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I took my leave, and received at my coming home the following letter:

convey your ladyship to church. While you are praying there, they are cursing, swearing, and drinking in an ale-house. During the time also which your ladyship sets apart for heaven, you are to know, that your cook is sweating and fretting in preparation for your dinner. Soon after your meal you make visits, and the whole world that belongs to you speaks all the ill of you which you are repeating of others. You see, madam, whatever way you go, all about you are in a very broad one. The morality of these people it is your proper busi-joy which surmounted his present weakness, ness to enquire into; and until you reform and on the twenty-seventh of last month came them, you had best let your equals alone; up with the enemy on the plains of Balaguer. otherwise, if I allow you, you are not vicious, The duke of Anjou's rear-guard, consisting of you must allow me you are not virtuous.' twenty-six squadrons, that general sent intelligence of their posture to the king, and desired his majesty's orders to attack them. During the time which he waited for his instructions, he made his disposition for the charge, which was to divide themselves into three bodies; one to be commanded by himself in the centre, a body on the right by count Maurice of Nassau, and the third on the left by the earl of Rochford. Upon the receipt of his majesty's direction to attack the enemy, the general himself charged with the utmost vigour and resolution, while the earl of Rochford and count Maurice extended themselves on his right and left, to prevent the advantage the enemy might make of the superiority of their numbers. What appears to have misled the enemy's general in this affair was, that it was not supposed practicable that the confederates would attack hia till they had received a reinforcement. For this reason, he pursued his march without facing about till we were actually coming on to engagement. General Stanhope's disposition made it impracticable to do it at that time; count Maurice and the earl of Rochford attacking them in the instant in which they were forming themselves. The charge was made with the greatest gallantry, and the enemy very soon put into so great disorder, that their whole cavalry were commanded to support their rear-guard. Upon the advance of this reinforcement, all the horse of the king of Spain were come up to sustain general Stanhope, insomuch, that the battle improved to a general engagement of the cavalry of both armies. After a warm dispute for some time, it ended in the utter defeat of all the duke of Anjou's horse. Upon the despatch of these advices, that prince was retiring towards Lerida. We have no account of any considerable loss on our side, except that both those heroic youths, the earl of Rocl ford and count Nassau, fell in this action. They were, you know, both sons of persons who had a great place in the confidence of your late king William; and I doubt not but their deaths will endear their families, which were ennobled by him, in your nation. General Stanhope has



'I have lived a pure and undefiled virgin these twenty-seven years; and I assure you, it is with great grief and sorrow of heart I tell you, that I become weary and impatient of the derision of the gigglers of our sex; who call me old maid, and tell me, I shall lead apes. you are truly a patron of the distressed, and an adept in astrology, you will advise whether I shall, or ought to be prevailed upon by the impertinences of my own sex, to give way to the importunities of yours. I assure you, 1 am surrounded with both, though at present a forlorn. I am, &c.'

I must defer my answer to this lady out of a point of chronology. She says, she has been twenty-seven years a maid; but I fear, according to a common error, she dates her virginity from her birth, which is a very erroneous method; for a woman of twenty is no more to be thought chaste so many years, than a man of that age can be said to have been so long valiant. We must not allow people the favour of a virtue, until they have been under the temptation to the contrary. A woman is not a maid until her birth-day, as we call it, of her fifteenth year. My plaintiff is therefore desired to inform me, whether she is at present in her twenty-eighth or forty-third year, and she sball be despatched accordingly.

in order to intercept them within a day's march of our army. The king of Spain was appre bensive the enemy might make such a movement, and commanded general Stanhope with a body of horse, consisting of fourteen squadrons, to observe their course, and prevent their passage over the rivers Segra and Noguera, between Lerida and Balaguer. It happened to be the first day that officer had appeared abroad after a dangerous and violent fever; but he received the king's commands on this occasion with a

St. James's Coffee-house, August 11. A merchant came hither this morning, and read a letter from a correspondent of his at Milan. It was dated the 7th instant, N. S. The following is an abstract of it--On the 25th of the last month, five thousand men were on their march in the Lampourdan, under the command of general Wesell, having received orders from his catholic majesty to join bim in his camp with all possible expedition. The duke of Anjou soon had intelligence of their motion, and took a resolution to decamp,

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their very dissolution with pleasure, how few things are there that can be terrible to them! Certainly, nothing can be dreadful to such spirits, but what would make death terrible to

them, falsehood towards man, or impiety to

wards heaven. To such as these, as there are certainly many such, the gratifications of innocent pleasures are doubled, even with reflections upon their imperfection. The disappointments make ourselves in expected enjoyments, strike which naturally attend the great promises we no damp upon such men, but only quicken their hopes of soon knowing joys which are too pure to admit of allay or satiety.

It is thought, among the politer sort of mankind, an imperfection to want a relish of any of those things which refine our lives. This is the foundation of the acceptance which eloquence, music, and poetry make in the world; and I know not why devotion, considered merely as an exaltation of our happiness, should not at least be so far regarded as to be considered. It is possible the very enquiry would lead men into such thoughts and gratifications as they did not expect to meet with in this place. Many a good acquaintance has been lost from a general prepossession in his disfavour, and a severe aspect has often hid under it a very agreeable companion.

Sunday, August 13.

If there were no other consequences of it, but barely that human creatures on this day assemble themselves before their Creator, without regard to their usual employments, their minds at leisure from the cares of this life, and their bodies adorned with the best attire they can bestow on them; I say, were this mere outward celebration of a sabbath all that is expected from men, even that were a laudable distinction, and a purpose worthy the human nature. But when there is added to it the There are no distinguishing qualities among sublime pleasure of devotion, our being is men to which there are not false pretenders; exalted above itself; and he who spends a but though none is more pretended to than seventh day in the contemplation of the next that of devotion, there are perhaps fewer suclife, will not easily fall into the corruptions of cessful impostors in this kind than any other. this in the other six. They, who never admit There is something so natively great and thoughts of this kind into their imaginations, good in a person that is truly devout, that an lose higher and sweeter satisfactions than can awkward man may as well pretend to be gen. be raised by any other entertainment. The teel, as a hypocrite to be pious. The conmost illiterate man who is touched with devo-straint in words and actions are equally visible tion, and uses frequent exercises of it, contracts in both cases; and any thing set up in their a certain greatness of mind, mingled with a room does but remove the endeavourers farther noble simplicity, that raises him above those off from their pretensions. But, however the of the same condition; and there is an inde- sense of true piety is abated, there is no other lible mark of goodness in those who sincerely motive of action that can carry us through all possess it. It is hardly possible it should be the vicissitudes of life with alacrity and resootherwise; for the fervours of a pious mind lution. But piety, like philosophy, when it is will naturally contract such an earnestness and superficial, does but make men appear the attention towards a better being, as will make worse for it; and a principle that is but half the ordinary passages of life go off with a be- received does but distract, instead of guiding coming indifference. By this a man in the our behaviour. When I reflect upon the lowest condition will not appear mean, or, in unequal conduct of Lotius, I see many things the most splended fortune, insolent. that run directly counter to his interest; As to all the intricacies and vicissitudes, un- therefore I cannot attribute his labours for the der which men are ordinarily entangled with public good to ambition. When I consider the utmost sorrow and passion, one who is his disregard to his fortune I cannot esteem devoted to heaven, when he falls into such dif- him covetous. How then can I reconcile his ficulties, is led by a clue through a labyrinth. neglect of himself, and his zeal for others? I As to this world, he does not pretend to skill have long suspected him to be a little pious :' in the mazes of it; but fixes his thoughts upon but no man ever hid his vice with greater one certainty, that he shall soon be out of it. caution than he does his virtue. It was the And we may ask very boldly, what can be a praise of a great Roman, that he had rather more sure consolation than to have a hope in be, than appear good.' But such is the weakdeath? When men are arrived at thinking ofness of Lotius, that I dare say, he had rather



By I

be esteemed irreligious than devout.
know not what impatience of raillery, he is
wonderfully fearful of being thought too great
a believer. A hundred little devices are made
use of to hide a time of private devotion; and
he will allow you any suspicion of his being ill
employed, so you do not tax him with being
well. But alas! how mean is such a behaviour?
To boast of virtue, is a most ridiculous way of
disappointing the merit of it, but not so pitiful
as that of being ashamed of it. How unhappy
is the wretch, who makes the most absolute
and independent motive of action the cause of
perplexity and inconstancy! How different a
figure does Calicolo* make with all who know
him! His great and superior mind, frequently
exalted by the raptures of heavenly meditation,
is to all his friends of the same use, as if an
angel were to appear at the decision of their
disputes. They very well understand, he is as
much disinterested and unbiassed as such a
being. He considers all applications made to
him, as those addresses will affect his own ap-
plication to heaven. All his determinations
are delivered with a beautiful humility; and
he pronounces his decisions with the air of one
who is more frequently a supplicant than a

he carries about in his bosom, without alarming either the eye or the envy of the world. A man putting all his pleasures into this one, is like a traveller putting all his goods into one jewel; the value is the same, and the convenience greater.'

Thus humble, and thus great, is the man who is moved by piety, and exalted by devotion. But behold this recommended by the masterly hand of a great divine I have heretofore made bold with.


No. 212.] Thursday, August 17, 1710.

From my own Apartment, August 16. I HAVE had much importunity to answer the following letter:



Reading over a volume of yours, I find the words simplex munditiis mentioned as a description of a very well-dressed woman. I beg of you, for the sake of the sex, to explain these terms. I cannot comprehend what my brother means when he tells me, they signify my own 'Sir, name, which is, 'Your humble servant, PLAIN ENGLISH.'


I think the lady's brother has given us a very good idea of that elegant expression; it being the greatest beauty of speech to be close and intelligible. To this end, nothing is to be more carefully consulted than plainness. In a lady's attire this is the single excellence; for to be, what some people call, fine, is the same vice in that case, as to be florid, is in writing or speaking. I have studied and writ It is such a pleasure as can never cloy or on this important subject, until I almost deoverwork the mind; a delight that grows and spair of making a reformation in the females improves under thought and reflection; and of this island; where we have more beauty while it exercises, does also endear itself to the than in any spot in the universe, if we did not mind. All pleasures that affect the body must disguise it by false garniture, and detract from needs weary, because they transport; and all it by impertinent improvements. I have by transportation is a violence; and no violence me a treatise concerning pinners, which, I can be lasting; but determines upon the falling have some hopes, will contribute to the amendof the spirits, which are not able to keep up ment of the present head-dresses, to which I that height of motion that the pleasure of the have solid and unanswerable objections. But senses raises them to. And therefore how in- most of the errors in that, and other particuevitably does an immoderate laughter end in lars of adorning the head, are crept into the a sigh, which is only nature's recovering itself world from the ignorance of modern tirewomen; after a force done to it: but the religious plea- for it is come to that pass, that an awkward sure of a well-disposed mind moves gently, and creature in the first year of her apprenticeship, therefore constantly. It does not affect by that can hardly stick a pin, shall take upon rapture and ecstasy, but is like the pleasure her to dress a woman of the first quality. of health, greater and stronger than those that However, it is certain, that there requires in call up the senses with grosser and more af- a good tirewomen a perfect skill in optics; for fecting impressions. No man's body is as strong all the force of ornament is to contribute to as his appetites; but Heaven has corrected the intention of the eyes. Thus she, who has the boundlessness of his voluptuous desires by a mind to look killing, must arm her face acstinting his strength, and contracting his ca-cordingly, and not leave her eyes and cheeks pacities. The pleasure of the religious man is undressed. There is Araminta, who is so sensible of this, that she never will see even her an easy and a portable pleasure, such a one as own husband, without a hood on. Can any one living bear to see miss Gruel, lean as she

This appears to be one of Steele's political papers, in which his principal design seems to have been, to contrast the character of Mr. Harley, afterwards lord Oxford, the treasurer then in office, with that of lord Godolphin, who was his lordship's immediate predecessor.

Hoods of various kinds began to come into fashion In the latter part of the reign of Charles II.

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is, with her hair tied back after the modern | turned my horse, with a design to pursue him
way? But such is the folly of our ladies, that
because one who is a beauty, out of ostentation
of her being such, takes care to wear something
that she knows cannot be of any consequence
to her complexion; I say, our women run on
so heedlessly in the fashion, that though it is
the interest of some to hide as much of their
faces as possible, yet because a leading toast
appeared with a backward head-dress, the rest
shall follow the mode, without observing that
the author of the fashion assumed it because
it could become no one but herself.

to London, and get him apprehended, on sus-
picion of being a highwayman: but when I
reflected, that it was the proper office of the
magistrate to punish only knaves, and that
we had a Censor of Great Britain for people of
another denomination, I immediately deter-
mined to prosecute him in your court only.
This unjustifiable frolic I take to be neither wit
nor humour, therefore hope you will do me,
and as many others as were that day frighted,
'I am, Sir,
Your friend and servant,
'J. L.

Flavia is ever well-dressed, and always the
genteelest woman you meet: but the make of
her mind very much contributes to the orna-
ment of her body. She has the greatest simpli-
city of manners of any of her sex. This makes
every thing look native about her, and her
clothes are so exactly fitted, that they appear,
as it were, part of her person. Every one that
sees her knows her to be of quality; but her
distinction is owing to her manner, and not to
her habit. Her beauty is full of attraction,

but not of allurement. There is such a com-
posure in her looks, and propriety in her dress,
that you would think it impossible she should
change the garb, you one day see her in, for
any thing so becoming, until you next day see
her in another. There is no other mystery in
this, but that however she is apparelled, she
is herself the same; for there is so immediate
a relation between our thoughts and gestures,
that a woman must think well to look well.

But this weighty subject I must put off for some other matters, in which my correspondents are urgent for answers; which I shall do where I can, and appeal to the judgment of others where I cannot.


The gentleman begs your pardon, and frighted you out of fear of frighting you; for he is just come out of the small-pox.'

In the process of a few succeeding years, so much in

jury was done in various ways, by disorderly persons dis-
guised with masks, crapes, and blackened faces, that it
was thought necessary to pass the law which is called
The Black Act.' Stat. 9 Geo. I. c. 22. The ladies at
this time rode in masks. See Swift's Works,' Vol. XXII.
p. 259.

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'Your distinction concerning the time of write you my thanks for it, in the twentycommencing virgins is allowed to be just. I eighth year of my life, and twelfth of my virginity. But I am to ask you another question: may a woman be said to live any more years a maid, than she continues to be courted?

I am, &c.'

'SIR, August 15, 1710. 'I observe that the Postman of Saturday last, giving an account of the action in Spain, has this elegant turn of expression; general Stanhope, who in the whole action expressed as much bravery as conduct, received a contusion in his right shoulder. I should be glad to know, whether this cautious politician means to commend or to rally him, by saying, 'He expressed as much bravery as conduct?' If you can explain this dubious phrase, it will inform the public, and oblige, Sir,


Your humble servant, &c.'


August 15, 1710.
'Taking the air the other day on horse-back
in the green lane that leads to Southgate, I

discovered coming towards me a person well No. 213.] Saturday, August 19, 1710.

mounted in a mask; and I accordingly ex-
pected, as any one would, to have been robbed.*
But when we came up with each other, the
spark, to my greater surprise, very peaceably
gave me the way; which made me take cou-
rage enough to ask him, if he masqueraded,
or how? He made me no answer, but still
continued incognito. This was certainly an
ass, in a lion's skin; a harmless bull-beggar,
who delights to fright innocent people, and
set them a galloping. I bethought myself of
putting as good a jest upon him, and had

Sheer-lane, August 18.

THERE has of late crept in among the downright English a mighty spirit of dissimulation.

But, before we discourse of this vice, it will be necessary to observe, that the learned make a difference between simulation and dissimulation. Simulation is a pretence of what is not, and dissimulation is a concealment of what is. The latter is our present affair. When you look round you in public places in this island, you see the generality of mankind carry in their countenance an air of challenge or defiance; and there is no such man to be found among us, who naturally strives to do greater honours and civilities than he receives. This innate sullenness or stubbornness of complexion is hardly to be conquered by any of our islanders. For which reason, however they may pretend

to chouse one another, they make but very | lady's woman. From the two latter your scho

lar and page must have reaped all their advantage above him.—I know by this time you have pronounced me a trader. I acknowledge it; but cannot bear the exclusion from any pretence of speaking agreeably to a fine woman, or from any degree of generosity that way. You have among us citizens many well-wishers; but it is for the justice of your representations, which we, perhaps, are better judges of than you (by the account you give of your nephew) seem to allow.

awkward rogues; and their dislike to each other is seldom so well dissembled, but it is suspected. When once it is so, it had as good be professed. A man who dissembles well must have none of what we call stomach, otherwise he will be cold in his professions of good-will where he hates; an imperfection of the last ill consequence in business. This fierceness in our natures is apparent from the conduct of our young fellows, who are not got into the schemes and arts of life which the children of the world walk by. One would think that, of course, when a man of any consequence for his figure, his mien, or his gravity, passes by a youth, he should certainly have the first advances of salutation; but he is, you may observe, treated in a quite different manner; it being the very characteristic of an English temper to defy. As I am an Englishman, I find it a very hard matter to bring myself to pull off the hat first; but it is the only way to be upon any good terms with those we meet with. Therefore the first advance is of high moment. Men judge of others by themselves; and he that will command with us must condescend. It moves one's spleen very agreeably, to see fellows pretend to be dissemblers without this lesson. They are so reservedly complaisant, until they have learned to resign their natural passions, that all the steps they make towards gaining those whom they would be well with, are but so many marks of what they really are, and not of what they would appear.

The rough Britons, when they pretend to be artful towards one another, are ridiculous enough; but when they set up for vices they have not, and dissemble their good with an affectation of ill, they are insupportable. I know two men in this town who make as good figures as any in it, that manage their credit so well as to be thought atheists, and yet say their prayers morning and evening. Tom Springly, the other day, pretended to go to an assignment with a married woman at Rosamond's Pond, and was seen soon after reading the responses with great gravity at six o'clock prayers.

Sheer-lane, August 17.

Though the following epistle bears a just accusation of myself, yet in regard it is a more advantageous piece of justice to another, I insert it at large.


Garraway's Coffee-house, August 10. 'I have lately read your paper, wherein you represent a conversation between a young lady, your three nephews, and yourself; and am not a little offended at the figure you give your young merchant in the presence of a beauty. The topic of love is a subject on which a man is more beholden to nature for his eloquence, than to the instruction of the schools, or my

To give you an opportunity of making us some reparation, I desire you would tell, your own way, the following instance of heroic love in the city. You are to remember, that somewhere in your writings, for enlarging the territories of virtue and honour, you have multiplied the opportunities of attaining to heroic virtue; and have hinted, that in whatever state of life a man is, if he does things above what is ordinarily performed by men of his rank, he is in those instances a hero.

Tom Trueman, a young gentleman of eighteen years of age, fell passionately in love with the beauteous Almira, daughter to his master. Her regard for him was no less tender. Trueman was better acquainted with his master's affairs than his daughter; and secretly lamented that each day brought him, by many miscarriages, nearer bankruptcy than the former. This unhappy posture of their affairs the youth suspected, was owing to the ill management of a factor in whom his master had an entire confidence. Trueman took a proper occasion, when his master was ruminating on his decaying fortune, to address him for leave to spend the remainder of his time with his foreign correspondent. During three years stay in that employment, he became acquainted with all that concerned his master, and by his great address in the management of that knowledge, saved him ten thousand pounds. Soon after this accident, Trueman's uncle left him a considerable estate. Upon receiving that advice, he returned to England, and demanded Almira of her father. The father, overjoyed at the match, offered him the ten thousand pounds he had saved him, with the further proposal of resigning to him all his business. Trueman re. fused both; and retired into the country with his bride, contented with his own fortune, though perfectly skilled in all the methods of improving it.

It is to be noted, that Trueman refused twenty thousand pounds with another young lady; so that reckoning both his self-denials, he is to have in your court the merit of having given thirty thousand pounds for the woman he loved. This gentleman I claim your justice to; and hope you will be convinced that some of us have larger views than only Cash Debtor, per contra Creditor. Yours,


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