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MERCHANT VESSELS DESTROYED In the early part of the war enormous ravages were caused in both the mercantile and military fleets, chiefly by submarines and by cruisers. Several German cruisers for a long time evaded the pursuit of British ships, and cruised about the world destroying many British vessels. But by far the greater part of the destruction on both sides was done by submarines. The losses of the various countries, belligerent and neutral, in the first seventeen months of the war, were as follows:

No. of

British Empire.....
United States.....

Tonnage. 1,192,551

161,888 103,023 125,978 33,293 32,667 36,843 34,193 60,217 18,150 12,211 13,240

5,223 16,015 18,424 14,087

Nearly half of the British ships were fishing smacks, trawlers and other small craft of from 100 to 300 tons. There were, however, fifty merchant steamers of more than 5,000 tons each. The German losses were at first chiefly inflicted by British cruisers which were ranging the seas in quest of the German raiders, but later they were caused by submarines. The heavy losses of Norway were caused chiefly by mines in the North Sea. The American losses in that stage of the war were caused by mines, with the exception of one vessel, the William P. Frye, which was destroyed by a German cruiser under the pretence that she was carrying contraband.

HEAVY NAVAL LOSSES The naval losses were heavy on both sides, and were pretty evenly balanced between Great Britain and Germany, down to the beginning of the year 1917. Only one important sea battle had been fought, and two or three minor engagements, and the losses were therefore inflicted chiefly by mines and torpedoes discharged by submarines. Down to the date named Great Britain lost 9 battleships; 3 battle cruisers, all of which were in the battle of Jutland; 12 armored cruisers; 7 light cruisers; 2 torpedo gunboats; 17 destroyers; 4 torpedo boats; 12 submarines; and 3 mine sweepers.

During the same period Germany lost 4 battleships, all dreadnoughts and all, in the battle of Jutland; 3 battle cruisers, of which two were in that same battle; 1 pre-dreadnought, also in that battle; 6 armored cruisers; 20 light cruisers; 1 unprotected cruiser; 4 gunboats; 13 (probably many more) destroyers; 1 mine-layer; and a large number of submarines.

Thus the British lost 69 vessels of all types, and Germany lost 53, besides an unknown number of submarines and probably some more destroyers. The British vessels lost, omitting submarines, mine-sweepers, etc., aggregated 381,105 tons. The known German losses, omitting submarines and an unknown number of destroyers, aggregated 331,336 tons. The German losses were therefore nearly equal to DESTRUCTION OF THE SEA-RAIDER “EMDEN" The Australian cruiser “Sydney" came up with the German cruiser “Emden” off the Cocos Keeling Isiand on November 9, 1914. After the “Sydney” had fired six hundred rounds of ammunition and covered fifty-six miles in maneuvering, she forced the "Emden” to run ashore owing to the breaking of her steering gear. The German vessel ran at a speed of nineteen knots upon the beach, the shock killing the man at the wheel. (From a direct camera picture taken on board the "Sydney.")

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Courtesy of Joseph A. Steinmetz, Phila.

RAMMING A SUBMARINE A merchant vessel, attacked by a submarine, sometimes can ram and sink her enemy before the fatal torpedo is fired home. The artist has revealed the result.

the British in actual tonnage, and were much greater than the British in proportion to the entire navy.

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GERMAN CRUISER RAIDS A few German war vessels at the beginning of the war were unable to gain shelter with the rest of the navy at the Kiel Canal. The Goeben, a powerful battle cruiser, and the Breslau, a smaller cruiser, were in the Mediterranean, 16 AT 108 and fled to Constantinople, Nischallte where they were purchased

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pusmeia Emsohnung die KIBL. at Cocos Island by an Australian cruiser. Another, the Königsberg, also in the Pacific, destroyed a dozen ships and then was caught hiding in the mouth of a river in East Africa. A third, the Karlsruhe, made a long and destructive raid in the Atlantic.

Other daring and destructive raiders were the Moewe, the Prinz Eitel Friedrich, and Kronprinz Wilhelm, the last two of which ultimately sought refuge and were interned at Newport News, Va., while the first-named returned in safety to a home port. The only submarine raider to cross the Atlantic paid an unexpected and friendly visit

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