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This object has become more and more important with
the changes in armament which have enabled fighting to
be done efficiently at long range.

When the combat was
C.

hand to hand, with
M.C.

sword or battle-axe,
the color of armor or
dress mattered little.

When the rifleman
PROFILE OF A HILL
m, c is the “military crest,” though c is higher can kill his foe at a

distance of two miles
or more, it does matter
much. So it has come

to pass that cryptic
GUN PIT ON CREST OF A HILL

coloring of uniforms is
one of the very latest
developments of mili-
tary science.

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NO MORE“ ARMY BLUE"

At the present time the American army wears as a service uniform cloth of an olivedrab hue, which is commonly called “khaki” though it is really

not of that peculiar SIMPLE TYPE OF HASTY GUN PIT

color, but is much

lighter than it. Khaki, which was adopted as the service color of the British army in and after the Boer War, had a peculiar origin.

peculiar origin. The word is the name of a Hindoo sect of Vishnuites, founded by Kil, a disciple of Krishna Das, has reference to the practice

of those religionists of sprinkling their clothing and their faces with the ashes of dried and burned cowdung. The color of those unsavory ashes is “khaki.” It is interesting to observe that while it is of Indian origin, uniforms of that color are not worn by the native Indian army, unless in some regiments of the British contingent; but the strong and showy colors of the old style dress are adhered to. This is doubtless in large part because of an unwillingness of the other sects and creeds thus to identify or associate themselves with the Khaki sect.

GERMAN AND FRENCH CONTRAST In Germany, as we have seen, the spectroscope and all manner of scientific devices have been brought into use to ascertain precisely what combination of tints conforms most perfectly to the general hue of the average landscape. Never was so much attention paid to the analysis of the spectrum of comet or star as to this problem in military cryptic coloring. Most other armies have approximated to the same system. Russia has an inconspicuous greengray service uniform, and Italy one of a neutral bluish gray. France alone ignores the scheme and sticks defiantly to the blue tunic and red trousers of her former wars. Whether in so doing she has placed herself at a disadvantage in this war remains to be declared. Nothing to that effect has yet been heard. And of course it will not escape remembrance that in the animal world there are, both in aggression and in defense, some noteworthy exceptions to the rule of cryptic coloring

CHAPTER XXV

WOMEN AND WAR WORK

Historical Examples of Women in War - Unexampled Interest of Women in the Present Struggle - Women's Work for Relief of Suffering and for National Preparedness — Employment in Various Industries — The Scarcity of Food Enormous Increase of Exports and Diminution of Supplies - Proposals for Relief — Conservation and Increased Production the Natural Methods — The Work of Housewives for the Saving of Food - A Notable Example - The President's Proclamation to the People - Garden Work and Kitchen Economy Urged Notable Response by the Women of America to the Call of Duty.

“THE FEMALE of the species," wrote Kipling, "is more deadly than the male." In poetic fashion he proved his point, and with him both nature and history measurably agree. We are not without striking examples of the efficient heroism of women in warfare, even in actual conflict on the field of battle. The fancies of Spenser and Ariosto have justification in the facts of Boadicea and Zenobia and Jeanne d'Arc. Even in our own age we have the plain but inspiring record of "Sergeant Molly" Pitcher, and we know that in the Balkan War of 1912 hundreds of Macedonian women marched and fought in the ranks by the side of their brothers and husbands.

It would have been by no means surprising if the present war had at an early date summoned to service & whole army of vengeful Amazons, for surely never was there one which so unspeakably outraged womanhood in all its capacities. The truthful tale of German ravishings, tortures, mutilations and murders of women in Belgium and

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WOMEN AT WORK THAT MEN Might FIGHT A busy scene in one of the munition workshops. The women in the foreground are testing shells for accuracy of size and

those in the background are turning the shells on engine lathes.

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MAKING ARMOR PLATE View of the armor plate machine shop at the Bethlehem Steel Company. The varied and complex machining required on armor plate demands tools of enormous size and strength as well as varied purpose. In this shop the different groups of armor are assembled in the position they will occupy on the vessel for which they are intended, and inspected before shipment.

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