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an attention to his point; though what he is labouring at does not in the least contribute to it. Were it not for such honest fellows as these, the men who govern the rest of their species would have no tools to work with: for the outward show of the world is carried on by such as cannot find out that they are doing nothing. I left my man with great reluctance, seeing the care he took to observe the whole conduct of the persons concerned, and compute the inequality of the chances with his own bands and eyes. Dear sir,' said I, they must rise early that cheat you.''Ay,' said he, there is nothing like a man's minding his business himself.' It is very true,' said I; 'the master's eye makes the horse fat.'





As much the greater number are to go with out prizes, it is but very expedient to turn our lecture to the forming just sentiments on the subject of fortune. One said this morning, that the chief lot, he was confident, would fall upon some puppy;' but this gentleman is one of those wrong tempers, who approve only the unhappy, and have a natural prejudice to the fortunate. But, as it is certain that there is a great meanness in being attached to a man purely for his fortune; there is no less a meanness in disliking him for his happiness. It is the same perverseness under different colours; and both these resentments arise from mere pride.

True greatness of mind consists in valuing men apart from their circumstances, or according to their behaviour in them. Wealth is a distinction only in traffic; but it must not be allowed as a recommendation in any other particular, but only just as it is applied. It was very prettily said, That we may learn the little value of fortune by the persons on whom heaven is pleased to bestow it.' However, there is not a harder part in human life, than becoming wealth and greatness.. He must be very well stocked with merit, who is not willing to draw some superiority over his friends from his fortune; for it is not every man that can entertain with the air of a guest, and do good offices with the mien of one that receives them.

I must confess, I cannot conceive how a man can place himself in a figure wherein he can so much enjoy his own soul, and, that greatest of pleasures, the just approbation of his own actions, as an adventurer on this occasion, to sit and see the lots go off without hope or fear; perfectly unconcerned as to himself, but taking part in the good fortune of others.

I will believe there are happy tempers in being, to whom all the good that arrives to any of their fellow-creatures gives a pleasure. These live in a course of lasting and substantial happiness, and have the satisfaction to see all men endeavour to gratify them. This state of mind not only lets a man into certain en

joyments, but relieves him from as certain anxieties. If you will not rejoice with happy men, you must repine at them. Dick Reptile alluded to this when he said, he would bate no man, out of pure idleness.' As for my own part, I look at Fortune quite in another view than the rest of the world; and, by my knowledge in futurity, tremble at the approaching prize, which I see coming to a young lady for whom I have much tenderness; and have therefore writ to her the following letter, to be sent by Mr. Elliot, with the notice of her ticket.



You receive, at the instant this comes to your hands, an account of your having, what you only wanted, fortune; and to admonish you, that you may not now want every thing else. You had yesterday wit, virtue, beauty; but you never heard of them until to-day. They say Fortune is blind; but you will find she has opened the eyes of all your beholders. I beseech you, madam, make use of the advantages of having been educated without flattery. If you can still be Chloe, Fortune has indeed been kind to you; if you are altered, she has it not in her power to give you an equivalent.

Grecian Coffee-house, July 26.

Some time ago a virtuoso, my very good friend, sent me a plan of a covered summerhouse; which a little after was rallied by another of my correspondents. I cannot therefore defer giving him an opportunity of making his defence to the learned, in his own words.

'To Isaac Bickerstaff, Esquire. SIR, July 15, 1710. 'I have been this summer upon a ramble, to visit several friends and relations; which is the reason I have left you, and our ingenious unknown friend of South Wales, so long in your error concerning the grass-plots in my green-house. I will not give you the particulars of my gardener's conduct in the management of my covered garden; but content myself with letting you know, that my little fields within doors, though by their novelty they appear too extravagant to you to subsist even in a regular imagination, are in the effect things that require no conjuration. Your correspondent may depend upon it, that under a sashed roof, which lets in the sun at all times, and the air as often as is convenient, he may have grass-plots in the greatest perfection, if he will be at the pains to water, mow, and roll them. Grass and herbs in general, the less they are exposed to the sun and winds, the livelier is their verdure. They require only warmth and moisture; and if you were to see my plots, your eye would soon confess, that

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The motto, with which the gentleman has
been pleased to furnish you, is so very proper,
and pleases me so well, that I design to have
it set upon the front of my green-house in
letters of gold.
'I am, Sir, &c.

the bowling-green at Marybone wears not half | his ancestors on the one side, and the ill arts
so bright a livery.
of their adversaries on the other, could not
possibly be settled according to the rules of
the lower courts; that, therefore, he designed
to bring his cause before the House of Lords
next session, where he should be glad if his
Lordship should happen to be present; for he
doubted not but his cause would be approved
by all men of justice and honour.' In this
place the word Lordship was gracefully insert-
ed; because it was applied to him in that cir-
cumstance wherein his quality was the occasion
of the discourse, and wherein it was most useful
to the one, and most honourable to the other.

This way is so far from being disrespectful to the honour of nobles, that it is an expedient for using them with greater deference. I would not put Lordship to a man's hat, gloves, wig, or cane; but to desire his Lordship's favour, his Lordship's judgment, or his Lordship's patronage, is a manner of speaking, which expresses an alliance between his quality and his merit. It is this knowledge, which distinguished the discourse of the shoe-maker from that of the gentleman. The highest point of goodbreeding, if any one can hit it, is to show a very nice regard to your own dignity, and, with that in your heart, express your value for the man above you.

But the silly humour to the contrary has so much prevailed, that the slavish addition of title enervates discourse, and renders the application of it almost ridiculous. We writers of diurnals are nearer in our style to that of common talk than any other writers, by which means we use words of respect sometimes very unfortunately. The Postman, who is one of the most celebrated of our fraternity, fell into this misfortune yesterday in his paragraph from Berlin of the twenty-sixth of July. 'Count Wartembourg,' says he, 'great cham. berlain, and chief minister of this court, who on Monday last accompanied the king of Prussia to Oranienburg, was taken so very ill, that on Wednesday his life was despaired of; and we had a report, that his Excellency was dead.'

I humbly presume that it flatters the narration, to say his Excellency in a case which is common to all men; except you would infer what is not to be inferred, to wit, that the author designed to say, all wherein he excelled others was departed from him.'

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No. 204.] Saturday, July 29, 1710.

Gandent prænomine molles

Hor. 2 Sat. v. 32.
He with rapture hears
A title tingling in his tender ears.


From my own Apartment, July 28. MANY are the inconveniences which happen from the improper manner of address in common speech, between persons of the same or of different quality. Among these errors, there is none greater than that of the impertinent use of Title, and a paraphrastical way of saying, You. I had the curiosity the other day to follow a crowd of people near Billingsgate, who were conducting a passionate woman that sold fish to a magistrate, in order to explain some words, which were ill taken by one of her own quality and profession in the public market. When she came to make her defence, she was so very full of, His Worship,' and of, 'If it should please his Honour,' that we could, for some time, hardly hear any other apology she made for herself, than that of atoning for the ill language she had been accused of towards her neighbour, by the great civilities she paid to her judge. But this extravagance in her sense of doing honour was no more to be wondered at, than that her many rings on each finger were worn as instances of finery and dress. The vulgar may thus heap and huddle terms of respect, and nothing better be expected from them; but for people of rank to repeat appellatives insignificantly, is a folly not to be endured, neither with regard to our time, or our understanding. It is below the dignity of speech to extend it with more words or phrases than are necessary to explain ourselves with elegance: and it is, methinks, an instance of ignorance, if not of servitude, to be redundant in such expressions.


I waited upon a man of quality some morn-
ings ago.
He happened to be dressing; and
his shoe-maker fitting him, told him, that if
his Lordship would please to tread hard, or
that if his Lordship would stamp a little, his
Lordship would find his Lordship's shoe will
sit as easy as any piece of work his Lordship
should see in England.' As soon as my lord
was dressed, a gentleman approached him with
a very good air, and told him, he had an
affair which had long depended in the lower
courts; which, through the inadvertency of

Were distinctions used according to the rules of reason and sense, those additions to men's names would be, as they were first intended, significant of their worth, and not their persons; so that in some cases it might be proper to say, The Man is dead; but his Excellency will never die.' It is, methinks, very unjust to laugh at a Quaker, because he has taken up a resolution to treat you with a word, the most expressive of complaisance that can be thought of and with an air of good-nature and


charity calls you Friend. I say, it is very un- dation, that we are under the necessity
just to rally him for this term to a stranger, seeking for the agreeable companion, and th
when you yourself, in all your phrases of dis-honourable mistress. By this cultivation
tinction, confound phrases of honour into no
use at all.

Tom Courtly, who is the pink of courtesy, is an instance of how little moment an undistinguishing application of sounds of honour are to those who understand themselves. Tom never fails of paying his obeisance to every man he sees, who has title or office to make him conspicuous; but his deference is wholly given to outward considerations. I, who know him, can tell him within half an acre, how much land one man has more than another by Tom's bow to him. Title is all he knows of honour, and civility of friendship: for this reason, because he cares for no man living, he is religiously strict in performing, what he calls, his respects to you. To this end he is very learned in pedigree; and will abate something in the ceremony of his approaches to a man, if he is in any doubt about the bearing of his coat of arms. What is the most pleasant of all his character is, that he acts with a sort of integrity in these impertinences; and though he would not do any solid kindness, he is wonderfully just and careful not to wrong his quality, But as integrity is very scarce in the world, I cannot forbear having respect for the impertinent: it is some virtue to be bound by any thing. Tom and I are upon very good terms, for the respect he has for the house of Bickerstaff. Though one cannot but laugh at his serious consideration of things so little essential, one must have a value even for a frivolous good conscience.

No. 205.] Tuesday, August 1, 1710

Νήπιον, υδ' ισασιν όσα πλέον ημίσω παντος
Και όσον εν μαλαχη τε και ασφοδέλω μέγ' ονειας.
Hesiod. Oper. et Dier. ver. 20.

Fools! not to know how far an humble lot
Exceeds abundance by injustice got;
How health and temperance bless the rustic swain,
While inxury destroys her pamper'd train.

R. Wynne.

From my own Apartment, July 31. NATURE has implanted in us two very strong desires; hunger, for the preservation of the individuals; and lust, for the support of the species; or, to speak more intelligibly, the former to continue our own persons, and the latter to introduce others into the world. According as men behave themselves with regard to these appetites, they are above or below the beasts of the field, which are incited by them without choice or reflection. But reasonable creatures correct these incentives, and improve them into elegant motives of friendship and society. It is chiefly from this homely foun

art and reason, our wants are made pleasures
and the gratification of our desires, unde
proper restrictions, a work no way below ou.
noblest faculties. The wisest man may main
tain his character, and yet consider in what
manner he shall best entertain his friend of
divert his mistress. Nay, it is so far from be.
ing a derogation to him, that he can in no in-
stances show so true a taste of his life, or his
fortune. What concerns one of the above-
mentioned appetites, as it is elevated into love,
I shall have abundant occasion to discourse of,
before I have provided for the numberless
crowd of damsels I have proposed to take care
of. The subject therefore of the present paper
shall be that part of society, which owes its
beginning to the common necessity of Hunger.
When this is considered as the support of our
being, we may take in under the same head
Thirst also; otherwise, when we are pursuing
the glutton, the drunkard may make his es-
cape. The true choice of our diet, and our
companions at it, seems to consist in that
which contributes most to cheerfulness and
refreshment: and these certainly are best con-
sulted by simplicity in the food, and sincerity
in the company. By this rule are, in the first
place, excluded from pretence to happiness all
meals of state and ceremony, which are per-
formed in dumb-show, and greedy sullenness.
At the boards of the great, they say, you shall
have a number attending with as good habits and
countenances as the guests, which only circum-
stance must destroy the whole pleasure of the
repast: for if such attendants are introduced
for the dignity of their appearance, modest
minds are shocked by considering then as
spectators; or else look upon them as equals,
for whose servitude they are in a kind of suf
fering. It may be here added, that the sump-
tuous side-board, to an ingenuous eye, has often
more the air of an altar than a table. The
next absurd way of enjoying ourselves at meals
is, where the bottle is plied without being called
for, where humour takes place of appetite, and
the good company are too dull, or too merry,
to know any enjoyment in their senses.

Though this part of time is absolutely ne-
cessary to sustain life, it must be also con-
sidered, that life itself is to the endless being
of man but what a meal is to this life, not va-
luable for itself but for the purposes of it. If
there be any truth in this, the expense of many
hours this way is somewhat unaccountable:
and placing much thought either in too great
sumptuousness and elegance in this matter, or
wallowing in noise and riot at it, are both,
though not equally, unaccountable. I have
often considered these different people with
very great attention, and always speak of them

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with the distinction of the Eaters and the
Swallowers. The Eaters sacrifice all their
senses and understanding to this appetite. The
Swallowers hurry themselves out of both, with-
out pleasing this or any other appetite at all.lity, than that there are no paragraphs in the
whole discourse I speak of below these which

Happy genius! he is the better man for being
a wit. The best way to praise this author is
to quote him; aud I think I may defy any
man to say a greater thing of him, or his abi-

The latter are improved brutes, the former,
degenerated men. I have sometimes thought
it would not be improper to add to my dead
and living men, persons in an intermediate
state of humanity, under the appellation of
Dozers. The Dozers are a sect, who, instead
of keeping their appetites in subjection, live
in subjection to them; nay, they are so truly
slaves to them, that they keep at too great a
distance ever to come into their presence.
Within my own acquaintance, I know those
that I dare say have forgot that they ever were
hungry, and are no less utter strangers to
thirst and weariness; who are beholden to
sauces for their food, and to their food for their

After having recommended the satisfaction of the mind, and the pleasure of conscience, he proceeds:


An ennobling property of it is, that it is such a pleasure as never satiates or wearies; for it properly affects the spirit; and a spirit feels no weariness, as being privileged from the causes of it. But can the epicure say so of any of the pleasures that he so much dotes upon? Do they not expire while they satisfy, and, after a few minutes' refreshment, determine in loathing and unquietness? How short is the interval between a pleasure and a burden! How undiscernible the transition from one to the other! Pleasure dwells no longer upon the appetite than the necessities of nature, which are quickly and easily provided for; and then all that follows is a load and an oppression. Every morsel to a satisfied Hunger, is only a new labour to a tired digestion. Every draught to him that has quenched his thirst, is but a further quenching of nature, and a provision for rheum and diseases, a drowning of the quickness and activity of the spirits.


I have often wondered, considering the excellent and choice spirits that we have among our divines, that they do not think of putting vicious habits into a more contemptible and unlovely figure than they do at present. So many men of wit and spirit as there are in sacred orders, have it in their power to make the fashion of their side. The leaders in human society are more effectually prevailed upon this way than can easily be imagined. I have more than one in my thoughts at this time, capable of doing this against all the opposition of the most witty, as well as the most voluptuous. There may possibly be more acceptable subjects; but sure there are none more useful. It is visible, that though men's fortunes, circumstances, and pleasures, give them prepossessions too strong to regard any mention either of punishments or rewards, they will listen to what makes them inconsiderable or mean in the imaginations of others, and, by degrees, in their own.

He that prolongs his meals, and sacrifices his time, as well as his other conveniences, to his luxury, how quickly does he outset his pleasure! And then, how is all the following time bestowed upon ceremony and surfeit! until at length, after a long fatigue of eating, and drinking, and babbling, he concludes the great work of dining genteely, and so makes a shift to rise from table, that he may lie down upon his bed; where, after he has slept himself into some use of himself, by much ado he staggers to his table again, and there acts over It is certain such topics are to be touched the same brutish scene: so that he passes his upon, in the light we mean, only by men of whole life in a dozed condition, between sleep. the most consummate prudence, as well as ex-ing and waking, with a kind of drowsiness and cellent wit for these discourses are to be confusion upon his senses, which, what pleasure made, if made, to run into example, before it can be, is hard to conceive. All that is of such as have their thoughts more intent upon it dwells upon the tip of his tongue and within the propriety, than the reason of the discourse. the compass of his palate. A worthy prize What indeed leads me into this way of thinking for a man to purchase with the loss of his time, is, that the last thing I read was a sermon of his reason, and himself!' the learned doctor South, upon The ways of pleasantness. This admirable discourse was made at court, where the preacher was too wise a man not to believe, the greatest argument in that place against the pleasures then in vogue, must be, that they lost greater pleasures by prosecuting the course they were in. The charming discourse has in it whatever wit and wisdom can put together. This gentleman has a talent of making all his faculties bear to the great end of his hallowed profession.

No. 206.] Thursday, August 3, 1710.

Metiri se quemque suo modulo ac pede verum est.
Hor. 1 Ep. vii. ver, ult.
All should be confin'd
Within the bounds, which nature hath assign'd,


From my own Apartment, August 2. THE general purposes of men in the conduct of their lives, I mean with relation to this life



only, end in gaining either the affection or the | I was the other day walking with Jack Gainly esteem of those with whom they converse. towards Lincoln's-inn-walks: we met a fellow Esteem makes a man powerful in business, who is a lower officer where Jack is in the diand affection desirable in conversation; which rection. Jack cries to him,' So, how is it, is certainly the reason that very agreeable Mr. ?' He answers, Mr. Gainly, I am men fail of their point in the world, and those glad to see you well. This expression of who are by no means such, arrive at it with equality gave my friend a'pang, which appeared much ease. If it be visible in a man's carriage in the flush of his countenance. Pr'ythee that he has a strong passion to please, no one Jack,' says I, do not be angry at the man; is much at a loss how to keep measures with for do what you will, the man can only love him; because there is always a balance in you; be contented with the image the man people's hands to make up with him, by giving has of thee; for if thou aimest at any other, him what he still wants in exchange for what it must be hatred or contempt.' I went on, you think fit to deny him. Such a person asks and told him,' Look you, Jack, I have heard with diffidence, and ever leaves room for de- thee sometimes talk like an oracle for half an nial by that softness of his complexion. At hour, with the sentiments of a Roman, the the same time he himself is capable of denying closeness of a schoolman, and the integrity nothing, even what he is not able to perform. of a divine; but then, Jack, while I adThe other sort of man who courts esteem, mired thee, it was upon topics which did not having a quite different view, has as different concern thyself; and where, the greatness of a behaviour; and acts as much by the dictates the subject, added to thy being personally un of his reason as the other does by the impulse concerned in it, created all that was great in of his inclination. You must pay for every thy discourse.' I did not mind his being a thing you have of him. He considers mankind little out of humour; but comforted him, by as a people in commerce, and never gives out giving him several instances of men of our acof himself what he is sure will not come in quaintance, who had no one quality in any with interest from another. All his words and eminence, that were much more esteemed actions tend to the advancement of his repu- than he was with very many : but the thing tation and his fortune, towards which he makes is, if your character is to give pleasure, men hourly progress, because he lavishes no part of will consider you only in that light, and not in his good will upon such as do not make some those acts which turn to esteem and veneraadvances to merit it. The man who values tion.' affection, sometimes becomes popular; he who aims at esteem, seldom fails of growing rich.

Thus far we have looked at these different men, as persons who endeavoured to be valued and beloved from design or ambition; but they appear quite in another figure, when you observe the men who are agreeable and ve nerable from the force of their natural inclinations. We affect the company of him who has least regard of himself in his carriage, who throws himself into unguarded gayety, volun. tary mirth, and general good humour; who has nothing in his head but the present hour, and seems to have all his interest and passions gratified, if every man else in the room is as unconcerned as himself. This man usually has no quality or character among his companions; let him be born of whom he will, have what great qualities he please; let him be capable of assuming for a moment what figure he pleases, he still dwells in the imagination of all who know him but as Jack such-a-one. This makes Jack brighten up the room whereever he enters, and change the severity of the company into that gayety and good humour, into which his conversation generally leads them. It is not unpleasant to observe even this sort of creature go out of his character, to check himself sometimes for his familiarities, and pretend so awkwardly at procuring to himself more esteem than he finds he meets with.

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When I think of Jack Gainly, I cannot but reflect also upon his sister Gatty. She is young, witty, pleasant, innocent. This is her natural character; but when she observes any one admired for what they call a fine woman, she is all the next day womanly, prudent, observing, and virtuous. She is every moment asked in her prudential behaviour, whether she is not well? Upon which she as often answers in a fret, Do people think one must be always romping, always a Jack pudding?' I never fail to enquire of her, if my lady such-a-one, that awful beauty, was not at the play last night? She knows the connection between that question and her change of humour, and says, It would be very well if some people would examine into themselves, as much as they do into others.' Or, Sure, there is nothing in the world so ridiculous as an amorous old man.'

As I was saying, there is a class which every man is in by his post in nature, from which it is impossible for him to withdraw to another, and become it. Therefore it is necessary that each should be contented with it, and not endeavour at any progress out of that tract. To follow nature is the only agreeable course, which is what I would fain inculcate to those jarring companions, Flavia and Lucia. They are mother and daughter. Flavia, who is the mamma, has all the charms and desires of youth still about her, and is not much turned

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