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11.30

8

THIS DIAGRAM, DRAWN TO SCALE, SHOWS THE LENGTH OF (ROAD OCCUPIED BY THE VARIOUS UNITS OF A DIVISION OF 20,000 MEN ON THE MARCH IN THE PRESENCE OF THE ENEMY

battalion, 4 companies, major; regiment, 3 battalions, colonel; brigade, 3 regiments, brigadier-general; division, 3 brigades, major-general; army corps, 2 or more divisions, lieutenant-general; army, 2 or more army corps, general.

CAVALRY ORGANIZATION A cavalry regiment has a colonel, lieutenant-colonel, chaplain, 4 medical officers and 2 veterinarians; a headquarters troop of 55, raised to 86 in war; a machine gun troop of 74, raised to 95 in war; a supply troop of 50, raised to 54 in war; and three squadrons of four troops each, the squadrons and troops being designated by numbers and letters corresponding with those of battalions and companies of infantry. Each squadron is commanded by a major and each troop by a captain. Each troop comprises 73 officers and men, increased to 108 in war.

Thus the peace strength of a cavalry regiment when its ranks are full is 1,070 and its war strength 1,546 officers and

men.

THE ARTILLERY SERVICE The field artillery includes mountain, light, horse and heavy artillery. Each regiment consists of six batteries, with guns or howitzers all of the same or of different calibers. The standard heavy field artillery of our army consists of 4.7-inch guns and 6-inch howitzers. We have no monster siege howitzers such as Germany has been so effectively using. The light artillery uses 3-inch guns and 3.8-inch howitzers. Larger pieces have been designed and are in course of manufacture.

The coast artillery has both fixed and movable batteries, using guns of from 3 to 12 inches and mortars of 12 inches caliber. Guns of 14 and 16 inches have been designed, and a few made. The permanent fortifications at the principal ports comprise direct fire rifles, largely mounted on disappearing carriages; mortars for high angle fire; and submarine mines for under water attack upon hostile vessels.

THE MILITIA

The militia consists of all the able-bodied male citizens of the nation between the ages of eighteen and forty-five. That was the purport of the first militia law enacted by Congress, in 1792, which required every such citizen to be enrolled, and to be provided at his own expense with arms, ammunition, uniform and other essential equipment. This law was never properly enforced, and soon fell into desuetude, and the term "militia" came to be applied solely to those members of the militia who organized themselves into regiments, technically known as the National Guard. Each state had its own national guard system, its governor being commander-in-chief, and these troops were used principally for suppressing serious riots, etc., within their respective states.

An act of Congress in June, 1916, provided for a radical increase and reorganization of this organized militia. It was to be increased in numbers from about 110,000 to 425,000, and was to be "federalized” as a part of the land forces of the nation. It was placed under the jurisdiction of the Militia Bureau of the War Department; and while in ordinary times it was to remain as before under the command of the state governors, as state troops, when drafted into the federal service, as it might be at any time, it was to lose entirely its character as state troops and pass entirely under the direction of the War Department, for use not only in other states than those to which it belonged but also, if desired, in foreign lands.

OUR MILITARY SCHOOLS The military establishment of the United States comprises an elaborate educational system. There is the Military Academy, at West Point, which as a school of engineering and science ranks among the best colleges in the world. There are at all military posts schools for the general instruction of enlisted men, and schools for the instruction of the officers in matters appertaining to their duties. Then there are nearly a score of service schools of different kinds, including the Army War College, the Army Staff College, the Coast Artillery School, the Engineer School, the Mounted Service School, the Army Medical School, the Army Signal School, the Army School of the Line, the School for Bakers and Cooks, the Army Field Engineer School, the School of Fire for Field Artillery, the School of Musketry, and the Signal Corps Aviation School.

In addition to these, there are numerous colleges and preparatory schools throughout the country to which army officers are detailed as military instructors.

CAMPS OF INSTRUCTION A system of camps for training and instruction was established in 1913, through the efforts of General Leonard Wood, for the benefit of college students and other civilians who wished to become practically familiar with military affairs. A little later that year a number of college presidents and camp students formed the Society of the National Reserve Corps, to promote the system of universal military training. As a result several camps of instruction were established, the most notable being that for business men at Plattsburgh, N. Y

Nor were the women backward. A National Service School, attended by hundreds of young women, was NAVY ORGANIZATION opened at Chevy Chase, near Washington, D. C., and the next year this was imitated in various other places.

Immediately after the declaration of war with Germany, a bill was introduced into Congress for the establishment of more than a dozen camps in various parts of the country for the instruction and training of officers for the army of 500,000 men which it was purposed to create.

THE AMERICAN NAVY The navy of the United States was established by the Continental Congress in 1775, as a means of protecting the coasts of the insurgent colonies from the ravages of British cruisers. Its first commander-in-chief was Esek Hopkins, but its chief founder was John Paul Jones. Its history down to recent years presents a record of discouragement and neglect, illuminated with many splendid deeds achieved not because of but in spite of the naval policy of the government.

Elsewhere in this volume is given an account of the present strength of the navy. The bulk of it is divided into three active fleets, each under a commander-in-chief with the nominal rank of admiral but the real rank of rear-admiral. One is the Atlantic Fleet, whose field of operations comprises the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and other tributary waters. Another is the Pacific Fleet, which guards the western coasts of North, Central and South America, Alaska, Hawaii and Samoa. The third is the Asiatic Fleet, which serves in the western part of the Pacific Ocean, the China Seas, the Indian Ocean and the East Indies.

FLEET ORGANIZATION Ships of the navy which are in commission are divided among three classes or conditions. Those in full commission

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