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so far lose his measure, as to think a minute an hour; or in joy make an hour a minute. From my own Apartment July 7. Let us examine the present case by this rule, The subject of duels bas, I find, been started and we shall find, that the cause of this general with so good success, that it has been the fremistake in the British nation, has been the quent subject of conversation among polite great success of the last campaign, and the men; and a dialogue of that kind has been following hopes of peace. Stocks ran so high transmitted to me verbatim as follows. The at the Exchange, that the citizens had gained persons concerned in it are men of honour and three days of the courtiers ; and we have in-experience in the manners of men, and have deed been so happy all this reign, that if the fallen upon the truest foundation, as well 26 University did not rectify our mistakes, we searched the bottom of this evil. should think ourselves but in the second year Mr. Sage. If it were in my power every man, of her present majesty. It would be endless that drew his sword, unless in the service, or to enumerate the many damages that have purely to defeud bis life, person, or goods, from happened by this ignorance of the vulgar. All violence (I mean abstracted from all punctoes the recognisances within the diocess of Oxford or whins of honour) should ride the wooden have been forfeited, for not appearing on the horse in the Tilt-yard for such first offence; for first day of this fictitious term. The Univer. The second, stand in the pillory; and for the sity has been nonsuited in their action against third, be prisoner in Bedlam for life. the booksellers for printing Clarendon in Col. Plume. I remember that a rencounter quarto. Indeed, what gives me the most or duel was so far from being in fashion among quick concern, is the case of a poor gentleman, the officers that served in the parliament-army, my friend, who was the other day taken in exe- that on the contrary it was as disreputable, cution by a set of ignorant bailiffs. He should, and as great an impediment to advancernent it seems, have pleaded in the first week of in the service, as being bashful iu time of acterm; but being a master of Arts of Oxford, be tion. would not recede from the Oxonian computa- Sir Mark. Yet I have been informed by tion. He showed Mr. Broad the almanack, some old cavaliers, of famous reputation for and the very day when the term began; but brave and gallant men, that they were much the merciless, ignorant fellow, against all sense more in mode among their party than they and learning, would hurry him away. He have been during this last war. went, indeed, quietly enough; but he has taken Col. Plume. That is true too, sir. exact notes of the time of arrest, and sufficient Mr. Sage. By what you say, gentlemen, one witnesses of his being carried into goal; and should think that our present military officers bas, by advice of the recorder of Oxford, are compounded of an equal proportion of both brought his action; and we doubt not but we those tempers; since duels are peither quite sball pay them off with damages, and blemish discountenanced, nor much in vogue. the reputation of Mr. Broad. We have oue Sir Mark. That difference of temper in re convincing proof, which all that frequent the gard to duels, which appears to have between courts of justice are witnesses of: the dog the court and the parliament-men of the sword, that comes constantly to Westminster on the was not (I conceive) for want of courage in the first day of the term, did not appear until the latter, nor of a liberal education, because there first day according to the Oxford almanack; were some of the best families in England enw bose iustinet I take to be a better guide than gaged in that party; but gallantry and mode, men's erroneous opinions, which are usually which glitter agreeably to the imagination, biassed by interest. I judge in this case, as were encouraged by the court, as promoting king Charles the Second victua!led bis navy its splendour; and it was as natural that the with the bread which one of his dogs chose of contrary party (who were to recommend themseveral pieces thrown before him, rather than selves to the public for men of serious and solid trust to the asseverations of the victuallers. parts) should deviate from every thing chimeMr. Cowper,* and other learned counsel, have rical. already urged the autbority of this almanack, Mr. Suge. I have never read of a duel in behalf of their clients. We shall, therefore, among the Romans, and yet their nobility used go on with all speed in our cause; and doubt more liberty with their tongues than one may not but chancery will give at the end what we do now without being challenged. lost in the beginning, by protracting the term Sir Mark. Perhaps the Romans were of for us until Wednesday come seven-night. opinion, that ill-language and brutal manners And the University Orator shall for ever pray, reflected only on those who were guilty of &c.
them; and that a man's reputation was not at all cleared by cutting the person's throat
who had reflected upon it: but the custom-os Spencer Cowper, brother to the first earl of the name, at that tine a celebrated conncellor, and afterwards chief those times had fixed the scandal in the action; jaslice of the common plea.
whereas now it lies in the reproach.
Mr. Sage. And yet the only sort of duel that pretty long, and the principals acting on both one can conceive to have been fought upon sides upon the defensive, and the morning being motives truly honourable and allowable, was frosty, major Adrvit desired that the other that between the Horatii and Curiatii.
second, who was also a very topping fellow, Sir Mark. Colonel Plume, pray what was would try a thrust or two, only to keep them the method of single combat in your time warm, until the principals had decided the among the cavaliers ? I suppose, that as the matter, which was agreed to by Modish's seuse of clothes continues, though the fashion cond, who presently whipt Adroit though the of them has been mutable ; so duels, though body, disarmed him, and then parted the prinstill in use, have had in all times their parti- cipals, who had received no harm at all. cular modes of performance.
Mr. Sage. But was not Adroit langhed at : Col. Plume. We had no constant rule, but Col. Plume. On the contrary, the very top. generally conducted our dispute aod tilt ac- ping fellows were ever after of opinion, that no cording to the last that had happened between man, who deserved that character, could serve persons of reputation among the very top fel- as a second, without fighting; and the Smarts lows for bravery and gallantry.
and Modishes finding their account in it, the Sir Mark. If the fashion of quarrelling and humour took without opposition. tilting was so often changed in your time, co- Mr. Sage. Pray, colonel, how long did that lonel Plume, a man might fight, yet lose his fashion continue? credit for.want of understanding the fashion. Col. Plume. Not long neither, Mr. Sage;
Col. Plume. Why, sir Mark, in the begin- for as soon as it became a fasbion, the very ning of July a man would bave been censured topping fellows thought their honour reflected for want of courage, or been thought indigent upon, if they did not proffer themselves as seof the true notions of honour, if he had put conds when any of their friends had a quarrel, up words, which, in the end of September fol- so that sometimes there were a dozen of a side. lowing, one could not resent without passing Sir Mark. Bless me! if that custom bad for a brutal and quarrelsome fellow.
continued, we should have been at a loss now Sir Mark. But, colonel, were duels or ren- for our very pretty fellows; for they seem to counters most in fashion in those days ? be the proper men to officer, animate, and
Col. Plume. Your men of nice honour, sir, keep up an army. But, pray, sir, how did were for avoiding all censure of advantage that sociable manner of tilting grow out of wbich they supposed might be taken in a renmode ? counter; therefore they used seconds, who Col. Plume. Why, sir, I will tell you: it were to see that all was upon the square, and was a law among the combatants, that the make a faithful report of the whole combat; party which happened to have the first man but in a little time it became a fashion for the disarmed or killed, should yield as vanquished. seconds to fight; and I will tell you how it which some people thought might encourage happened.
the Modishes and Smarts in quarrelling to the Mr. Sage. Pray do, colonel Plume, and the destruction of only the very topping fellows; method of a duel at that time, and give us and as soon as this reflection was started, the some notion of the punctoes upon wbich your very topping fellows thought it an incumbrance nice men quarrelled in those days.
upon their honour to fight at all themselves. Col. Plume. I was going to tell you, Mr. Since that time the Modishes and the Smarts, Sage, that one cornet Modish had desired his throughout all Europe, have extolled the friend captain Smart's opinion in some affair, French king's edict. but did not follow it; upon which captain Sir Mark. Our very pretty fellows, whom Smart sent major Adroit (a very topping fellow I take to be the successors of the very topping of those times) to the person that had slighted fellows, think a quarrel so little fashionable, his advice. The major never enquired into that they will not be exposed to it by any the quarrel, because it was not the manner other man's vanity, or want of sense. then among the very topping fellows; but got Mr. Sage. But, colonel, I have observed i;; two swords of an equal length, and then waited your account of duels, that there was a great upon cornet Modish, desiring him to choose exactness in avoiding all advantage that miglit his sword, and meet his friend captain Smart. possibly be between the combatants. cornet Modish came with his friend to the Col. Plume. That is true, sir; for the weaplace of combat ; there the principals put on pons were always equal. their pumps, and stripped to their shirts, to Mr. Sage. Yes, sir ; but suppose an active show that they had nothing but what men adroit strong mau had insulted an awkward or of honour carry about them, and then engaged. a feeble, or an unpractised swordsman ?
Sir, Mark. And did the seconds stand by, Col. Plume. Tben, sir they fought with sir ?
pistols. Col. Plume. It was a received custom until Mr. Sage. But, sir, there might be a certhat time; but the swords of those days being tain advantage that way; for a good marks
man will be sure to hit his man at twenty | desperate manner of fighting, it may very proyard's distance; and a man whose band shakes hably happen to both. (which is common to men that debauch in Sir Mark. Why, gentlemen, if they are men pleasures, or have not used pistols out of their of such nice honour, and must fight, there will holsters) will not venture to fire, unless he be no fear of foul play, if they threw up cross touches the person be shoots at. Now, sir, 1 or pile who should be shot. am of opinion, that one can get no honour in killing a man, if one has it all rug, as the gamesters say, when they have a trick to make No. 40.] Tuesday July 12, 1709. the game secure, though they seem to play upon the square.
Quicqnid agunt homines Sir Mark. In truth, Mr. Sage, I think such
-nostri est farrago libelli. Juv. Sat. i. 85, 86. a fact must be murder in a man's own private Whate'er men do, or say, or thiok, or dream, conscience, whatever it may appear to the Our motley paper seizes for its theme. world. Col. Plume. I have known some men so
Will's Coffee-house, July 11. dice, that they would not fight but upon a LETTERS from the city of London give an cloak with pistols.
account of a very great consternation that Mr. Sage. I believe a custom well established place is in at present, by reason of a late en. would outdo the grand monarch's edict. quiry made at Guildhall whether a noble person
Sir Mark. And bullies would then leave off has parts enough to deserve the enjoyment of their long swords. But I do not find that a the great estate of which he is possessed?" very pretty fellow can stay to change bis sword The city is apprehensive, that this precedent when he is insulted by a bully with a long may go farther than was at first imagined. diego; though his own at the same time be no The person against whom this inquisition is longer than a pen-knife; which will certainly set up by bis relations, is a peer of a neighbe the case if such little swords are in mode. bouring kingdom, and has in bis youth made Pray, colonel, how was it between the hectors some few bulls, by which it is insinuated, that of your time, and the very topping fellows ?
he has forfeited his goods and chattels. This Col. Plume. Sir, long swords happened to is the more astonishing, in that there are many be generally worn in those times.
persons in the said city who are still more guilty Mr. Sage. In answer to what you were say, than his lordship, and who, though they are ing, sir Mark, give me leave to inform you, idiots, do not only possess, but have also themthat your knights.errant (who were the very selves acquired great estates, contrary to the pretty fellows of those ancient times) thought known laws of this realm, which vests their they could not bonourably yield, though they possessions in the crown. had fought their own trusty weapons to the There is a gentleman in the coffee-house at stumps ; but would venture as boldly with the this time exhibiting a bill in chancery against page's leaden sword, as if it had been of en. his father's younger brother, who by some chanted metal. Whence I conceive, there strange magic has arrived at the value of half must be a spice of romantic gallantry in the a plumb, as the citizens call a hundred thoucomposition of that very pretty fellow. sand pounds; and in all the time of growing
Sir Mark. I am of opinion, Mr. Sage, that up to that wealth, was never known in any of fashion goverus a very pretty fellow; nature his ordinary words or actions to discover any or common sense, your ordinary persons, and proof of reason. Upon this foundation my sometimes men of fine parts.
friend has set forth, that he is illegally master Mr. Sage. But wbat is the reason, that men of bis coffers, and has writ two epigrams to of the most excellent sense and morals, in other signify his own pretensions and sufficiency for points, associate their understandings with the spending that estate. He has inserted in bis very pretty fellows in that chimera of a duel ? plea some things which I fear will give offence;
Sif Mark. There is no disputing against so for he pretends to argue, that though a man great a majority.
has a little of the knave mixed with the fool, Mr. Sage. But there is one scruple, colonel he is nevertheless liable to the loss of goods ; Plume, and I have done. Do not you believe and makes the abuse of reason as just an there may be some advantage even upon a cloak avoidance of an estate as the total absence of with pistols, which a man of nice honour would it. This is what can never pass; but witty scruple to take?
men are so full of themselves, that there is no Col. Plume. Faith, I cannot tell, sir; but persuading them; and my friend will not be since one amy reasonably suppose that, in such convinced, but that upon quoting Solomon, a case, there can be but one so far in the wrong who always used the word fool as a term of the as to occasion matters to come to that extremity, I think the chance of being killed should fall but on one; whereas, by their close and
• Richard, the fifth viscount Wenman.
same signification with unjust, and makes all somewhere made a distinction between a maddeviation from goodness and virtue to come man and a fool: a fool is be that from right under the notion of folly ; I say, he doubts not, principles makes a wrong conclusion; but a but by the force of this authority, let his idiot madman is one who draws a just inference uncle appear never so great a knave, he shall from false principles. Thus the fool who cut prove him a fool at the same time.
off the fellow's bead that lay asleep, and hid it, This affair led the company here into an and then waited to see what he would say when examination of these points; and pone coming he awaked, and missed his head-piece, was in here but wits, what was asserted by a young the right in the first thought, that a man lawyer, that a lunatic is in the care of the would be surprised to find such an alteration chancery, but a fool in that of the crown, was in things since he fell asleep; but he was a received with general indignation. Why | little mistaken to imagine he could awake that?' says old Renault. “Why that ? Why at all after his head was cut off. A madman must a fool be a courtier more than a mad- fancies himself a prince ; but, upon his mistake, man? This is the iniquity of this dull age. The acts suitably to that character; and though remember the time when it went on the mad- he is out in supposing he has principalities, side; all your top-wits were scourers, rakes, while he drinks gruel, and lies in straw, yet roarers, and demolishers of windows. I knew you shall see bim keep the port of a distressed a mad lord, who was drunk five years together, monarch in all his words and actions. These and was the envy of that age, who is faintly two persons are equally taken into custody: imitated by the dull pretenders to vice and but what must be done to half this good commadness in this. Had he lived to this day, pany, who every hour of their life are knowingly there had not been a fool in fashion in the and wittingly both fools and madmen, and yet whole kingilom.' When Renault had done have capacities both of formning principles and speaking, a very worthy man assumed the dis- drawing conclusions, with the full use of reacourse : This is,' said he, 'Mr. Bickerstaff, son ? a proper argument for you to treat of in your article from this place; and if you would send From my own Apartment, July 11. your Pacolet into all our brains, you would find, that a little fibre or valve, scarce discern
This evening some ladies came to visit my able, makes the distinction between a politician sister Jenny; and the discourse, after very and an idiot. We should, therefore, throw a many frivolous and public matters, turned veil upon those unhappy instances of human upon the main point among the women, the nature, who seem to breathe without the direc- passion of love. Sappho, who always leads on tion of reason and understanding, as we should this occasion, began to show her reading, and avert our eyes with abborrence from such as live told us, that sir John Suckling and Milton in perpetual abuse and contradiction to these bad, upon a parallel occasion, said the ten. noble faculties. Shall this unfortunate man
derest things she ever read. 'The circumbe divested of his estate, because he is tractable stance,' said she, ‘ is such as gives us a notion and indolent, runs in no man's debt, invades of that protecting part, which is the duty of no man's bed, nor spends the estate he owes
men in their honourable designs upon, or pos. bis children and his character; when one who session of women. In Suckling's tragedy of shows no sense above him, but in such practices, Brennoralt he makes the lover steal into his shall be esteemed in his senses, and possibly mistress's bed-chamber, and draw the curtains ; may pretend to the guardianship of bim who then, when his heart is full of ber charms, as is no ways bis inferior, but in being less wicked : she lies sleeping, instead of being carried away We see old age brings us indifferently into the by the violence of his desires into thoughts of same impotence of soul, wherein nature has a warmer nature, sleep, wbich is the image of placed this lord.
death, gives this genervus lover reflections of There is something very fantastical in the a different kind, which regard rather her safety distribution of civil power and capacity among ) lies sleeping, he utters these words:
than his own passion. For, beholding her as she inen. The law certainly gives these persons into the ward and care of the crown, because "So misers look npon their gold, that is best able to protect them from injuries, Which, wbile they joy to see, they fear to lose: and the impositions of craft and knavery; that
The pleasure of the sight scarce equalling
The jcaloosy of being dispossess'd by others. the life of an idiot may not ruin the entail of
Her face is like the milky way i'th' sky, a noble house, and his weakness may not frus- A meeting of genue lights withoat name!' trate the industry or capacity of the founder
Heav'n! shall this fresh ornament of the world, of his family. But when one of bright parts,
These precious love-lines, pites with other common thing: as we say, with his eyes open, and all meu's Amongst the wastes of time? what pity 'twere ! eyes upon bim destroys those purposes, there is no remedy. Folly and ignorance are punished!
When Milton makes Adam leaning on bış folly and guilt are tolerated! Mr. Locke has | arnı, beholding Eve, and lying in the coplem.
plation of her beauty, be describes the utmost No.41.] Thursday, July 14, 1709. tenderness and guardian affection in one word:
Celebrare domestica facta.
To celebrate doin estic deeds,
White's Chocolate-house, July 12.
There is no one thing more to be lamented more generous tban friendship itself ; for it in our nation, than their general affectation of has a constant care of the object beloved, ab- every thing that is foreign : nay, we carry it so stracted from its own interests in the possession far, that we are more anxious for our own of it.'
countrymen wheu they have crossed the seas, Sappho was proceeding on the subject, when than when we see them in the same dangerous my sister produced a letter sent to her in the condition before our eyes at home: else how time of my absence, in celebration of the mar. is it possible, that on the twenty-ninth of the riage state, which is the condition wherein last month, there should have been a battle only this sort of passion reigns in full authority. fought in our very streets of London, and noThe epistle is as follows :
body at this end of the town bave heard of it ?
I protest, I, who make it my business to enDEAR MADAM,
quire after adventures, should never have known Your brother being absent, I dare take the this bad not the following account been sent liberty of writing to you my thoughts of that
me inclosed in a letter. This, it seems, is the state, which our whole sex either is, or desires way of giving out orders in the Artillery-comto be in. You will easily guess I mean matri- pany; and they prepare for a day of action mony, which I hear so much decried, that it with so little concern, as only to call it, 'An
exercise of arms.' was with no small labour I maintained
my ground against two opponents; but as your
* An Exercise at Arms of the Artillery-combrother observed of Socrates, I drew them into my conclusion, from their own concessions ;
pany, to be performed on Weduesday, thus :
June the twenty-ninth, 1709, under the
command of Sir Joseph Woolfe, Knight • lo marriage are two happy things allow'd,
and Alderman, General ; Charles Hopson, A wife in wedding-sheets, and in a shroud.
Esquire, present Sheriff, Lieutenant-gene-
ral ; Captain Richard Synge, Major ; Ma
jor John Shorey, Captain of Grenadiers *If you think they were too easily confuted, Captain William Grayhurst, Captain John you may conclude them not of the first sense, Butler, Captain Robert Carellis, Captains. by their talking against marriage. Yours,
'The body marched from the Artillery
ground, through Moorgate, Coleman-street, I observed Sappho began to redden at this Lothbury, Broad-street, Finch-lane, Cornbill, epistle; and turning to a lady, who was playing Cheapside, St. Martin's, St. Anne's-lane, halt with a dog she was so fond of as to carry him the pikes under the wall in Noble-street, draw abroad with her ; ‘Nay,' says she, 'I cannot up the firelocks facing the Goldsmiths’-ball, blame the men if they have mean ideas of our make ready and face to the left, and fire, and so souls and affections, and wonder so many are ditto three times. Beat to arms,and march round brought to take us for companions for life, the hall, as up Lad-lane, Gutter-lane, Honeywhen they see our endearments so triflingly lane, and so wheel to the right, and make your placed: for, to my knowledge, Mr. Truman salute to my lord, and so down St. Anne's-lane, would give half bis estate for half the affection up Aldersgate-street, Barbican, and draw up in you have shown to that Shock: nor do I be Red-cross-street, the right of St. Paul's-alley lieve you would be ashamed to confess, that I in the rear. March off lieutenant-general with saw you cry, when he had the colic last week balf the body up Beech-lane : he sends a subwith lapping sour milk. What more could you division up King's-bearl-court, and takes post do for your lover bimself?' 'What more !'' re- in it, and marches two divisions round into. plied the lady, “There is not a man in Eng. Red-lion-market, to defend that pass, and sucland for whom I could lament balf so much.' cour the division in King's-head-court ; but Then she stified the animal with kisses, and keeps in White-cross-street, facing Beech-lane, called bim beau, life, dear, monsieur, pretty the rest of the body ready drawn up. Then fellow, and what not, in the hurry of her im- the general marches up Beecb-lane, is attacked, pertinence. Sappho rose up; as she always but forces the division in the court into the does at any thing sbe observes done which dis market, and enters with three divisions while covers in her own sex a levity of mind that ren- he presses the lieutenant-general's main body; ders them inconsiderable in the opinion of ours. I and at the same time the three divisions force