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in the realization of human rights and fundamental free-
doms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language,
or religion.

2. The further responsibilities, functions and powers of the
General Assembly with respect to matters mentioned in para-
graph 1(b) above are set forth in Chapters IX and X.

financial and budgetary arrangements with specialized agencies
referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the administrative
budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making
recommendations to the agencies concerned.

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Voting

ARTICLE 18
1. Each member of the General Assembly shall have one vote.

2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important
questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the members
present and voting. These questions shall include: recommenda-
tions with respect to the maintenance of international peace and
security, the election of the non-permanent members of the
Security Council, the election of the members of the Economic
and Social Council, the election of members of the Trusteeship
Council in accordance with paragraph 1(C) of Article 86, the
admission of new Members to the United Nations, the suspen-
sion of the rights and privileges of membership, the expulsion
of Members, questions relating to the operation of the trustee-
ship system, and budgetary questions.

3. Decisions on other questions, including the determina-
tion of additional categories of questions to be decided by a
two-thirds majority, shall be made by a majority of the members
present and voting.

ARTICLE 19
A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in
the payment of its financial contributions to the Organization
shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the amount of
its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions
due from it for the preceding two full years. The General
Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a Member to vote if
it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond
the control of the Member.

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the non-permanent members after the increase of the member-
ship of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen, two of the
four additional members shall be chosen for a term of one year.
A retiring member shall not be eligible for immediate re-
election.

3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one
representative.

Functions and Powers

ARTICLE 24
1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the
United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council
primary responsibility for the maintenance of international
peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties
under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their
behalf.

2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act
in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United
Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security Council
for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI,
VII, VIII, and XII.

3. The Security Council shall submit annual and, when
necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its con-
sideration.

ARTICLE 25
The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and
carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance
with the present Charter.

ARTICLE 26
In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of
international peace and security with the least diversion for
armaments of the world's human and economic resources, the
Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the
assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Article

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1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members
of the United Nations. The Republic of China, France, the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of
America shall be permanent members of the Security Council.
The General Assembly shall elect ten other Members of the
Unitėd Nations to be non-permanent members of the Security
Council, due regard being specially paid, in the first instance
to the contribution of Members of the United Nations to the
maintenance of international peace and security and to the other
purposes of the Organization, and also to equitable geographi-
cal distribution.

2. The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first election of

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ARTICLE 31
Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member
of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the
discussion of any question brought before the Security Council
whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member
are specially affected.

ARTICLE 32
Any Member of the United Nations which is not a mem-
ber of the Security Council or any state which is not a Member
of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute under con-
sideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to partici-
pate, without vote, in the discussion relating to the dispute. The
Security Council shall lay down such conditions as it deems
just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of
the United Nations.

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1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be able
to function continuously. Each member of the Security Council
shall for this purpose be represented at all times at the seat of
the Organization.

2. The Security Council shall hold periodic meetings at
which each of its members may, if it so desires, be represented
by a member of the government or by some other specially
designated representative.

3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places
other than the seat of the Organization as in its judgment will
best facilitate its work.

1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is
likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and
security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation, en-
quiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement,
resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful
means of their own choice.

2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call

upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.

ARTICLE 29

ARTICLE 34

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The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or any
situation which might lead to international friction or give rise
to a dispute, in order to determine whether the continuance of
the dispute or situation is likely to endanger the maintenance
of international peace and security.

The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.

ARTICLE 39 he Security Council shall determine the existence of any

T threat the peace, breach of the peace, or act of ang

gression and shall make recommendations, or decide what
measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42,
to maintain or restore international peace and security.

ARTICLE 40
In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the
Security Council may, before making the recommendations or
deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39, call
upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional
measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional
measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or
position of the parties concerned. The Security Council shall
duly take account of failure to comply with such provisional

action under Article 36 or to recommend such terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate.

ARTICLE 38
Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37,
the Security Council may, if all the parties to any dispute so
request, make recommendations to the parties with a view to a
pacific settlement of the dispute.

CHAPTER VII
ACTION WITH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE,
BREACHES OF THE PEACE,
AND ACTS OF AGGRESSION

ARTICLE 35
1. Any Member of the United Nations may bring any
dispute, or any situation of the nature referred to in Article 34,
to the attention of the Security Council or of the General
Assembly

2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations
may bring to the attention of the Security Council or of the
General Assembly any dispute to which it is a party if it accepts
in advance, for the purposes of the dispute, the obligations of
pacific settlement provided in the present Charter.

3. The proceedings of the General Assembly in respect of
matters brought to its attention under this Article will be sub-
ject to the provisions of Articles 11 and 12.

ARTICLE 36
1. The Security Council may, at any stage of a dispute of
the nature referred to in Article 33 or of a situation of like
nature, recommend appropriate procedures or methods of ad-
justment.

2. The Security Council should take into consideration any
procedures for the settlement of the dispute which have already
been adopted by the parties.

3. In making recommendations under this Article the
Security Council should also take into consideratfon that legal
disputes should as a general rule be referred by the parties to
the International Court of Justice in accordance with the provi-
sions of the Statute of the Court.

ARTICLE 37
1. Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred to
in Article 33 fail to settle it by the means indicated in that
Article, they shall refer it to the Security Council.

2. If the Security Council deems that the continuance of
the dispute is in fact likely to endanger the maintenance of
international peace and security, it shall decide whether to take

measures.

ARTICLE 41
The Security Council may decide what measures not in-
volving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect
to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United
Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete
or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea,
air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communica-
tion, and the severance of diplomatic relations.

under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so desires,
to participate in the decisions of the Security Council concern-
ing the employment of contingents of that Member's armed
forces.

ARTICLE 45
In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent
military measures, Members shall hold immediately available
national air-force contingents for combined international en-
forcement action. The strength and degree of readiness of these
contingents and plans for their combined action shall be deter-
mined, within the limits laid down in the special agreement
or agreements referred to in Article 43, by the Security Council
with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.

ARTICLE 46
Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by
the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff
Committee.

ARTICLE 47

Should the Security Council consider that measures pro-
vided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to
be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces
as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace
and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade,
and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of
the United Nations.

ARTICLE 42

ARTICLE 43
1. All Members of the United Nations, in order to con-
tribute to the maintenance of international peace and security,
undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its call
and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements,
armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of
passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international
peace and security.

2. Such agreement or agreements shall govern the numbers
and types of forces, their degree of readiness and general loca-
tion, and the nature of the facilities and assistance to be pro-
vided.

3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as
soon as possible on the initiative of the Security Council. They
shall be concluded between the Security Council and Members
or between the Security Council and groups of Members and
shall be subject to ratification by the signatory states in ac-
cordance with their respective constitutional processes.

ARTICLE 44
When the Security Council has decided to use force it
shall, before calling upon a Member not represented on it to
provide armed forces in fulfilment of the obligations assumed

1. There shall be established a Military Staff Committee
to advise and assist the Security Council on all questions relat-
ing to the Security Council's military requirements for the main-
tenance of international peace and security, the employment
and command of forces placed at its disposal, the regulation
of armaments, and possible disarmament.

2. The Military Staff Committee shall consist of the Chiefs
of Staff of the permanent members of the Security Council or
their representatives. Any Member of the United Nations not
permanently represented on the Committee shall be invited by
the Committee to be associated with it when the efficient dis-
charge of the Committee's responsibilities requires the partici-
pation of that Member in its work.

3. The Military Staff Committee shall be responsible under
the Security Council for the strategic direction of any armed

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