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chiefly attributable to this cause. The Russian army was without supplies, although there were abundant supplies in the hands of the government.

THE END OF THE CZARS This treason was fatal to the dynasty, which was not unreasonably held responsible for it. The people were incensed, and, of course, the army was too. In consequence the army, instead of supporting the throne against the people, as thitherto, became itself the leader in revolutionary aspirations, and manifested a readiness to join with the people in overthrowing a dynasty which was the tool of alien foes. In March, 1917, came the end. There was a wholesale uprising of the people against the Czar. Some violence and loss of life occurred, but the troops in general mutinied and fraternized with the people. The Czar and his family were taken as prisoners of state, and the abdication of Nicholas II in behalf of his brother was exacted. After brief consideration, that brother declined to accept the crown unless he should be elected Czar by the free votes of the Russian people.

A few days later the leaders of the Duma, who were in control of the government, decided not to retain the monarchy, but to organize a republican form of government, and to remove from office all members of the Romanoff or Holstein-Gottorp family, even including the Grand Duke Nicholas who had been so efficient and loyal a leader of the Russian army. Czarism had partially betrayed Russia, and Russia was done with Czarism and with all in any way connected with it. The Russian Empire was ended; the Russian Republic was begun.



· France and Her Vital Interests in the War - Germany's Former Attempts to Destroy Her and then to Woo Her as an Ally - The Russian Alliance - The Entente Cordiale between France and Great Britain — Practically a Triple Entente - Belgium as a Neutral State - Animosity between Great Britain and Germany Why Great Britain was Compelled to Enter the War - Japan Drawn into Alliance with Her Former Foe - Italy's Anomalous Position in the Triple Alliance — Her Reason for Withdrawing from It and for Entering the War against Her Former Allies - Portugal an Old Ally of Great Britain.

THERE ARE no such things as traditional friends or traditional foes among the nations of the world. That fact is writ clear and large in the alignment of the powers in the great war. There are among the important European belligerents scarcely two enemies which were not formerly allies, and scarcely two allies which were not formerly foes. Observe:

Great Britain and Germany, or in the last analysis England and Prussia, are the bitterest of all foes. Yet never before were they at war with each other, but in the last preceding general European war, which ended at Waterloo, they were allies. Russia and Germany are foes; yet never before did they fight each other, but more than once were allies. Italy is at war with Germany, but it is for the first time, and Prussia was practically Italy's ally in 1866 and 1870.

Great Britain and France are allies; yet they have hitherto fought each other more than any other two powers of Europe. They are both allies of Russia, yet they both fought Russia in the Crimea. Russia and Japan are


Copyright by Underwood and Underwood, N. Y.

FRENCH SOLDIERS MARCHING TO THE MOBILIZAtion Point France flamed with excitement when the news of the German invasion came. The troops, ready and anxious for war, proceeded smoothly and swiftly to their concentration points, blazing with zeal to repel the invaders and recover the territory lost to France in the Franco-Prussian War.

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THE HARBOR AT CHARLOTTE AMALIE This beautiful and safe harbor is the chief port of the island of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. In early days it was a famous resort of the buccaneers who infested the Spanish Main. The purchase of these strategic islands from Denmark by the United States in 1917 was a protective measure.


allies; yet only a few years ago they were foes in a mighty war. Germany and Austria are allies; but they were foes in 1866.

GERMANY'S DRIVE AT FRANCE Of all the warring powers, France had at the beginning perhaps the most vital interest in the war. It was to her a matter of life or death. The ancient quarrel, dating from the time of Charlemagne's sons, between her and Germany, was revived in 1870 by Germany on the strength of a falsified dispatch, deliberately falsified by Otto von Bismarck in order to drag France into war. As a result of that war France was robbed of two provinces and of a cash indemnity so vast that it was supposed she would be unable to pay it, or that in paying it she would be hopelessly impoverished and ruined. To the chagrin of Germany, she paid it promptly and regained more than her old prosperity; whereupon a few years later Germany sought to force another war upon her with the confessed intention of "bleeding her white.” The diplomatic intervention of Great Britain balked this scheme of Germany's, and thus planted the seeds of that hatred of Great Britain which Germany has ever since cherished. Then Germany devoted herself to the incitement of enmity between France and Great Britain and also to efforts to induce France to join her in war against the "modern Carthage," as German statesmen called the United Kingdom.

France spurned these German overtures, and instead entered at first into an entente and then into a complete alliance with Russia. Under the diplomatic influence of Edward VII of England the irritation and estrangement which had for some time existed between France and Great Britain, largely through German marplotry, were

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