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other engagements of the Revolution, our forefathers had triumphed over the well-equipped English armies, with the very poorest firearms, and that even pikes and scythes had done good work in that glorious conflict. Should we be less patriotic than our brave ancestors? Should we hesitate at the very start of another struggle for liberty and union, for the best and freest government on the face of the earth, because we were not pleased with the pattern of our muskets or with the calibre of our rifles ?"

"I cannot," said McKinley, " at this late day recall his exact words, but I shall never forget his warmth of patriotic feeling and the sound sense with which he appealed to 11S. That was our first and last mutiny. We accepted the old-fashioned guns, took what was offered cheerfully, and Hayes held us captive from that hour."

The Twenty-third Ohio proved to be one of the famous regiments of the State and of the war. It was composed of a superior class of men, both in the ranks and among the officers. While many of them were young men, entirely unused to the hardships of war, their powers of endurance had nevertheless been developed by their open-air occupations, and they possessed besides an earnest devotion to the cause of the Union, and a strong will power which enabled them to endure with patience, and without grumbling, some of the hardest trials of the war.

Among the officers there were three at least who won distinction not only from active service in the war, but in civil life afterwards. The first colonel was W. S. Rosecrans, who became general a little later. The lieutenantcolonel was Stanley Matthews, afterwards a senator from Ohio and a justice of the Supreme Court of the United

States. The first major was Rutherford B. Hayes, who was promoted to the place of general for gallant service, and in civil life was three times elected governor of Ohio, and in 1876 became President of the United States. From the organization of the regiment to the time it was mustered out, there were in it 2,095 men; the number killed in battle was 169; and the number who died from disease through service was 107, the total loss being 276. Of the 2,095, there are, it is said, about 500 still living in the country. During the time when the regiment was organizing for an advance to the front, the Twenty-seventh Congress assembled in extra session, and President Lincoln sent his first message to Congress. The battle of Bull Run took place on the 21st of July. General McClellan was ordered to

A few

Washington on the 22d, and on the 23d General Rosecrans assumed command of the Department of the Ohio. days later the new Ohio regiment was ordered to Clarksburg, West Virginia. "From this point," says Whitelaw Reid in "Ohio in the War," "it operated against the numerous guerillas infesting the country in that quarter, performing many days and nights of excessively hard duty, marching and counter-marching over the rugged spurs of the Rich mountain range, and drenched by the almost continual rains of that season. Thus we find the boys who had left their peaceful occupations and happy homes but a few months previous, suddenly plunged into an actual service that put to a severe test both their fighting qualities and powers of endurance."

McKinley participated in all the early engagements in West Virginia with the Twenty-third and the Department of Ohio, under the command of General Rosecrans. The

first engagement was at Carnifex Ferry, on September 10, 1861. This was McKinley's first real taste of fighting with the rebels, and it was a victory, one of the rare ones that was recorded in those early days of the war. The effect of it was of far more consequence to the regiment than the battle itself to the war.

"It gave the boys," McKinley says, "confidence in themselves and faith in their commander. We learned that we could fight and whip the rebels on their own ground."

On October 24, 1861, Major Rutherford B. Hayes was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, taking the place of Stanley Matthews, who had just been appointed colonel of the Forty-first Ohio, and James M. Comly, who was distinguished in later years in civil life as editor of the Ohio State Journal, became the major.

After the engagement at Carnifex Ferry, the regiment went into winter quarters at Fayetteville, where it encountered some of the hardest experiences of the first year of its service. Heavy rains had been falling through that section, the regiment had been necessarily exposed to the cold and damp, and sickness became common. Some of the strongest of the brave young fellows who marched out of Poland, and of other places in Ohio, in that bright spring day, a few months before, succumbed, while others were rendered unfit for service. During all that winter, with the exception of some little skirmishes of no consequence, the troops did little except in the way of recruiting and of much needed drilling and discipline.



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Severe Trials in Winter Quarters - McKinley Promoted to be Commissary-Sergeant His Strict Attention to Duty Executive Ability Recognized by his Commanders - Eulogized by General Hayes and General Hastings The Breaking up of Camp Advance upon the Enemy A Brave Defense Cut off from Supplies - Hunger in Camp - A March of One Hundred Miles in Three Days under a Burning Sun - The Ride to Washington - A Hot Fight at South Mountain Three Desperate Bayonet Charges - McKinley's Own Account of the Battle which Enforced the Retirement of Lee The Eve of Antietam.


HE Twenty-third Ohio, in which McKinley enlisted, like many other regiments from other states, was composed of young, brave, and earnest men, ready to run into the face of the enemy, as their record had already shown, and as it was gloriously demonstrated afterward. But they were unused to war, they were raw, unacquainted with the tactics, and many of them awkward with their arms. Hard were the experiences of these young men, however. Reports of suffering in the army appeared in the papers regularly at that time. It is probable that they were exaggerated, for Hayes, who was in immediate command of McKinley's regiment, wrote home that he was satisfied

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