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rival. Jefferson resigned his office December 31, 1793, and retired to Monticello.
At the close of Washington's administration, Jefferson was, as has been said, nominated for the presidency by the Republicans, against John Adams, nominated by the Federalists. At the election Adams got the largest number of votes, and was declared President, and Jefferson, coming next, was, according to the then existing rule, the VicePresident. Accordingly he became President of the United States Senate. The administration was very stormy in consequence of disputes with France and other delicate and difficult questions. At the next general election, Jefferson and Adams were again candidates of their respective parties, and the Republicans were victorious, though casting an equal number of votes - seventy-three-for Jefferson and Aaron Burr. This threw the election into the House of Representatives, which, on the thirty-sixth ballot, declared Jefferson President and Burr Vice-President. They took their seats March 4, 1801, in Washington, to which the capital had, a short time previous, been removed. Jefferson and his principles had triumphed at last, and he carefully refrained from doing anything to diminish his great popularity. The Federalists were treated with consideration, and they rapidly dwindled until few of them were left, and those few were the reverse of aggressive. Dress and manners became far more simple; the pompous dignity and ceremony of Washington's epoch disappeared, to give place to extreme simplicity, to which the new Executive had always strenuously inclined. The government bought Louisiana, which had been ceded by Spain to France, for $15,000,000, and the advantage of the
purchase was great. Captains Lewis and Clark received instructions from Jefferson to explore the continent to the Pacific. Commodore Preble sustained the right of the nation in the Mediterranean against Morocco, and Decatur obliged Tripoli to sue for peace after a most gallant exploit. These events augmented the popularity of Jefferson's administration, and contributed greatly to his re-election. The year following he was obliged to arrest Burr on a charge of treason, and he was blamed by the Federalists for his apparent anxiety to procure his conviction. International questions about the loss of foreign trade, Napoleon's blockading European ports, and the right of search caused much commotion during the President's second term; but it was materially abated when he retired from office, and closed his political life. The next seventeen years he spent tranquilly at Monticello, looking after the interests of his large plantation, receiving his friends and admirers, and founding, near Charlottesville, the Central College, now known as the University of Virginia. Several years before his death, he became embarrassed by his exceeding generosity, especially in the way of indiscriminate hospitality. He breathed his last July 4th, in his eighty-fourth year, his mind and all his faculties remaining clear to the end.
No American, unless it be Washington, has exercised a greater or more endearing influence on his country and countrymen. He was an original thinker, a thorough reformer, and a genuine democrat. In theology, he was what is styled a deist; in politics, he was inimical to strong government, always maintaining that the world was governed in excess. He believed implicitly in State rights and the power and wisdom of the people. His life-long re
pugnance to Hamilton arose from the conviction that he favored a monarchy in the United States. Many of his political views were moderated as he grew older, but socially he was an uncompromising and unvarying democrat. He disrelished all titles of honor, objecting even to the common though meaningless "Mr.". While he never made a formal public speech, he was an expert politician, and a masterly manager of men and shaper of events. He regarded slavery as a positive evil, morally and politically, though he did not favor any change in the agricultural system of the southern States. He was a devoted husband, a tender father, a gentle master, and a warm-hearted friend. He was more than six feet high; he had a muscular, well-knit frame, a pleasant face with a fair ruddy complexion, light hazel eyes and reddish hair. His voice was agreeable, his conversation intellectual, fresh, and eloquent, and his companionship delightful. His reputation has not been impaired, but rather increased in the seventy years that have passed since his death, and he will always be honored as one of the ablest and noblest of the fathers of the Republic.
JAMES MADISON, JAMES MONROE, AND JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES.
Conciliatory Character of Madison's Administration — His Opin-
HE Madisons were among the first emigrants from
on the shores of Chesapeake Bay very soon after the settlement of Jamestown. James Madison, the fourth President, the son of Eleanor Conway and James Madison, of Orange county, Va., a prosperous planter of high standing, was born March 16, 1751, on the paternal estate, named Montpelier, and was the eldest of seven children. He was sent, after a preliminary education, to Princeton, N. J., where he was graduated at twenty, though he remained there another year to pursue a course of general reading