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1855, and at the outbreak of the Civil War the army had a line strength of 12,931 officers and men, and a total in all departments of 16,367.
The greatest increase of the regular army in the Civil War was on January 1, 1863, when the total number was 25,463. There was a gradual decline until at the end of the war the number was 21,669. In August, 1876, Congress fixed its maximum strength at 25,000 enlisted men. On January 1, 1893, it contained 28,502 officers and men. At the beginning of the European war, in the summer of 1914, it consisted of 4,701 officers and 87,781 men. Deducting the quartermaster and hospital corps, the coast artillery, practically stationary in coast defense works, and some others, there remained a mobile army, for field work, of 2,935 officers and 51,446 men. In the navy there were 52,667 enlisted men. The authorized strength of the army was considerably greater than the actual strength, many of the organizations being below their full strength.
ARMY DEPARTMENTS AND OFFICERS For many years before our war with Germany the Continental United States had been divided into four military departments, the Eastern, Central, Southern and Western, with headquarters respectively at New York, Chicago, Fort Sam Houston (Texas), and San Francisco. But in March, 1917, just on the verge of our entry into war, the President ordered the division of the Eastern Department into three, known as the Eastern, Northeastern and Southeastern, with headquarters respectively at New York, Boston and Charleston, S. C., thus making six in all.
At that time the army was under the command of the following general officers, the dates affixed to their names being those on which they were promoted to their respective ranks:
.......Aug. 8, 1903
........Jan. 3, 1907 Barry, Thomas H..
...... April 29, 1908 Funston, Frederick...
..Nov. 17, 1914 Scott, Hugh L......
. April 30, 1915 Bliss, Tasker H.....
......Nov. 20, 1915 Pershing, John J..
.Sept. 25, 1916
...... Feb. 12, 1913
...... Feb. 12, 1913 Davis, Thomas F...
...May 16, 1913 Bailey, Charles J...
.... Oct. 10, 1913 Bell, George, Jr.....
..July 17, 1914 Greene, Henry A...
....Nov. 19, 1914 Mann, William A.....
.Jan. 20, 1915 Strong, Frederick S...
..May 4, 1915 Hodges, Harry F........
..Mar. 4, 1915 Morrison, John F........
.Nov. 20, 1915 Plummer, Edward H..
......July 1, 1916 Townsley, Clarence P.
.July 1, 1916 Morton, Charles G....
......July 14, 1916
July 20, 1916
..Mar. 4, 1916
. Sept. 29, 1916 French, Francis H......
.Sept. 30, 1916 Greble, Edwin St. J...
.Oct. 13, 1916 Treat, Charles G...
....Oct. 18, 1916
The General Staff Corps comprised a large number of colonels, lieutenant-colonels, majors and captains, and the following general officers; the dates given being those of their appointments to the corps:
MAJOR-GENERAL, CHIEF OF STAFF
......... Nov. 17, 1914
.....Mar. 15, 1911
The adjutant-general, with rank of brigadier-general, was Henry P. McCain; the inspector-general, with rank of brigadier-general, was John L. Chamberlain; the judge advocategeneral, with rank of brigadier-general, was Enoch H. Crowder; the quartermaster-general, with rank of major-general, was Henry G. Sharpe; the surgeon-general, with rank of major-general, was William C. Gorgas; the chief of engineers, with rank of brigadier-general, was William M. Black; the chief of ordnance, with rank of brigadier-general, was William Crozier; the chief signal officer, with rank of brigadiergeneral, was George O. Squier; and the chief of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, with rank of brigadier-general, was Frank McIntyre.
OUR MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT Under the Constitution of the United States the President is the commander-in-chief of the army. The immediate direction of the War Department is vested in a secretary of war, the second member of the Cabinet, who is responsible solely to the President. Under him is an assistant secretary, who takes his place in his absence. In the absence of both the secretary and the assistant, the functions of the place are assumed by the chief of staff for not more than thirty days, by direction of the President
The General Staff was created by Act of Congress in February, 1903, on the recommendation of Elihu Root, then
secretary of war. It is the expert military advisory board to the President and the Secretary of War. Its members are employed in the study of military problems, the preparation of plans for the national defense, the utilization of the various army organizations in time of war, etc. It is ultimately, by July 1, 1920, to consist of fifty-five officers.
VARIOUS ARMY DEPARTMENTS The Adjutant-General's Department is the medium through which all orders of the War Department are issued, and all regulations for the control of the army; in which all records are kept; and through which all correspondence is conducted.
The Inspector-General's Department is charged with the careful inspection of all parts of the army, the Military Academy, hospitals, transports, cemeteries, and in fact every detail of the entire military establishment, and of reporting upon their condition and making recommendations for their maintenance and improvement.
The Judge Advocate-General's Department is the law bureau of the military establishment, and has custody and supervision of the records of all general courts-martial, courts of inquiry and military commissions, and also of the titles of land held by the War Department.
The Quartermaster-General's Department has charge of all barracks, storehouses and other buildings; ships, railroads and transportation generally; horses, mules, wagons, etc.; clothing and camp and garrison equipment; food and forage; and the distribution of funds for payment of the army.
The Surgeon-General's Department is the medical corps of the army, having charge of sanitation, hospitals, transportation and care of the sick and wounded, etc. Its members are unarmed, and are protected from harm by international agreement.
The Engineering Corps is charged with surveying sites for camps and fortifications and the construction of defensive works, the laying out and making of roads, the erection of buildings, bridges, piers, etc., and river and harbor improvements.
The Ordnance Department has the task of providing all the munitions of war, from pistols and rifles to the largest cannon, tools, machinery, harness and other equipments. It also provides the small arms for the Navy Department. It has, of course, charge of the arsenals.
The Signal Corps, under the chief signal officer, constructs, maintains and operates all telegraph and cable lines, telephones, radiographic plants, heliographs, and all other means of communication.
The Bureau of Insular Affairs has jurisdiction over Porto Rico and the Philippines.
INFANTRY ORGANIZATION The great body of an army consists of infantry. In the United States army an infantry regiment is composed as follows, when its ranks are full:
One colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 4 medical officers, and 1 chaplain; a headquarters company, including the band, color sergeants, etc., numbering 59; a machine gun company, of 57; a supply company, comprising wagoners, numbering 39; and three battalions of four companies each. The battalions are numbered first, second and third. The companies are designated by the letters of the alphabet, A, B, C and D companies being in the first, E, F, G and H in the second, and I, K, L and M in the third battalion. Each company has a captain, first lieutenant, second lieu