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No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous Trials for crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.'
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a Rights in speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the state and district cases. wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law; and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense."
In suits at common law where the value in controversy shall exceed Trials in twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.*
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor Ball, fines, cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.*
The enumeration, in the constitution, of certain rights shall not be Reserved construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.'
The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor Powers prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states, respectively, or to the people.
[The foregoing ten amendments were ratified as follows:
By New Jersey, 20th November, 1789.
"Maryland, 19th December, 1789.
19 Wh., 579; 4 Wash., 402; 2 Sum., 19; 1 Wal. R. J., 127; Bald., 220; 12 S. & R., 221; 3 Cow., 6862 Cow., 815; 8 W., 85; 7 Pet., 243, 551; 5 How., 434; 18 How., 276; 2 Bl., 510; 39 N. Y., 181; 1 Ab. Ct. Ap. Dec., 287-307.
39 Wh., 57; Wall., 106; 1 Burr. Tr., 179; 10 W., 419; 2 N. Y. Crim, R. 51; 35 Hun, 516; 42 Hun, 103. 1Pet., 46, 476; 3 Pet, 433; 6 Pet., 598; 3 Dal., 297; 11 How., 437; Bald., 544; 5' McL., 569; 2 Pa 84, 578; 12 H arr., 289; 1 Gall., 20; 24 W., 137.
20 J. R., 59; 12 S. & R., 220; 3 Cow., 686.
1 W. & M., 401; 3 S. & R., 169.
Limitation of judicial
Election of president and vice
The following was proposed by the congress held in Philadelphia on 24 December, 1793. and was declared by a message from the president, dated 8th January, 1798, to have been adopted by the constitutional number of states.
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.'
[The following was proposed at the first session of the 8th Congress held in Washington, 17th October, 1803, and was declared, by a notice of the secretary of state, dated 25th September, 1804, to have been adopted by the constitutional number of states.]
The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote, by ballot, for president and vice-president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an president. inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice-president; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate; the president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for president shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose, immediately by ballot, the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. President. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a president whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the vice-president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the president. Vice-presi- The person having the greatest number of votes as vice-president shall be the vice-president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the senate shall choose the vice-president; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a When not choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of president, shall be eligible to that of vice-president of the United States.
Power of congress.
[Proposed by Congress, February 1, 1865; ratification announced by secretary of state, Dec. 16, 1865.]
SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
§ 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
13 Pet., 431; 7 Pet., 627; 11 Pet., 324; 5 Cr. 115; 6 Wh., 264; 9 Wh., 904; 2 How., 497, 550; 18 How., 12; 15 How., 309; 1 B. C. R., 157.
35 Hun, 392;
[Proposed by Congress, June 16, 1866; ratification announced by secretary of state, July 25, 1868.] SECTION 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and Citizens of subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 99 N. Y.,386 which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United Id., 522. States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
§ 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states Representaccording to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of atives, how persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right ed among to vote at any election for the choice of electors for president and vicepresident of the United States, representatives in congress, the executive or judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.
93 N. Y.,811.
§3. No person shall be a senator or representative in congress, or Who not to elector of president and vice-president, or hold any office, civil or military, or M C. under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But congress may, by a vote of
two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. § 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized Public debt by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties questione for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay Insurrecany debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against debt not to the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; bed. but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. $5. The congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
[Proposed by congress, February 27, 1869; ratification announced by secretary of state, March 30, 1870.j
SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
$2. The congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Right to be denied
vote not to
or abridged Power of