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all visits and searches shall be made before, and if then either oak or other prohibited timber be found, they shall forthwith be stopped upon the place before they be brought on board; neither shall the persons or goods of the People of the King of Eugland, or of his Subjects, be for that cause any way molested, either by arrest, or any other kind of detention; but the Subjects only of the King of Denmark who shall have presumed to sell or alienate such like prohibited timber, shall be punished for the offence aster the accustomed manner; and the People and Subjects of the King of England shall have, possess, and enjoy all and singular the things contained and granted in this Article, without any molestation and interruption, so long and during all the time that the Subjects or any of the People of the United Provinces of The Netherlands have, possess, and enjoy, or ought, or might have, possess, or enjoy the same, or the like, by any Treaty, Covenant, Agreement, or permission whatsoever made or to be made.

XIX. For the greater security of trade and freedom of navigation, it is covenanted and agreed that neither Party shall, (as much as is possible, and as far as they are able,) suffer open Pirates, or other Robbers of that kind, to make their retreats in the Ports of either's Kingdom or Country, or shall permit any of the Inhabitants or People of either to harbour or relieve them, or any way assist them, but on the contrary shall use means that the foresaid Pirates and Robbers, and their Partners and Abettors, may be apprehended, and suffer condign punishment, and that the Ships and goods (so much of them as can be found) may be restored to their lawful Owners or their Attornies, so as their right be made to appear by due and legal proof in the Court of Admiralty for Maritime Causes.

XX. It is covenanted and agreed that the Subjects and People of either Party shall always have free access to the Ports and Coasts of the other Confederate; and it shall be lawful for them to abide there, and thence to depart again, and also to pass through the Seas and Territories whatsoever of either King respectively, (doing no damage or prejudice,) not only with Merchant Ships, but also with Men-of-War, whether they be Public or belong to those who shall have obtained Private Commissions, and whether they come through violence of the weather or to avoid the danger of the sea, or to repair their Ships, or buy provisions, so as they exceed not the number of 6 Men-of-War, if they come in of their own accord, nor stay longer in or about the Ports than will be requisite to repair their Ships, and furnish themselves with victuals or other necessaries: and if upon occasion they would approach such Ports with a greater number of Men-of-War, they shall by no means be permitted to enter, unless timely notice of their coming be first given by Letter, and leave obtained of those to whom the foresaid Ports belong; but if they be driven by violence of storm, or other urgent necessity, to seek shelter, in such case, without any notice given beforehand, the Ships shall not be restrained to a certain number, but with this condition, that their Commander shall, immediately upon their arrival, acquaint the Chief Magistrate or the Governor of that Place, Port, or Coast where they arrive, with the cause of their coming, neither shall he stay longer there than the Chief Magistrate or Governor will permit, and shall neither do nor attempt any hostile act in the Ports whereinto he shall repair, nor anything prejudicial to that Ally unto whom the Ports belong.

XXI. It is also covenanted that no Ships, or shipping, goods, or merchandise, laden in any Ships, of what nature, kind, or quality soever, howsoever taken, belonging to the Subjects of either King, shall under any colour or pretence whatsoever be adjudged Prize, unless by a judicial examination and proceeding in form of Law in the Court of Admiralty, legally ordained in that behalf for such like maritime Prizes.

XXII. It is also covenanted and agreed, that all Ships and Merchants of England, in their passage through the Sound, appertaining to the King of Denmark and Norway, shall enjoy the benefit and privilege of deferring the payment of Customs until their return, in the same manner as they enjoyed the 5 years last past; but so that the said Ships and Merchants carry with them Certificates under the Seal of the Officers of His said Majesty of England thereunto appointed, witnessing that those Ships belong to the Subjects of the King of England; and also that, before their passage, they give good and sufficient security to make the said payment in due place unto the Receivers of the King of Denmark's Customs at their return, or if they return not within 3 months at the furthest, in case they do not pay the same in their said first passage.

XXIII. It is also concluded that the Ships and Subjects of the King of England shall receive their dispatch and discharge at Elsinore, as soon as they arrive, without any delay, no Ships of any Nation whatsoever to have a preference in that behalf before them, except the Inhabitants of certain places who have obtained such a privilege of old in this case, and enjoy the same to this day.

XXIV. It is also agreed, that if the Dutch or any other Nation whatsoever, (the Swedish only excepted,) hath already obtained, or hereafter shall obtain, of the King of Denmark and Norway, any better agreements, covenants, exemptions, and privileges than those contained in this Treaty, the same and such like shall be communicated and effectually granted, freely and with all fulness, to the King of England and 10 his Subjects; and on the other side, if the Dutch, or any other Nation whatsoever, hath obtained, or shall hereafter obtain, of the King of England, any better agreements, covenants, exemptions, or privileges than those contained in this Treaty, the same and such like shall be communicated and effectually granted,

freely and with all fulluess, to the King of Denmark and Norway, and to his Subjects.

XXV. Lastly, it is covenanted, agreed, and concluded, that the aforesaid Most Serene Princes and Kings shall sincerely and faithfully observe all and singular the Articles contained and established in this present Treaty, and cause the same to be observed by their Subjects and Inbabitants ; neither shall they break them directly or indirectly, por suffer them to be broken directly or indirectly, by their Subjects or Inhabitants; and shall ratify and confirm all and singular the things covenanted as aforesaid by Letters Patent, subscribed with their own Hands, and sealed with their Great Seals, drawn up and engrossed in sufficient, valid, and effectual form, and shall interchangeably deliver the same, or cause them to be delivered within 3 months after the date of these Presents, faithfully, really, and effectually.

Done at Whitehall, the 13th of February, 1660-1.

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(2.)-TREATY of Peace and Commerce between Great Brilain and Denmark.-Signed at Copenhagen, 11th July, 1670.

EXTRACT. (Translation.) Art. I. That there be between the 2 Kings, their Heirs and Successors, as also their Kingdoms, Principalities, Provinces, Estates, Counties, Islands, Cities, Subjects, and Vassals, of what condition, dignity, and degree soever, by land and sea, in rivers, fresh waters, and all places whatsoever, as well in Europe as out of Europe, now and for the time to come, a sincere, true, and perfect Friendship, Peace, and Confederation; so as that neither Party do any wrong, injury, or prejudice to the Kingdoms, Principalities, Provinces, and Estates, or to the lohabitants and Subjects of the other; nor suffer any to be done by others, as much as in him is; but rather live as Friends together, using each other with good will and respect, and promoting upon all occasions the interests and advantages of each other, and their Subjects, as if they were their own ; and preventing and hindering with all their power, by their assistance and advice, any damage, wrong, and injury, that may be offered them.

III. The foresaid Kings for themselves, their Heirs, and Successors, mutually do undertake and promise, that they will not aid or furnish the Enemies of either Party, that shall be Aggressors, with any provisions of War, as Soldiers, arms, engines, guns, ships, or other necessaries for the use of War, or suffer any to be furnished by their Subjects; but if the Subjects of either Prince shall presume to act contrary hereunto, then that King, whose Subjects shall have so done, shall be obliged to proceed against them with the highest severity, as against Seditious Persons, and Breakers of the League.

V. It shall be lawsul for the Subjects of both Kings, with their commodities and merchandise, both by sea and land, in time of Peace, without license or safe-conduct, general or special, to come to the Kingdoms, Provinces, Mart-Towns, Ports and Rivers of each other, and in any place therein to remain and trade, paying usual Customs and Duties; reserving nevertheless to either Prince his superiority and regal jurisdiction in his Kingdoms, Provinces, Principalities, and Territories, respectively.

VI. It is, notwithstanding, covenanted and concluded, that the Subjects of the King of Great Britain shall in no wise come to the Prohibited Ports, of which mention is made in precedent Treaties, nor Colonies, without the special license of the King of Denmark first desired and obtained; unless they shall be compelled to make thither, and enter therein, by stress of weather, or pursuit of Pirates, in which case neither shall it be lawful for them to buy or sell. As also in like manner the Subjects of the King of Denmark shall not come to the British Colonies, unless by special license of the King of Great Britain first desired and obtained.

VII. It shall be lawful for the Subjects of the Most Serene King of Denmark to bring into their own stores and warehouses in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and other the Ports of the King of Great Britain, in Europe, such commodities as now, or hereafter, shall be of the growth and production of the Estates, Countries, and Dominions, subject to the King of Denmark, or of the manufacture thereof, and likewise such as come from any part of the River of Elbe.

In like manner shall it be lawful for the Subjects of the King of Great Britain to import and bring into Denmark, Norway, and all other Ports and Colonies, not prohibited, of the King of Denmark, all kinds of merchandise which now or hereafter shall be produced or made in the Kingdoms, Countries, and Estates under the subjection of the King of Great Britain. But if, at any time hereafter, it be permitted to any Foreign Nations to bring all kinds of commodities, without exception, into England, Scotland, and Ireland, and other the Ports belonging to the King of Great Britain, then the same also shall be lawful for the Subjects of the King of Denmark : which in like manner shall be permitted to the Subjects of the King of Great Britain, upon the like occasion, in the prohibited Ports and Colonies of the King of Denmark.

VIII. It is also covenanted and agreed, that the People and Subjects of the King of Great Britain sailing to any the hereditary Kingdoms, Countries, or Dominions of the King of Denmark, or trading in the same, shall pay no more or greater Customs, Tribute, Toll, or other Duties, nor in any other manner than the People of the United Provinces of the Low Countries, and other Strangers (the Swede only excepted) trading thither, and paying lesser Customs, do or shall pay; and in going, returning, and staying, as also in fishing and trading, and all other things, shall enjoy the same liberties,

immunities, and privileges, which the People of any Foreign country, in the said Kingdoms and Dominions of the King of Denmark, abiding and trading, do or shall enjoy; and so on the other side, the People and Subjects of the King of Denmark shall have and enjoy the same privileges, in the Countries and Territories of the King of Great Britain; to wit, that the People and Subjects of the King of Denmark, sailing to any the Kingdoms, Countries, or Dominions of the King of Great Britain, or trading in the same, shall not pay any more or greater Customs, Tributes, Toll, or other Duties, nor in any other manner than the People of the United Netherlands, or other Strangers trading thither, and paying lesser Customs, do or shall pay: and in going, returning, and staying, as also in fishing and trading, and all other things, shall enjoy the same liberties, immunities, and privileges, which the People of any other Foreign country in the said Kingdoms and Dominions of the King of Great Britain, abiding and trading, do or shall enjoy: but so, as that the power of each King, of making or altering Customs, or other Duties, as they shall see occasion, in their respective Kingdoms, Countries, Dominions, and Ports, remain full and entire; provided the foresaid equality be strictly observed on both sides in manner aforesaid.

IX. It is also covenanted, that when the Subjects of either King have imported their commodities into the Dominions of the other, have paid the usual Customs for them, and undergone their search, it shall be free and lawful for them to bring their said commodities into their own proper store-houses and cellars, or into places which they shall think most fit and convenient, and there store them; nor shall any Magistrate or Officer of any the Cities or Ports of either, impose upon

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cellars or store-houses without their consent. X. The Subjects of either Crown trading upon the Seas, and sailing by the Coasts of either Kingdom, shall not be obliged to come into any Port, if their course were not directed thither; but shall have liberty to pursue their voyage without hindrance or detention whithersoever they please. Nor shall they, being by tempest forced into Port, and there remaining, be obliged to unlade their cargo, or to barter or sell any part thereof; but it shall be Jawsul for them to dispose of it as they shall think fit, and to do any other thing which they shall judge inost for their advantage: provided nothing be done that may be to the defrauding of either Prince of his due Rights and Customs.

XI. It is also agreed, that after any planks, masts, and other sorts of timber, have been once put on board the Ships of the Subjects or People of the King of Great Britain, they shall not be liable to any further search ; but all search or scrutiny shall be made before ; and is then, either oaken or other prohibited timber be found, it shall be presently stopped and detained upon the place before it be put on

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