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mighty God, that we, who for things are an (o) allegory: for (P) our evil deeds do worthily de- these are the two (9) covenants; serve to be punished, by the com- the (r) one from the mount Sinai, fort of thy grace may mercifully which gendereth (s) to bondage, be relieved, through our Lord and which() is Agar. 25. For this Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen. Agar is (u) mount (x) Sinai in
Arabia, and answereth (y) to The Epistle. Gal. iv. 21. (1)
Jerusalem (2) which now is, and is Tell me, ye that desire to be in bondage with her children. 26. under (k) the law, do ye not hear But (a) Jerusalem which is above the law (k)? 22. For it is writ- is (6) free, which is the (c) ten, That Abraham had two sons; mother of us all. 27. For it (d) the one (1) by a (m) bond-maid, is written, “Rejoice, thou barren the other (1) by a free-woman (m). “ that bearest not; break forth 23. But he who was of the bond- “ and cry, thou that travailest woman was born after (n) the “not; for the desolate hath many flesh; but he of the free woman “ more children than she which was by (n) promise. 24. Which - hath an husband.” 28. Now
(6) It was a main object with St. Paul “ Mosaic law, and the Gospel dispensto satisfy the Galatian converts of the
w ation." sufficiency of the Gospel, without observing (r) “ The one,” i. e. “the Mosaic law, the Mosaic institutions: and he here com- “ delivered to Moses at Mount Sinai." pares the Mosaic law, the law delivered (s) “ Gendereth to bondage," i. e. to Moses at Mount Sinai, to the son of “ brings forth slaves." “ Leads to slavery." Hagar, the bond-woman, and the gospel (t) Which is Agar," i.e. “is so called to the son of Sarah, the free-woman : and *s in the allegory." as Hagar's son was cast out, that he might (u) v.25.“ Is,"i.e. "represents." The not be heir with Sarah's son, so he con- name stands for it in Arabic, thither Hagar cludes the law is to be cast out, and will fled, and there her posterity dwelt. Whitby have no part of the inheritance under the in loco. gospel.
(x) “Mount Sinai," i. e. " where the (k) v. 21. “ The law,” i.e. lst, “ the “ law was delivered to Moses." "Mosaic institutions." 2dly, “ the writ- (y) " Answereth," i. e. “in the alle"ings of Moses."
() . 22. “ The one," i. e. “Ishmael.” (z) “Jerusalem which now is," i. e. “ The other," i. e. “ Isaac.”
“ the Jewish polity under the Mosaic in(m) " Bond-maid," i.e. “Hagar." Gen. 66 stitution.” xvi
. “ Free-woman,” i. e. “ Sarah.” Gen. (a) v. 26. “ Jerusalem which is above" xxi. 1 to 3.
“ the spiritual Jerusalem, the kingdom of (r) v. 23. “ After the flesh," i. e. “ Christ, the Christian polity and church." "cording to the common course of
(6) “Free," i. e. “not in bondage.” " nature.” “By promise," i. e. “ out of (c) “ The mother of us all”.
whose " the common course, when Sarah was « children therefore we are.” 4 far beyond the ordinary age of child- Id) v. 27. “ It is written." Isaiah liv. 1. 4 bearing, by virtue of God's promise." The meaning is, the children of promise, See Gen. xvii. 16, 17. Gen. xviii. 9 to 14. they who become Christians, shall be so.
(6) c. 24.“ An allegory.” If not so numerous, that what was said in Isaiah meant, capable of being so used, or with a view to the future state of Christi. " written allegorically, with a typical sig- anity, may be affirmed of them. As Sarah, "nification." Slade. 'Alimyopovukya, “ to who was by nature barren, had, against the "be allegorized," admitting an allegorical course of nature, more descendants than application.
Hagar, so shall the Gospel, the spiritual ip) “ These," i. e. " the women.” Sarah, have abundantly more children than (9) “ The two covenants," i. e. “ the the Jewish dispensation.
we, brethren, as Isaac was, are Jesus went up into a mountain, the children of promise. 29. But and there he sat with his disciples. (e) as then, he that was born 4. And the passover, a feast of after (g) the flesh, persecuted the Jews, was nigh. (n) 5. When him that was born after (g) the Jesus then lifted up his eyes, and Spirit, even so (h) it is now. saw a great company come unto 30. Nevertheless what saith the him, he saith unto Philip, “Whence (1) Scripture? “Cast (k) out the “shall we buy bread, that these bond-woman and her son : for
“ may eat?” 6. And this he “ the son of the bond-woman shall said to prove him : for he himself “ not be heir with the son of the knew what he would do. 7. Philip « free-woman. 31. So (1) then, answered him, “ Two hundred brethren, we are not children of “penny-worth of bread is not sufthe bond-woman, but of the free. « ficient for them, that every one
“ of them may take a little." The Gospel. John vi. 1.
8. One of his disciples, Andrew, Jesus went over the sea of Gali- Simon Peter's brother, saith unto lee, which is the sea of Tiberias. him, 9. “ There is a lad here, 2. And a great multitude fol- “ which hath five barley-loaves lowed him, because they (m) saw « and two small fishes : but what his miracles which he did on them “ are they among so many that were diseased. 3. And 10. And Jesus said, “ Make the
(e) v. 29.“ But, &c.” This was to give exempt from it. St. Paul, accordingly, them courage against the persecutions goes on thus to exhort them: “ Stand fast, from the Jews; and the passage cited in “ therefore, in the liberty wherewith Christ verse 30. is to satisfy them their opponents “ hath made you free, and be not entangled would be overthrown.
" again with the yoke of bondage. Behold (g) “ Born after the flesh," i. e. “Ish- “ I°Paul say unto you, that if ye be cir“ mael, Hagar's son.” “Born after the “ cumcised" (that is (probably) look up “ Spirit,” i. e." Isaac, Sarah's son." and rely upon the Mosaic institutions)
(h) “So, &c." i.e. “they who consider “ Christ shall profit you nothing." “ the Mosaic institutions as still in force, (m) v. 2. “Saw.” The miracles, therefore, “ who are born after the flesh, persecute were visible ; such as bye-standers could “ us who are free from those institutions, see. John, who was one of the constant “ the children of the Spirit.”
followers of our Saviour, was probably an (i) v. 30. “The Scripture." Gen. xxi. 10. eye-witness.
(k) “ Cast out, &c.” As Hagar's son (n) v. 5. “When, &c.” This miracle was cast out, and was not to be heir with was peculiarly well-timed. According to Sarah's, so was the law to be cast out, and Matt. xiv. 15. they were in a desert place, its followers : they who looked up to that, and it was evening: the multitude would and rejected Christianity, were not to par- therefore naturally be hungry: and their ticipate with Christians in the benefits of wants made this miracle a most seasonable the Gospel.
proof of our Saviour's power. The cha(l) v. 31. “So then, &c.” Our claim is racter of this miracle, too, was like most not under the first covenant, but under of our Saviour's, public, in case of the the second ; not under the Mosaic law, wants of mankind, and typical, implying a the covenant or dispensation of bondage, like power over their souls. Ante, 84. note but under the Gospel, the covenant or dis. on Luke xviii. 43. In John vi. 35. our Sapensation of freedom. We ought to treat viour shews its typical application, “I am ourselves therefore, not as children of the “ the bread of life : he that cometh to me bond-woman, subject to bondage, but as “ shall never hunger; and he that believeth children of the free-woman, and therefore ' « on me shall never thirst."
Curist being come
men sit down.” Now there was people ; that by thy great goodmuch (o) grass in the place. So ness they may be governed and the men sat down, in number about preserved evermore, both in body five thousand. 11. And Jesus and soul, through Jesus Christ our took the loaves: and when he had Lord. Amen. given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to them
The Epistle. Heb. ix. 11. (9). that were set down; and likewise of the fishes as much as they
an high would. 12. When they were filled, priest of good things to come, by he said unto his disciples, “Gather
a greater and more perfect taber" up the fragments that remain, that nacle, not made with hands (r), “nothing be lost.” 13. There- that is to say, not of this build. fore they gathered them together, ing; 12. neither by the blood and filled twelve baskets with of goats and calves, but by his the fragments of the five barley, into the (8) holy place, having ob
own blood, he entered in once loaves, which remained over and above unto them that had eaten.
13. For if the blood of bulls and had seen the miracle that Jesus of goats, and the ashes of an did, said, “This is of a truth (P) sanctifieth (1) to the purifying of
the unclean, “ that prophet that should come " into the world."
the flesh; 14. how much more shall the blood of Christ, who
through the eternal Spirit offered Fifth Sunday in Lent.
himself without (u) spot to God, The Collect.
purge your conscience from dead We beseech thee, Almighty works, to serve the living God ? God, mercifully to look upon thy 15. And for (x) this cause he is
(6) v. 10. “Much grass ;” a minute cir. that his entrance is not annual, as the high cumstance: what an eye-witness would re priest's, but once for all; that it is not collect.
into an earthly tabernacle he has entered, (p) v. 14. “ That prophet.” This im- but into heaven itself: that it was not with plies that some prophet was expected. the blood of a bullock and a goat that he See ante, 35. note on Matt. xi. 3.
made the atonement, but with his own (9) This part of Scripture contrasts the blood; and that he has obtained for us, not atonement by Christ with that under the a temporary relief, but eternal redemption; Mosaic dispensation. By the latter, the not the purification of the flesh, but the high priest once every year was to sacrifice purging of the conscience. a young bullock and a goat for a sin-offer- (r) v. 11. “ Not made with hands," i. e. ing, and to enter that part of the taber- “ not of human structure, viz. Heaven." nacle or temple which was called “the (s) “The holy place," i. e. “Heaven," Holy of Holies," and there to make an of which “the holy of holies” in the temple atonement, because of the uncleanness of at Jerusalem, was a type. the people, and because of their transgres- (t) v. 13. “Sanctifieth,” by removing sions in all their sins. (Levit. xvi.) And the certain legal pollutions and impediments. superiority of the atonement by Christ is Kidd. 437. pointed out in these particulars; that it is (u) v. 14.
“ Without spot,” so that it not by a mortal high priest, or a high priest was not for himself (or any sin of his own) who has any sins of his own, that the atone- he had to make the sacrifice. ment is made, but it is by Christ himself, (x) v. 15. “ For this cause,” i. e. (prowho was immortal, and free from sin ; bably)“to purge the conscience from dead
the (y) Mediator of the new testa- 48. Then answered the Jews, and ment (%), that by means of death, said unto him, “Say we not well for the redemption of the trans- “ that thou art a (e) Samaritan, gressions (a) that were under the « and hast a devil ? 49. Jesus first testament, they (b) which are answered, “I have not a devil: called, might receive the promise “ but I honour my Father, and ye of eternal inheritance.
“ do dishonour me.
50. And I
“ seek not mine own glory: there The Gospel. John viji. 46.
“ is one (8) that (h) seeketh and Jesus said, , " Which of
(h) judgeth. 51. Verily, verily, “ vinceth me of (c) sin ? And if I say unto you, If a man keep
say the truth, why do ye not be- “ my saying (i), he shall never « lieve me?
47. He that is of “ see death.” (k) 52. Then said “ God, heareth God's words; ye
the Jews unto him, “ Now we “ therefore (d) hear them not,
« know that thou hast a devil. “ because ye are not of God.”
- Abraham is dead, and the pro
“ works, and make men serve the living he did by the aid of evil spirits, and is like « God.”
the insinuation so well refuted by our Sa(y) “ The Mediator, &c." or, “a Me- viour, Luke ix. 17. ante, 93. “that he cast “diator of a new testament. The articles “ out devils by Beelzebub the prince of the are not in the original,” διαθήκης καινης “ devils.” It may be observed, that there μεσίτης. .
was a deadly enmity between the Jews and (z) “ Testament,” rather“ the Samaritans: the Samaritans, however, “ nant or dispensation.” The same word used the five books of Moses; and their is translated “ covenant, Heb. viii. 6. 9. copies do not differ in essentials from the “10. and x. 16." And the Mosaic dispensa- Jewish. We have from them, therefore, tion answers the description of “ a cove- the early prophecies, “that the Seed of the “ nant or dispensation" better than that of “ woman should bruise the serpent's head; " a testament." See post, 129. note on Heb. “ that in the seed of Abraham, Isaac, and x. 16.
“ Jacob, all the nations of the earth should (a) “ The transgressions that were “ be blessed; that the sceptre should not “ under the first testament, i. e. (probas depart from Judah till the coming of bly) “those for which the Mosaic dispen- “ Shiloh ; and that God should raise up a 6 sation afforded no effectual atonement:" “ prophet like unto Moses.” (See ante, 69. for, according to Heb. x. 4. “it is not pos- note (e) on Mal. iii. 1.) So that without the “sible that the blood of bulls and of goats writings preserved by the Jews, we should 6 should take
have many of the prophecies on which (6) “ They which are called.” The Christianity is founded. And is it not sinCall is to all mankind: but they only who gular, that all the books of the Old Testahear, who accept the Call, and act up to ment, the books which contain all the proits duties, are here intended.
phecies on which we rely, were preserved (c) v. 46. “Of sin.” It was an argu- for ages with the most scrupulous attenment in favour of our Saviour's preten- tion by the decided enemies of Christianity, sions, that “he did no sin, neither was the Jews, and that we have some of those “ guile found in his mouth, i Pet. ii. 22.;"" books, the five books of Moses, from the that he lived in perfect innocence; so that decided enemies of the Jews, the Samarihis adversaries could not point out a single
tans? instance to the contrary.
(3) v. 50. ('one') i. e. God, the Father. (d) v. 47. “ Therefore, &c." i. e. “for (h) “ Seeketh,” i. e. “my glory."" this reason."
“Judgeth,” i. e. “punisheth those who (e) v. 48. “ A Samaritan.” The Sama- withstand it." ritans are supposed to have been much ad- (i) v. 51. 55. “ Saying," i.e. (probably) dicted to sorcery and witchcraft. This, " commandments.” Tóy yox. therefore, was an insinuation that our Sa- (k) “Death,” i. e. (probably) “spiriir was a sorcerer, and performed what “ tual, eternal death."
“phets ; and thou sayest, “If a “ was, I (0), am.”
59. Then “ man keep my saying, he shall took they up stones (p) to cast at "never taste of death." 53. Art him: but Jesus hid himself, and " thou greater than our father went out of the temple. “ Abraham, which is dead ? and " the prophets are dead: whom
The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin “ makest thou thyself?” 54. Jesus
Mary. answered, “If I honour myself, my honour is nothing : it is my
The Collect. « Father that honoureth me; of We beseech thee, O Lord, pour “ whom ye say, That he is your thy grace into our hearts; that as "God: 55. yet ye have not we have known the Incarnation “known him : but I know him : of thy Son Jesus Christ by the " and if I should say, I know him message of an angel, so by his
not, I shall be a liar like (1) unto cross and passion we may be " you: but I know him, and keep brought unto the glory of his re" his saying. (m). 56. Your father surrection, through the same Jesus “ Abraham rejoiced to see my Christ our Lord. Amen. "day: and he saw it, and was
glad.” 57. Then said the Jews For the Epistle. Isaiah vii. 10. unto bim, “Thou art not yet fifty Moreover, the Lord spake again years old, and hast thou seen unto Ahaz, saying,
11. " Ask “ Abraham ?” 58. Jesus said unto “ thee a sign of the Lord thy Verily, verily,
verily, I say “ God: ask it either in the “ unto you, Before (n) Abraham depth, or in the height above.”
(O) 0.55. “Like unto you.” He con- ye know that I am." “ He" is in both siderst hem as liars, in saying, as in v. 54. places an addition. Dr.Graves observes upon that God was their God, whereas according this passage, that our Saviour challenges to v. 54. "they had not known him," and in it what is peculiar to the great first according to v. 47. “they were not of God, cause, to Jehovah himself, an existence in" and heard not God's words.”
dependent, unchangeable, eternal, Grave's (m) See note on v. 51. supra.
Trinity, 32. See post, - the note on John (n) v. 58. « Before Abraham was, &c.”
iii. 13. This corresponds with John i. ), “In the (p) v. 59. “ Stones, &c." probably be" beginning was the Word,” i. e. “ the cause they considered him as having claimed " Messiah), &c.” See, ante, 44.
God's attribute, self-existence, and treated (0) " Am," not “was,” but “am,” to it as blasphemy, for which stoning was the intimate his divinity, and therefore adopt- punishment.
note on John ing the word emphatically used in Exod. iii. xix. 7.-And would our Saviour have used 14. to signify God, the self-existing, un- an expression, for which such an inference created Being, “I am (8 ay) hath sent could have been drawn, had he not meant
me unto thee.” There is another to make the claim of being God? It was no passage (John xiii. 9.) where our Saviour part of his character to run unnecessarily applies to himself the same term “ I am,” into danger, nor would he have made an asperhaps with the same view: “I tell you sertion which might mislead his followers, "before it come, that when it is come to and encourage a wrong faith. And would "pass, ye may believe that I am.” “He," St. John, who wrote to check heresy, have which is added in our translation, is not
recorded this expression, without explanain the original. So in the same chapter, tion or comment, had not our Saviour's 6. 24. 28. « If ye believe not that I am, ye divinity been an article of his belief? St. shall die in your sins,” and “when ye John's Gospel was not written until sixty “ have lift up the Son of Man, then shall years after the crucifixion.