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TEXT OF THE TREATY SIGNED BY POLAND AND THE ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS
Reprinted from The New York Times, July 2, 1919
The United States of America, the British Empire, France, Italy, and Japan, the principal allied and associated powers, on the one hand; and Poland, on the other hand:
Whereas, The allied and associated powers have, by the success of their arms, restored to the Polish nation the independence of which it had been unjustly deprived; and
Whereas, By the proclamation of March 3o, 1917, the Government of Russia assented to the re-establishment of an independent Polish State; and
Whereas, The Polish State, which now, in fact, exercises sovereignty over those portions of the former Russian Empire which are inhabited by a majority of Poles, has already been recognized as a sovereign and important State by the principal allied and associated powers; and
Whereas, Under the treaty of peace concluded with Germany by the allied and associated powers, a treaty of which Poland is a signatory, certain portions of the former German Empire will be incorporated in the territory of Poland; and
Whereas, Under the terms of the said treaty of peace, the boundaries of Poland not already laid down are to be subsequently determined by the principal allied and associated powers;
The United States of America, the British Empire, France, Italy, and Japan, on the one hand, confirming their recognidon of the Polish State, constituted within the said limits as a sovereign and independent member of the family of nations and being anxious to insure the execution of the provisions of Article 93 of the said treaty of peace with Germany;
Poland, on the other hand, desiring to conform her institutions to the principles of liberty and justice, and to give a sure guaranty to the inhabitants of the territory over which she assumed sovereignty; for this purpose the following representatives of the high contracting parties:
The President of the United States of America; His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British dominions beyond the seas, Emperor of India; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; and the President of the Polish Republic, after having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed as follows:
Article 1. Poland undertakes that the stipulations contained in Articles 2 and 8 of this chapter shall be recognized as fundamental law, and that no law, regulation, or official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation, or official action prevail over them.
Article 2. Poland undertakes to assure full and complete protection of life and liberty to all inhabitants of Poland, without distinction of birth, nationality, language, race, or religion.
All inhabitants of Poland shall be entitled to the free exercise, whether public or private, of any creed, religion, or belief whose practices are not inconsistent with public order or public morals.
Article j. Poland admits and declares to be Polish nationals ipso facto Hungarian or Russian nationals habitually resident, at the date of the coming into force of the present treaty, in territory which is or may be recognized as forming part of Poland under the treaties with Germany, Austria, Hungary, or Russia, respectively, but subject to any provisions in the said treaties relating to' persons who became resident in such territory after a specified date.
Nevertheless, the persons referred to above who are over twelve years of age will be entitled under the conditions contained in the said treaties to option for any other nationality which may be open to them. Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents will cover their children under eighteen years of age.
Persons who have exercised the above right to option must, except where it is otherwise provided in the treaty of peace with Germany, transfer within the succeeding twelve months their place of residence to the State for which they have opted. They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in Polish territory. They may carry with them their movable property of every description. No export duties may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of such property.
Article 4. Poland admits and declares to be Polish nationals, ipso facto and without the requirement of any formality, persons of German, Austrian, Hungarian, or Russian nationality who were born in the said territory of parents habitually resident there, even if at the date of the coming into force of the present treaty they are not themselves habitually resident there.
Nevertheless, within two years after the coming into force of the present treaty, these persons may make a declaration before the competent Polish authorities in the country in which they are resident, stating that they abandon Polish nationality, and they will then cease to be considered as Polish nationals. In this connection a declaration by a husband will cover his wife, and a declaration by parents w ill cover their children under eighteen years of age.
Articles- Poland undertakes to put no hindrance in the way of the exercise of the right which the persons concerned have, under the treaties concluded or to be concluded by the allied and associated powers with Germany, Austria, Hungary, or Russia, to choose whether or not they will acquire Polish nationality.
Article 6. All persons born in Polish territory, who are not born nationals of another State, shall ipso facto become Polish nationals.
Article J. All Polish nationals shall be equal before the law and shall enjoy the same civil and political rights without distinction as to race, language, or religion.
Differences of religion, creed, or confession shall not prejudice any Polish national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or political rights, as for admission to public employments, functions, and honors, or the exercise of professions and industries.
No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Polish national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the press, or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings.
Notwithstanding any establishment by the Polish Government of an official language, adequate facilities shall be given to Polish nationals of non-Polish speech for the use of their language, either orally or in writing, before the courts.
Article 8. Polish nationals who belong to racial, religious, or linguistic minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in fact as the Polish nationals. In particular, they shall have an equal right to establish, manage, and control at their own expense charitable, religious, and social institutions, schools, and other educational establishments, with the right to use their own language and to exercise their religion freely therein.
Article g. Poland will provide, in the public educational system in towns and districts in which a considerable proportion of Polish nationals of other than Polish speech are residents, adequate facilities for insuring that in the primary schools instruction shall be given to the children of such Polish nationals through the medium of their own language. This provision shall not prevent the Polish Government from making the teachings of the Polish language obligatory in the said schools.
In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of Polish nationals belonging to racial, religious, or linguistic minorities, these minorities shall be assured an equitable share in the enjoyment and application of the sums which may be provided out of public fundsundertheState,municipal,orotherbudgets, for educational, religious, or charitable purposes.
The provisions of this article shall apply to Polish citizens of German speech only in that part of Poland which was German territory on August I, 1914.
Article 10. Educational committees appointed locally by the Jewish communities of Poland will,