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better, but, on the contrary, the heads of the force were promoted.
The coffins containing the bodies of the Archduke and his wife were brought to Trieste by sea, handled as so much freight. When they were being unloaded from the steamer the sailors let one of them drop upon the quay, and let it lie there until they had got rested from carrying it. The funeral was conducted in third-class style, with not even sufficient candles for the chapel ardente. At Arstatten a violent storm drove the funeral party to shelter in a tavern, where most of the party got drunk. There were tales in Vienna of the coffins being placed on chairs and then tumbled off upon the floor. On the whole, the late heir to the throne was buried with less respect than would have been shown to some hired lackey of the court. All of which gives poignancy to the fearful speculation, Who murdered the Archduke?
AUSTRIA'S DEMANDS UPON SERBIA Following the tragedy at Sarajevo diplomatic communications were conducted between the Austro-Hungarian and Serbian governments, the latter earnestly striving to ameliorate the situation and to reach an amicable settlement, but the former almost undisguisedly seeking to force an open quarrel. At the same time intercourse between Vienna and Berlin was such as to indicate that the policy of the Austrian Government was being dictated by the German.
Finally, at six o'clock on the evening of July 23d, Austria presented an ultimatum to Serbia, an answer to which was required within forty-eight hours, or before six o'clock on the evening of July 25th. This contained eleven categorical demands, which with the Serbian replies may be summarized as follows:
SERBIA'S REPLIES 1. That the Serbian Government give formal assurance of its condemnation of Serb propaganda against Austria. To this Serbia unhesitatingly assented.
2. That a declaration to this effect be published in the next Sunday's issue of the Serbian “Official Journal.” To this Serbia also assented.
3. That this declaration express regret that Serbian officers had participated in the propaganda. To this Serbia assented, despite the fact that no proof of such participation was offered.
4. That the Serbian Government promise to proceed rigorously against all guilty of such machinations. To this Serbia assented.
5. That this declaration be at once communicated by the King of Serbia to his army and published in the official bulletin as an order of the day. To this Serbia assented.
6. That all anti-Austrian publications in Serbia be suppressed. To this Serbia assented.
7. That the Serbian political party known as the National Union be suppressed and its means of propaganda be confiscated. To this, too, Serbia assented.
8. That all anti-Austrian teaching in Serbian schools be suppressed. To this Serbia assented.
THREE EXTRAORDINARY DEMANDS 9. That all officers, civil and military, who might be designated by Austria as guilty of anti-Austrian propaganda, be dismissed by the Serbian Government. Extraordinary as was this demand, for Austrian proscription of Serbian officials, so eager was the Serbian Government for peace and friendship that it assented to it; merely stipulating
that the Austrian Government should offer some proof of the guilt of the proscribed officers.
10. That Austrian agents should be permitted to enter Serbia to co-operate with the Serbian Government in suppressing all anti-Austrian propaganda, and to take part in the judicial proceedings conducted in Serbia against those charged with complicity in the crime at Sarajevo. This astounding demand, which was in effect that Austrian agents should control the police and courts of Serbia, it was impossible for Serbia to accept without abrogating her sovereignty. She did not, however, unconditionally reject it, but asked that it be the subject of further discussion, or be referred to arbitration.
11. That Serbia explain to Austria the meaning of antiAustrian utterances of Serbian officials at home and abroad, since the crime of Sarajevo. This was assented to, on condition that if the explanations given were not satisfactory, the matter be submitted to mediation or arbitration.
GERMANY DICTATES REJECTION Thus Serbia granted ten of Austria's demands, and did not altogether reject the eleventh, although it was obvious that its acceptance would mean the end of Serbian liberty and independence. It is probable that the Austrian Government, left to itself, would have accepted the replies, or at any rate would have continued diplomatic negotiations. It must have done so, had it been sincere in its profession of desire merely to obtain reparation for the tragedy.
But the German Emperor apparently deemed the moment fitting for the launching of a long contemplated war of conquest against the rest of Europe. His army, navy and entire empire were in a state of the most perfect readiness for instant action, while not one of his potential antagonists was in even the usual condition of preparedness. And his will was scarcely less supreme at Vienna than at Berlin. Therefore the Austrian Government summarily rejected the Serbian replies as wholly unsatisfactory, and the Austrian minister quitted Belgrade.
EFFORTS TO KEEP THE PEACE That was on the evening of July 25th. Instantly the news was flashed over the world, and various governments interested themselves in efforts to prevent this breach of relations from leading to war. Russia intimated that she could not with indifference see Serbia oppressed. Great Britain urged that Germany, France, Italy and Great Britain hold a conference for mediation or arbitration. This was exactly in accord with the policy to which all the powers had pledged themselves in the treaty of The Hague. It was an eminently fair proposal, since it excluded Russia and Austria-Hungary, as prejudiced parties, and included only four powers which might reasonably be supposed to be impartial. If they had any predilections, Germany and Italy were Austria's partners in the Triple Alliance, while Great Britain and France were Russia's friends in the Triple Entente. The proposal was promptly accepted by France and Italy, but was summarily rejected by Germany.
That was on July 27th. The next day Austria-Hungary declared war against Serbia Russia declared that, on the day on which Austrian troops invaded Serbia, there would be a mobilization of Russian troops, in order to prepare for further contingencies. Thereupon Germany took the initiative and the aggressive. She proclaimed that she would not permit any interference by anybody between Austria and Serbia, but that Austria must be left free to work her will, whatever it might be, upon her little neighbor. She ordered Russia to stop mobilization proceedings and to dismiss whatever troops had already been mobilized; and she demanded of France an immediate and categorical statement of what that country would do in case of a war between Germany and Russia.
More arbitrary and insolent utterances were probably never made by any power. They were obviously intended to mean either universal European subjection to Prussian autocracy, or war. In fact they meant war.
FALSEHOODS AND SCRAPS OF PAPER Germany declared war upon Russia on August 1st, because Russia would not refrain from mobilizing her army at Germany's demand. Austria meantime three days before had bombarded the Serbian capital. On August 2d German troops invaded Luxembourg and Belgium, thus regarding as "scraps of paper” Germany's solemn treaty pledges to respect and to defend the inviolability of those neutral states. At the same time German troops violated the French frontier, without any declaration of war.
The next day Germany declared that France had begun war against her, by sending hostile aeroplanes across the frontier to bombard German towns and railroads. It has since been officially acknowledged in Germany that these charges against France had no foundation in fact; so that war was really declared by Germany against France on the basis of a German falsehood.
BELGIUM'S APPEAL ANSWERED The Belgian Government made appeal to Great Britain, as one of the guarantors of Belgian neutrality, for pro