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development, health, liberty, individual human rights, and cultural protection and growth.
Modern airplane transportation, and instantaneous world-wide distribution of news by television and radio, utilizing extra-terrestrial earth-satellites, have made people in even the remotest sections and countries of the “Third World," ambitious to share in the wealth and conveniences of the industrialized countries, which seem fantastic in amount and character, when these peoples compare them with their own "have-not" status. There is a revolution of rising expectations growing throughout much of the world. The Chinese have an ancient saying, which goes something like this: “When the rich are too rich, there is a way; and when the poor are too poor, there is a way.”
Unless the "have" nations learn to assist these expectations, with more than token efforts, and at the same time cope with the hindrances standing in the way of appropriate development of the under-privileged nations, while continuing to guide the latter into equitable, peaceful and lawfully regulated channels, for which supra-national government of the world is necessary, calamities of horrible dimensions to all humanity will follow one upon the other, as recently predicted in Orwell's “1984.” On the other hand, over a hundred years ago the poet Alfred, Lord Tennsyon, predicted in his poem, "Locksley Hall,”
"Till the war-drum throbb'd no longer,
And the battle-flags were furled
of the world.” In the Bible over two thousand years ago the prophet Isaiah predicted in Chapter 2, verse 4,
"And they shall beat their swords into ploughshares,
Neither shall they learn war any more.” These are concepts of a religious nature, as well as of practical necessity, if humankind is to survive. Practically all the religions of the world preach this same basic message. If we, the human community or extended family, fail to comply, we shall be doomed, if not to actual extinction, then to a life no better than that of the insects.
The essential elements of a government placed above national governments, according to numerous qualified investigators, embrace the following:
A Constitution or Charter, creating a government, not a Confederation, league, treaty organization, or falsely named “Union,” but a dynamic authority or organism in being, functioning with adequate powers, duties, financing, taxing power, and support, to achieve the following purposes:
Prevention of war, termination of military actions or naval blockades, disarmament, protecting victims of aggression, settling of international quarrels and disputes, fostering of human rights, economic and social justice, relieving disasters; cultural security industrialization, equitably regulating world trade and currency exchange, protecting the ecology, and doing things individual national governments cannot effectively achieve unilaterally.
A Legislature, empowered by the Constitution or Charter to pass laws in specified domains which are binding on national governments, all corporations, and all individuals (who will be citizens of the new world super-nation created by this process).
The members of the Legislature must represent constituencies or districts based on size of population, with variations accounting for levels of literacy and Civilization. The Legislature probably should consist of more than one chamber, with representation of national governments in one Chamber or House. The Legislature shall have power to override an Executive Dept. veto, if such be existing or created.
Courts with compulsory jurisdiction.
An Executive Dept. which shall enforce the laws, act to prevent or terminate aggressions, blockades, invasions or wars; and administer the Specialized Agencies such as those now present in the United Nations.
To those who say such a democratically controlled federal type of world government has never existed, and never will exist, let us echo the words of the late Senator Robert Kennedy, "Why not?” In fact, our own country's history
shows that federalism was put into practice here when the original weak Articles of Confederation were replaced by our present Constitution, in 1787. Carl Van Doren's book on this subject is entitled "The Great Rehearsal," indicating that the American Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 was a rehearsal for a future World Constitutional Convention. In this United States bicentennial year of 1975, it would be specially appropriate for the U.S. to initiate some type of action toward the world goal indicated by Van Doren's book and title.
In all likelihood, it would not be necessary to have a completely new Constitution created, as comprehensive revision and amendment of the existing Charter of the United Nations can serve the same purpose. Several authoritative books on this subject, giving word-by-word complete texts of the Charter as now existing, and also as revised according to the authors' concepts, are in existence, as well as numerous texts of completely new Constitutions or Charters. The literature on this subject is voluminous, and documentations and bibliographies are in existence, going back to the 13th century and earlier.
Although the UN Charter calls for a charter review conference every 10 years, this has never been done to date. However, recently for the first time the UN created an Ad Hoc Committee to meet in late July and August 1975, to consider suggestions for Charter Review. The U.S. Mission unfortunately voted against the motion, but it was carried by affirmative vote of 82 nations, mostly from the "Third World." There will also be held an unofficial Parallel United Nations Charter Hearing ("P.U.N.C.H.") as a result of a decision of the Seminar on World Government held in N.Y. City on April 12, under sponsorship of the monthly newspaper, World Peace News. This “Punch” will have sponsorship of many organizations concerned with these problems, and will convene directly following the World Citizens Assembly, which meets in San Francisco July 20 to 25. At that Assembly, our organization, North American Group of W.F.A.C. (World Federal Authority Committee) will conduct workshops on composition of proposed World Constitutions.
WRAO is an international body whose chairman is Dr. Max Habicht of Switzerland, and whose Secretary-General is Attorney Aake Anker-Ording, with an office in Oslo, Norway. These gentlemen, as well as the members of the Executive Committee, from nations on various continents on the earth, have been engaged in these endeavors for many decades. The purpose is to create an International Institute for Documentation and Research on a Democratically-Controlled World Federal Authority, in cooperation with national governments and with the support of individuals and foundations in all countries. WFAC has already received grants of money from the governments of Norway, Denmark and West Germany. Because of the length of the official name of the proposed Institute, the undersigned has created an acronym for it, namely, “Indarwa” (Institute Documentation and Research World Authority).
In conclusion, we respectfully request that the Committee on Foreign Relations consider the following suggestions for appropriate recommendations to the Senate:
1. That the U.S. Mission to the UN be instructed through appropriate channels to participate fully in the forthcoming deliberations of the UN Ad Hoc Committee on Charter Review, to be held this summer.
2. That a U.S. government agency or official be designated to assist in the organization and convening of "Punch," the unofficial Parallel U.N. Charter Hearing.
3. That the U.S. grant some form of recognition, and modest financial support, to WFAC, as several other nations have done.
BOARD OF CHURCH AND SOCIETY
Washington, D.C., May 15, 1975.
DEAR Ms. HANSEN: Enclosed are several items showing the support of the United Methodist Church for the United Nations:
1. Official statements of the United Methodist Church concerning the United Nations. These are the operative paragraphs from policy statements approved by the General Conference, the governing body of the United Methodist Church.
2. Two articles concerning the recent debate following Ambassador Scali's speech to the General Assembly in December 1974, written by representatives of United Methodist agencies at the U.N.
3. Booklet, "The Church Center for the United Nations on Its Tenth Anniversary,” outlining the historic commitment of the United Methodist Church to the United Nations concept.
If possible, we would like to have at least the official statements of the United Methodist Church placed in the printed record of the hearings currently being held on the role of the United Nations by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Sincerely yours,
HERMAN WILL, Associate General Secretary.
OFFICIAL STATEMENTS OF THE UNITED METHODIST CHURCH CONCERNING THE
(From the Social Principles, 1972) Believing that international justice requires the participation of all peoples, we endorse the United Nations and its related bodies as the best instrument now in existence to achieve a world of justice and law. We commend the efforts of all people in all countries who pursue world peace through law. We endorse international aid and cooperation on all matters of need and conflict. We urge acceptance for membership in the United Nations of all nations who wish such membership and who accept United Nations responsibility. We urge the United Nations to take a more aggressive role in the development of international arbitration of disputes and actual conflicts among nations by developing binding third-party arbitration. We reaffirm our historic concern for the world as our parish and seek for all persons and peoples full and equal membership in a truly world community.
(From the Bishops' Call for Peace and the Self Development of Peoples) This movement from narrow nationalism to global loyalties requires both international law and international organization. The development of international law has included landmark treaties resulting from conferences at The Hague, Dumbarton Oaks, and the Geneva Conventions. Structures of international order have been anticipated by the ill-fated League of Nations and the United Nations. If peace with justice is to come, nation-states should utilize the United Nations and the International Court of Justice, as well as international trade, relief and scientific institutions, while seeking to perfect the instruments of international organization.
(From the United Methodist Church and Peace, 1968) 5. The United Nations
We commend the United Nations for its success in reconciling differences, promoting human rights, lifting the levels of health, education, and welfare, and advancing self-government among the nations. These accomplishments are in spite of a total U.N. budget that is currently less than 1 per cent of the United States military expenditures. It should become an increasingly useful instrument in the peaceful settlement of international disputes.
We believe the United Nations and its agencies should be supported, strengthened and improved. Moreover, if these facilities are to become most effective, the United Nations, with membership open to all nations which seek to join and which subscribe to its Charter, must be given sufficient authority to enact, interpret and enforce world law against aggression and war.
Meanwhile, the governments of all nations, and especially the great powers, should utilize to the fullest possible extent the avenues of the United Nations for the peaceful resolution of international conflicts.
All nations should give adequate financial support to the U.N. and its peacekeeping operations and its specialized agencies.
We urge the early ratification by all nations of the fourteen conventions on human rights developed and approved by the United Nations or its specialized agencies.
We believe in the principle expressed in the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of a Child. "Mankind owes to the child the best that it has to give." We, therefore, commend the work of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) which has since 1947 served more than 200 million children in more than one hundred countries through material aid to programs of supplemental food, disease control, nutrition and maternal and child health.
We support the greater use of the International Court of Justice and urge the nations to remove any restrictions they have adopted which impair the court's effective functioning.
The economic and political turmoil within many developing nations provides a grave temptation to the great powers to intervene through subversive activity or military force. We condemn this new version of imperialism which often parades as responsibility and we urge the great powers to use their strength to support the United Nations and enable it to render multilateral judgments as to those internal disturbances which endanger the peace and require collective measures.
[From the Engage/Social Action magazine, February 1975]
ATTACKS ON THE UN
(By Robert McClean)
I am concerned about current reactions to the UN. I am concerned that US Ambassador Scali, speaking before the General Assembly on December 6, said a “tyranny of the majority” is passing outrageous, unenforceable, and irresponsible resolutions that weaken the UN. I am concerned that so many US newspapers editorially seconded that speech without checking the accuracy of its allegations. I am concerned that Scali may have been right when he suggested that many Americans are “deeply distressed at the trend of recent events.” I am concerned because many of those "recent events” that he depreciates are the very acts that affirm the UN's success in areas of justice and equitable relations between peoples and states.
The now famous Scali speech was undoubtedly directed at easing Israel's feelings of US compromise in Middle East negotiations. However, behind this public relations facade is the real issue of recent General Assembly resolutions concerning trade and tariffs, sovereignty over natural resources, producer's associations, prices of raw materials, and transnational corporations.
These trade issues form the basis of UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) discussions and precipitated the most controversial negotiations at the Rome Food Conference. The US, joined by other western industrialized nations, won those battles. However, losses on two significant related General Assembly resolutions are the heart of Scali's real concern.
In the spring of 1974 the Sixth Special General Assembly approved by concensus a resolution concerning a "New Economic Order.” It contained paragraphs on each of the issues mentioned above. Immediately after its approval Scali strongly removed US support from it saying, "Concensus is not a steamroller.” However, because of the importance of this document the Board of Church and Society of the United Methodist Church has now established a committee to study this "new economic order” to determine its relationship to United Methodist position statements,
At the recently conducted 29th General Assembly a “Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States” was approved, not by concensus, but by vote: 120 for, 6 against, 10 abstentions. The US voted with the minority. It was this issue that was foremost in Scali's concern when he spoke six days earlier.
These two resolutions boldly state the aspirations of those notions that are not members of the world's economic or industrial clubs.
The new Charter of Economic Rights and Duties is a resolution of the General Assembly and as such will only have power (other than moral persuasion) as industrialized states observe its rules. Without that, support-in Scali's words, "cannot be implemented." However, each should judge if it is "one-sided" or "unrealistic."
The text covers thirty-four articles plus an introduction. Most articles were acceptable to all. Rather than evaluate acceptable points, here is a summation of three the US found most unacceptable and attempted in committee to have deleted, but failed.
Many states feel former colonial rulers and today's transnational corporations have reinoved raw materials from their territory without adequate repayment.
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One of the charter's "principles" governing relations between states calls for “remedying of injustices which have been brought about by force and which deprive a nation of the natural means necessary for its normal development.” This principle parallels that of reparations heard in the US Civil Rights movement.
Article 5 deals with "producer's associations." "All states have the right to associate in organizations of primary commodity producers in order to develop their national economies to achieve stable financing for their development. ..." The association of oil exporting countries (OPEC) is such a group. Banana growers or Bauxite miners might use this principle. Fear of industrialized states is based in the understanding that is most profitable to form such associations if their primary product is consumed by financially able states that do not themselves have the capability of such production. States supporting this concept feel these raw materials have in the past been controlled, to their detriment, by outside states or corporations, e.g., iron ore in Swaziland, petroleum and coffee wherever it is found.
Article 28 concerns "indexing” prices of raw materials to make them equitable with finished products. “All states have the duty to cooperate in achieving adjustments in the prices of exports of developing countries in relation to prices of their imports so as to promote just and equitable terms of trade for them, in a manner which is remunerative for producers and equitable for producers and consumers." Because manufacturing takes place in industrialized countries, those countries that produce raw materials for export develop trade deficits when buying back finished products. They feel this situation is unfair and feel "indexing" would help remedy inequities.
Scali said, "Mamy Americans are questioning their belief in the United Nations. They are deeply disturbed." I would like for many Americans to let their government know they are deeply disturbed—disturbed because they do understand and affirm the aspirations of the developing nations; because they want the future to be different from the past; and because they want the UN to grow in strength as it attempts to bring the desires of all states into equity.
If you would like to register your feelings, we would be glad to forward your response to Ambassador John Scali at the United States Mission to the UN. If you write directly, we would appreciate a copy.
[Remaining enclosures are on file with the committee.]
STATEMENT OF ELEANORE SCHNURR, UNITED NATIONS REPRESENTATIVE, AMERICAN
BAPTIST CHURCHES USA, NATIONAL MINISTRIES
As the United Nations Representative for the American Baptist Churches, USA, National Ministries, I would like to request that the following statement be included in the records of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Hearings on the United Nations :
For over a period of more than 30 years American Baptists have stated, through Resolutions made at their annual National Conventions, their conviction that in today's rapidly shrinking world of nuclear and electronic war power, the only sane philosophy of international relations, the only sensible theory of national security is one which recognizes the necessity of increasing multilateral cooperation. This applies to trade, to technical assistance and economic aid, to ecological matters as well as to disarmament, and to continuous support of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
While we, as American Baptists, support those efforts in which United States foreign policy makers have endeavored to seek peaceful solutions to crisis situations, we feel that there should have been more use made of the various multilateral channels which are available through the United Nations system.
A foreign policy approach which only involves big power diplomacy and which fails to take into consideration issues of concern to the members of the global family is too narrow, creates gulfs, and widens the gap between divergent interests of nations. The longer we allow such a state of affairs to continue, the more dangerous becomes the illusion that we can safely ignore the needs and interests of the majority of the members of the global community.