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especially all those who had come in possession of forfeited estates, their enemies.-Had they enabled the exiled princes and nobles, instead of acting a subordinate part on the frontier and rendering very small service to the common cause, to make a descent in Bretagne er Poitou, and to carry a large supply of ammunition and money to the Vendean revolters, who were now elated by victory, they would have made a powerful diversion in favour of the allied armies, and revived the hopes of the royalists in every part of the kingdom.* On the contrary, by that jealousy which they discovered towards the princes, to whom they were unwilling to give the merit of being the chief instruments in effecting a counter-revolution, they weakened the royal cause; by departing from their declaration, that they would not make conquests, they lost the merit of disinterestedness; and, whilst they reunited the discordant parties in France by the bond of common interest, they created a cause of disunion among themselves. And we shall have occasion to remark, in the progress of the war, the disastrous consequences arising from the self-interested projects which were suffered to supersede a regard for the common interests of the confederacy.

After the victory of Famars and the reduction of Conde and Valenciennes, it was expected that the allies would have pressed the enemy, whilst they were disheartened by these losses, and distressed by the want of a general in the place of Custine, who had been brought to the scaffold for treason, before the French armies had received further reinforcements, and when their own troops were flushed with victory. But, as it frequently happens in confederate armies, the precious moments which should have been employed in action were wasted in deliberations and debate. Cobourg and Clairfait advised that, availing themselves of the consternation occa1793

sioned * The count de Puisaye, after representing the situation and circumstances of Great Britain, and recommending her alliance to the French royalists, as the power which might be expected id embrace their cause with the most warmıh, and which had the greatest ability to be serviceable to it, and 10 adhere to it with constancy, proceeds to give his sentiments respecting the nature of the war. “Without doubt,” says he, “ an army in the interior provinces of France, assisted with a " fourth part of the sums expended in carrying on the continental war, supported by a part of the • fleets with which that power has covered the European seas, prepared, by the surrender of some “ ports, and by the possession of a vast extent of coast, to open communications which nothing 66 could interrupt, to afford succours, to receive instructions, and to make important communica“ tions at any hour of the day, would offer a more natural and more decisive resource, and, above " all, would give the royal cause a more essential importance in the eyes of other powers, than " the measures which have been adopted.”-Memoires du Comte de Puisaye. 2. 47.

sioned by the late disasters of the French armies and the insurrections in the provinces, they should penetrate with forty or fifty thousand light troops to the capital; whilst a descent should be made on the coast of Britagne, to co-operate with them and the revolters in the Vendée.-The British generals deemed this enterprise unwarrantably hazardous; and insisted on the expediency of invading French Flanders and besieging Dunkirk; the possession of which would relieve Great Britain from the annoyance of the privateers from that port, and would be of service to the allied armies during the war. The latter councils preponderating, the duke of York was detached with a strong body of English, Dutch, and Hanoverian troops to invest that fortress.—The consequence of this, with respect to the grand army, was, that, being weakened by this detachment, after driving the French from a strong position behind the Scheldt, it made an unsuccessful attempt on Cambray and Bouchain, and closed the campaign with the reduction of Quesnoy. ||

The duke of York and general Lake, in the mean-time, having defeated a detachment at Lincelles, on their route, invested Dunkirk; † whilst general Freytag covered the siege.-Had the English fleet under admiral Macbride, destined to co-operate in the enterprise, arrived in due time, and had not Omeron, the commandant of the fortress, who afterwards suffered as traitor, been removed before the siege commenced, it might have been successful. But the event was otherwise.—Macbride arrived too late. Freytag was attacked by Houchard who now commanded the French northern army, and, after an action supported with much bravery, was obliged to yield to the greatly superior force of his enemy. And the duke of York, after sustaining a great loss of men before the fortress, was obliged to raise the siege. Fortunately he was enabled to escape from his perilous situation by a neglect of duty in the French general, which brought him to the guillotine."

This was the era of that reverse of fortune which the allies experienced in the low countries. The failure of the enterprise against Dunkirk was rendered a more serious misfortune to the allies by the loss of such a train of artillery as could not be replaced; which were spiked to prevent them from becoming useful to the enemy:--The remains

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of the duke of York's army suffered extreme hardships in their retreat across the Netherlands.—The Austrians were driven from their strong position near Maubeuge by general Jourdain, || who had succeeded Honchard, and were obliged to repass the Sambre with great loss. - The French armies, then, which had received large reinforcements in consequence of the decree for rising in a mass, broke into Austrian Flanders, and possessed themselves of Furnes; t and would have proceeded to the reduction of Nieuport and Ostend, had not these fortresses been saved, and the enemy's career of conquest checked by the opportune arrival of sir Charles Grey at Ostend, with a strong body of troops, which had been destined to the West Indies.

The same vicissitude of fortune attended the armies on the Rhine. The allies, who were ably commanded by the duke of Brunswick and general Wurmser, gained several advantages over the enemy in the beginning of the campaign. After the recovery of Mentz, † the duke surrounded a body of 3000 men; and having obliged them to surrender, he laid siege to Landau : Whilst the Austrian general forced the strong lines of Lautre and reduced Lautrebourg, Weissembourg and Fort Louis. But here their successes terminated.—They were afterwards so much out-numbered by the armies which Pichegru and Koche brought against them, that all the firmness of the German soldiers and the excellent conduct of their veteran generals could not compensate that superiority of force which always enabled their enemy to turn their flanks. Wurmser, after repulsing them in repeated attacks with great slaughter, was constrained to retire towards Haguenau, and repass the Rhine in that quarter. ' And the duke of Brunswick, unable to reduce Landau, or to withstand alone the whole force of the enemy, retreated for winter quarters towards Mentz, much dissatisfied with the want of the egotism, the spirit of cabal and distrust, which, he said, had frustrated all the measures adopted by him in his two campaigns. “When a great “ nation, such as that of France,” said he, “ conducts itself by the térror of “ punishments and by enthusiasın, the combined powers ought to be guided " by one sentiment and one principle only: but if, instead of co-operating “ with this unanimity, each army acts separately, and without concerting

“ with October 15, 16.

+ October 22., • Ann. Reg. 274.


" with the others, without fixed plans, without concord and without prin" ciple, the consequences to be expected are such as we have seen at “ Dunkirk, at raising the siege of Maubeuge, at the capture of Lyons, at " the destruction of Toulon, and when we raised the siege of Landau.”

-Upon these grounds the duke requested his Prussian majesty to accept the resignation of his command with which he had honoured him.

The bold measure of rising in a mass was equally effectual in suppressing those internal revolts which the rage excited in the royalists by the king's execution, and an abhorrence of the tyranny and cruelty practised by the ruling faction, had given rise to.—The government was, by this mean, enabled to send Santerre with a strong reinforcement to the forces employed in the suppression of the Vendeans; a further account of whose operations will be given in the ensuing year.-During the long-protracted hostilities in this quarter, generals Kellerman and Doppet were sent with a strong army into the south, and laid siege to Lyons: where, after 2000 Lyonnese had fallen in the defence of the city, which was nearly demolished in the repeated assaults made on it, the citizens were constrained to surrender, † and became victims to the remorseless Collot d'Herbois's vengeance.*-General Carteux, in the mean-time, was employed in the reduction of the revolted Marseillois. And general Dagobert, appointed his successor on his removal to the command in Italy, after defeating general O'Hara in his vigorous efforts to keep possession of Toulon, forced lord Hood and Langara to abandon that port, I and put a great part of the inhabitants, who could not be taken on board the English ships, to the sword. Whilst the ruling powers were employing the enthusiastic energy excited

in + October 8.

I December 19. * Collot d'Herbois was one of the most active and relentless agents of the present sanguinary administration, which governed upon the principle of terror. Actuated by the same principle, Barrere, when the reduction of Lyons was reported in the convention, moved “ that the city be “ destroyed, and that a column be erected on the spot, with these words engraven on il--Lyons waged war against liberty; Lyons is no more.

It is referred to the Reader to determine whether the following lines would not have been more applicable.

Barbarus heu cineres insistet victor, et urbem

eques sonante verberabit ungula:
quæque carent ventis et solibus ossa Quirini,
(nefas videre) dissipabit insolens.----Hor. Epod. 16. 11.

| App. to Segur. 3. 250. 9 Segur. 3.78. Ann. Reg. 284. VOL. III.

3 B



1793 in the nation in opposing their foreign enemies and in the slaughter of their

revolted citizens, whilst they were exercising the most flagrant oppression in · the pursuit of more. perfect liberty; and destroying all religious principles,

and even all the bands of natural affection, that their partisans might devote themselves without restraint to the accomplishment of their designs, they countenanced the outrages committed by their troops and the baseness practised by their spies and emissaries, by acts of cruelty and tyranny more immediately their own.-At this period, Custine, Houchard, and other able generals who had signalized themselves in the cause of liberty before the present faction had gained an ascendency, were tried, condemned, and executed for treasonable practices. The same punishment was inflicted on Brissot and all the deputies of the Gironde party that could be apprehended. The same was inflicted on Bailly, mayor of Paris at the time of the first revolution, a man of distinguished talents and learning, who had done honour to his office by his probity and disinterestedness, and on madame Roland, as celebrated for her genius as for her virtue and patriotism ; whose only crime was a sincere attachment to the cause of liberty, the banners of which the present usurpers pretended to uphold. And, as if they were determined, if possible, to disgrace those whom nature had ennobled, these illustrious persons were brought to the block at the same time with the duk of Orleans, whose crimes had destined him to eternal infamy.

At this period also the afflictions of the unhappy Marie Antoinette were brought to an end; whose life appears to have been lengthened out only to add to her misery. That no circumstance might be wanting which could render her existence more wretched, she was conveyed from the temple to the conciergerie prison, ten weeks before her trial, and confined to a dungeon, eight feet square, where she had nothing but a hard straw bed to lie on. From this place she was brought before the revolutionary tribunal, t under various charges, importing endeavours to prevent the revolution; treasonable correspondence with the foreign enemies of France; counter-revolutionary plots; counsels given the king to prevail on him to dissemble with the national assembly; and other imputations which betrayed the depravity of her accusers.-Of these she was found guilty, and sentenced to death.—Admitting all the crimes with which she was charged


+ October 15

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