's Sheridan ; 1239. Grant's Memoirs ; 1240. Sherman's Memoirs ; 1241. Swinton's Decisive Battles ; 1242, 1243. Sherman's Memoirs, II. 111, 118, 126–7; 1244, 1245. Stanwood's P. Elections ; McPherson's Rebellion, 421; 1246. Sherman's Memoirs 1247. Grant's Memoirs; 1248. Sherman's Memoirs; 1249. Thomas's Report; Swinton's Decisive Battles; 1250. Mahan's Farragut; 1261. Cox's March to the Sea, 168 ; 1252. Sherman's Memoirs; 1253. Lincoln's Works, II.; 1254. Long's Lee; Century Co.'s Civil War; 1255. Grant's Memoirs; Badeau's Grant; 1256-1259. Century Co.'s Civil War, IV. (Statistics); Dodge's Civil War (rev. ed.); 1260. Foster's Comment, on the Constitution ; 1261. Poore's Charters and Constitutions; 1262. Decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court (Texas vs. White) (1868); 1263-1266. Savage's Johnson; McPherson's Reconstruction ; 1266. Lodge's Lincoln ; Lincoln's Works; 1267-1269. Lodge's Lincoln; Lincoln's Works; 1270. Savage's Johnson; McPherson's Reconstruction; 1271. Callender's Stevens; Morse's Lincoln; 1272. Boutwell's Constitution ; 1273. Cleveland's Stephens, 806; 1274. Hughes's Johnston, 281; 1275, 1276. McPherson's Reconstruction ; 1277. Savage's Johnson; 1278. McPherson's Reconstruction; Johnson's Speeches; Blaine's Congress, II. 239; 1979. McPherson's Reconstruction ; Lalor's Cyclopædia; 1280. McPherson's Reconstruction; Chadsey's Johnson in Columbia Univ. Papers ; 1281. Boutwell's Constitution; 1282. McPherson's Reconstruction, 261; 1283, 1284. Moore's Congress, 421-434; McPherson's Reconstruction; Chadsey's Johnson vs. Congress in Columbia Univ. Papers (1897); 1285, 1286. McPherson's Reconstruction; 1287. Seward's Seward, III. 340 ; 1288. McPherson's Reconstruction, 416; 1289. H. H. Bancroft's California; Grant's Memoirs, II. 551; Supplement to Encyc. Brit. (Railroads); 1290. Moore's Congress, 467; 1291-1294. Andrews's Last Quarter Century, !. 120, 155; Williams's Negro Race, II. 381 ; Bryce's Am. Commonwealth, III. 94 ; Lalor's Cyclopædia ; Pike's Prostrate State ; 1295. Lalor's Cyclopædia (Ku Klux Klan); Blaine's Congress, II. 469; 1296. Wright's Indust. Evol. U. S.; Ely's Labor Movement; 1297. Blaine's Congress, II. 632; Lalor's Cyclopædia (Treaties) ; 1298–1300. Stanwood's P. Elections; Johnston's Am. Politics; Lalor's Cyclopædia.

(References 1301-1343.) 1301. Laughlin's Bimetalism (rev. ed.); John Sherman's Autobiog., II. 467; Walker's Internat. Bimetallism ; 1302. Senate Rept. Belknap Impeachment, 200; 1303. Andrews's Last Quarter Century, I. 253; Appleton's Ann. Cyc. (1893), 599; 1304. Ely's Labor Movement; Polit. Science Quarterly, 1891; 1305. McPherson's Handbook of Politics (1874); 1306, 1307. Stanwood's P. Elections, 307, 302–344; 1308. C. Schurz in Harper's Weekly, XLI. 219; Chadwick's G. W. Curtis; 1309. Wright's Indust. Evol. U. S.; Reports of Labor Bureau: 1310. McPherson's Reconstruction; 1311. McPherson's Handbook of Politics, 1878; 1312. John Sherman's Autobiog., II. 618; Taussig's Silver Situation; Andrews's Last Quarter Century; Blaine's Congress; 1313. Stanwood's P. Elections; 1314. Appleton's Ann. Cyc. (Eads); 1316. Ridpath's Garfield; Appleton's Ann. Cyc. (1881), 318; Andrews's Last Quarter Century ; 1316. McPherson's Handbook of Politics (1884); Lalor's Cyclopædia ; 1317. Andrews's Last Quarter Century; 1318. Carson's Supreme Court, 498 : 1319. Johnson's Cyclopædia (Mormons); 1320. Appleton's Ann. Cyc. (1885), 231; McPherson's Handbook of Politics; 1321. Whittle's Cleveland ; 1322. McPherson's Handbook of Politics (1888); 1323. Mason's Veto Power ; McPherson's Handbook of Politics (1887); 1324. Stanwood's P. Elections ; 1825.

McPherson's Handbook of Politics (1890); 1326. U. S. Pension Office Report ; 1827, 1928. John Sherman's Autobiog., II. 1188; 1329, 1330. Mulhall's Dict. Statistics ; Wright's Indust. Evol. U. S.; 1331. Pat. Off. Centennial Proc.; Wright's Indust. Evol. V. S.; 1332. Labor Bureau Report; 1333. Stanwood's P. Elections: 1334. McPherson's Handbook of Politics (1894); 1335. John Sherman's Autobiog. ; 1336. McPherson's Handbook of Politics (1894); 1337. Estimates by Labor Bureau ; Ely's Labor Movement; 1838. McPherson's Handbook of Politics (1894); Harper's Book of Facts (Tariff); 1389. McPherson's Handbook of Politics (1890), 61; 1840. U.S. Commissioner of Ed. Report, 1894-5; Andrews's Last Quarter Century ;. 1341, 1342. Appleton's Ann. Cyc. (1896) 1343. Stanwood's P. Elections; 1344, 1346. Appleton's Ann. Cyc. (1897); 1846. Johns Hopkins Univ. Studies, III; Ely's Socialism; 1347. Statistical Abstract of the U.S., 1897, 1898, pub. by the U. S. Bureau of Statistics; Appleton's Ann. Cyc. (1898); 1348. Morris's War with Spain; Harper's War with Spain ; McKinley's Messages to Congress ; Reports of the Departments of War, the Treasury, and Navy, 1898; Appleton's Ann. Cyc. (1897, 1898); 1349, 1950. Statistical Abstract of the U.S., 1898 (see above); Report of the Department of Agriculture, 1898.



(The student of American History should bear in mind that the political boundaries of the United States have been determined to a very large degree by the natural boundaries of : 1. coast lines; 2. rivers and lakes ; 3. watersheds ; 4. mountain ranges.)

I. (1783) By the final Treaty of Peace of 1783 the boundary of the American

Republic (see " Map of U. S. in 1783") was fixed, in general terms, as follows: The line separating the United States from the British possessions began at the Bay of Fundy and ran to "the northwest angle of Nova Scotia," thence" to the Highlands," and thence “along the said Highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean." Thence the line ran westerly along the 45th parallel, the middle of the St. Lawrence, and the middle of the Great Lakes to the Lake of the Woods. On the west, the line separating the United States from the Spanish province of Louisiana was drawn from the Lake of the Woods to the head-waters of the Mississippi and thence down the middle of that river to the 31st parallel — or the frontier of the Spanish province of West Florida. On the south, the line extended due east from the Mississippi along the 31st parallel to the Chattahoochee River in Georgia and thence to the sea as shown on the map. (See “U. S. Statutes at Large," VIII., 80; Macdonald's “Select Documents of U. S. History”; Winsor's “ America," VII.; Gannett's “Boundaries of the U. S.”; Hinsdale's “Bounding the Original U. S.” in “Mag. of Western History,” II., 401; Hart's “ Epoch Maps of American History.")

Much of the region through which the northern boundary ran was an unexplored wilderness and the line was largely pure guesswork. This was the case west of Lake Superior, and notably so in the northeast, between what is now the State of Maine and the British possessions. The result was that for nearly sixty years this northeast line was a subject of angry dispute and the controversy was not finally settled until the negotiation of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. (See Winsor's “ America," VII.;

and Benton's “Thirty Years in the U. S. Senate,” II., 421.) H. (1795) Spain refused to recognize the southern boundary of the United

States as determined by the Treaty of Peace of 1783 (see above, No. I.). She claimed that her province of West Florida extended uo miles north of the 31st parallel and that the true boundary line, separating her possessions in that quarter from the United States, extended due east from the Mississippi from the mouth of the Yazoo to the Chattahoochee River in Georgia.

In 1795 Spain relinquished her claim to the disputed territory, and, furthermore, granted to the United States the free navigation of the lower Mississippi, besides conceding the temporary right of deposit (or storage for merchandise) at the port of New Orleans. (See “U. S. Statutes at

Large," VIII., and Winsor and Hinsdale, as above.) III. (1803) In 1803 the United States purchased the province of Louisiana,

which Spain had receded to France. That immense territory extended from the mouth of the Mississippi northward to its source, and had the Rocky Mountains as its natural boundary on the west. We bought the country without receiving any definite limits, and hence further negotia

tions became necessary with respect to boundary lines (see below). IV. (1818) In consequence of the above purchase of Louisiana a treaty made by

us with Great Britain in 1818 extended the northern line of the United States from the Lake of the Woods (see above, No. I.) westward along the 49th parallel to the Rocky Mountains. The same treaty provided that the country west of the Rocky Mountains, north of the 42d parallel (or the recog. nized Spanish frontier), and known as the Oregon country, should be held

jointly by the United States and Great Britain. V. (1819–1825) In 1819 Spain sold Florida to us, and in the treaty defined the

unsettled western boundary of Louisiana (see above, Nos. III. and IV.) by an irregular line which began at the Gulf of Mexico and approximately fol. lowed the watershed south and west of the tributaries of the Mississippi to the 42d parallel. At the same time Spain agreed to renounce all claims to the Oregon country. This was to us a most important concession. Six years later (1825) a treaty made with Russia fixed the northern limit of the Oregon country (before unsettled) at 54° 40', or what is now the

southern boundary of Alaska. VI. (1842) In 1842 the Webster-Ashburton Treaty (see Index under " Treaty ")

settled the long dispute over the northeastern boundary (see above, No. I.) and reaffirmed the line of 1818 to the Rocky Mountains (see above, No.

IV.). VII. (1845) In 1845 we annexed Texas; the boundary question was settled by the

Mexican War. VIII. (1846) In 1846 a treaty made by us with Great Britain divided the Oregon

country between the two nations by extending the boundary line of the 49th parallel (see above, No. IV.) from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific.

(See in general the “ Map of Acquisitions of Territory.”) IX. (1848-1867) All subsequent United States boundary lines on the continent

cited above) were determined by Mexican cessions in 1848, the Gadsden Purchase in 1853, and the Alaska Purchase in 1867. X. (1898–1899) The islands recently acquired by the United States present no

difficulties respecting boundaries.

(see ma

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