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tion, you

ative feature in the constitution, which The whole power of election, is now portion of the union, to the small flates, change in itselt and all its consequences, | vested in the iwo parties ; numbers and iheir right ? will tend to a consolidation of this union, ftates, or, great and small states, and it is

I am not without my fears, Mr. Presi. into a simple republic ; let it be fairly fat demonstration itself, that it


dent, that this is but the beginning of eed, that the finall states have too much a. the power of the ore, in just such propor. vils, and that this conftitution, the bul. gency in the important article of electing

diminish that of the other. Do

wark of the feeble members of the conå chiet magiftrate ; and that the great the gentlemen fuppose that the public will, | tederacy; the protection of the weak a-, ftates claim the choice; and we shall chen when constitutionally exprefled by a ma gainst the strong ; the security of the have a fair decision. If the Senators of jority of states, in pursuance of the feder small against the great ; the last, best hope the small states, and if their state legilla. | ative principle of our government, is of

of man, with a view to stability in a free tures will then quietly part with the right less validity, or less binding upon the coin government, and to the preservation of they have, no person can reasonably linunity at large, than the public will ex liberty in a republic; is deltined to undercomplain. pressed by a popular majority ? The fram.

go changes, and suffer innovations, till Nothing can be more obvious, than the ers of your constitution, the people who there shall be no residue worth preserving, intention of the plan adupied by our con

adopted it, meant, that the public will, in and nothing left, which ambition will

the choice of President, should be expreif- condescend to overturn. ftitution for choosing a President. The electors are to nominate two persons, of ed by electors, if they could agree, and it

Time will not permit me to dwell any whom they cannot know which will be not, ihat the public will should be express

longer on this part of my argument, President; this circumstance not only in. ed, by a majority of the states, acting in

But I am deceived, fir, if the view I their federative capacity, and that in both duces them to select both from the besi

have now taken of the constitution does men; but gives a direct advantage into

cases the expresion of the public will
should be equally binding.

not fhow most obviously, that in its for. the hands of the small states even in the

mation there was a struggle between the electoral choice. For they can always fe. Is it pretended that the public will can great and small itates, with refpeel to many le from the two candidates fet up by never, properly or constitutionally be ex.

of its principles and leading features. And the electors of large fates, by throwing pressed, but by a majority of numbers, of

that the participation of the small fates in their votes upon their favorite ; and of the people, or of the house of representa the election of a chief magiftrate, clearly course giving him a majoriiy, or, if the

tives ? This may be a pleasing doétrine secured !o them by the conditution, will electors of the large states should, to pre

enough to great states ; but it is certainly receive a deadly blow by the adoption of vent this effect, scalter their votes, for

incorre&t. Oir conftitution has given the the propolei amendment: one candidate, then the electors of the expresion of the public will, in a variety small states would have it in their power to

It can be no contradi&tion to my idea. of infances, other than that of the choice

on the subject, if we have heard nothing ele&t a Vice-President. So that in any e.

of President, into very different hands from vent, the imall states will have a consider

ot fiate conflicts, in the adminiftration of either the house of representatives or the

This government. The great states have able agency in the election. But it the people at large. The President and Sen. discriminacing or ocfignating principle is are, and in many cases the President alone,

never, till now, directly attempted to vi. can express the public will, in appoint.

olate the fanétuary of the small, and delo carried, as contained in this resolution,

poil them of their righuis; had this heen the whole, or nearly the whole right and ments of high trust and responsibility, and

Carlier attempted, we should have heard agency of the small fares, in ihe eicctoral it cannot be forgotten that the Prefident

and feen this jealousy awakened, and the choice of chief magistrate is defloyed, il sometimes expresses the public will, by re

fime opposition creried. and their chance of obtaining a federative | movals. Treaties, highly important ex

The conflict could happen in ro other choice by states, if not destroyed, is very preffions of the public will, are made by

way, than by an attack from the large much diminished, the President and Senate ; and they are the

fiates. We had neisher the desire nor a. supreme law of the land. In the several For this identical purpose is the princi ftates, many great offices are filled, and lavors, but their permission to enjoy, in

bility to ir jure chem, and we now ask no ple of electoral discrimination and designa

even the chief magiftracy,. by various tion, introduced into the resolution before modes of election. The public will is

peace and safety, the rights conceded to you; for i he same purpose is the number

us by themselves, and secured by a fula fo:n esimes expressed by pluralities, instead of candidates reduced from five to three, of majorities, sometimes by both branch

emn conflitutional compact. from whom the house of representatives

We have been told, by a gentleman es ot 'the legit!atures, and sometimes by l from Virginia, that it would be impolitie may ele&t, in case of electoral failure of

one, and in certain contingencies, elec. choice; that is, to destroy, or dinioith the

in us to rouse the great fates. I shall, at tions are determined by lot. The people pretent, take no further rotice of this agency of the small itates, in the choice of lave adopted conftitutions containing warning, given to us, no doubt, in the President.

such regulations, and experience has full excercile of benevolence ; but to reFor what purpose else, are we perpetu. proved that they are well calculated to aily told, and from all parts of the Senate, preserve their liberries and promote their queft the small faces to preserve it in con

ftant recollection. It may induce them that the public will is opposed, by the pref- happiness. From what good, or ent mode, and the public will cannot be pardonable motive then, can it be urged,

not hastily lo part with constitutional le

I curity. gratified, without the introduction of the that the present mode of electing our There are some other points of light, in discriminating principle ? President, has a tendency to counterači

which I wish to place the subject before us. By the public will, thus mentioned, the the public will ? Do gentlemen intend to

The constitution is of recent date ; it gentlemen mean, the will of a popular ina. destroy every federal teature in this confli.

was formed by the muiual conceflions of jority, or, the will of the great states, which, tution ?

conflicting parties, and balanced wi'h a in this case, I repeat it, are ihe fame. Ad is this resolution a precursor to a view io the lecurity of all. Experience aHow is it possible for the gentlemen to in-' coinpl.ie consolidation of the union, and lone can teft its utility, aud rime and prac. crease the chances of gratilying this del. to the establifhment of a fimple republic? lice discover its faules. It is a sound policription of the public will, without de. Or will it Tusfice to break down every tion that you should never aiicmpt 2! alcreasing the agency of the small itaies ? federative feature which secures to one teration in an i: siromasni su com:



For 1804


and calculated to serve so many various

Sect. 3. A Secretary of the territory and oppolite interests, without being able,

shall also be appointed, who shall hold his by the test of experiment, to-discern clear.

office during the term of four years, un, ly the necessity of alteration, and without

lels sooner removed by the President of a moral certainty, that the change shall not

the United States, whose duty it shall be, un. only remove an existing evil, but that it

der the direction of the Be it our weekly task,

governor, to reshall not produce any it felt. The article

cord and preserve all the papers and proin the constitution establishing the mode of

To note the passing tidings of the times.

ceedings of the executive, and all the acts electing a chief magiftrate ; and which is


of the governor and legislative council, now proposed to be altered, was undoubt.

Hudson, January 17, 1804.

and transmit authentic copies of the pro. edly one of the most difficult parts of the

ceedings of the governor in his executive whole, at its formation. I am convinced,

department, every 6 months, to the Prel. fir, that the public mind is not sufficiently


ident of the United States. In case of impressed with the difficulty of adopting,

the vacancy of the office of governor, not only an unexceptionable, but even a At the date of our last arcounts, New. the government of the said territory shall tolerable and practicable mode of electing a Orleans was in possession of the French

devolve on the secretary. chiet magistrate ; possessing such impor- their flag was flying, and they were wait Sect. 4. The legislative power shall be tant and extensive powers, as are consti- ling for the Americans to take possession. vested in the governor, and in twentytutionally vested in the President of the U.

four of the most fit and discreet persons nited States.

An attempt to detail the The Governor of Massachusetts has ot. of the territory, to be called the legifla. number and magnitude of his powers, to fered a reward of 500 dollars for the ap

tive council, who shall be selected annu. this Senate, would be impertinent : But I prehension of three villains, who lately

prehension of three villains, who lately I ally by the governor, from among those it muft and will be acknowledged by all, robbed William H. Sumner, on the neck

robbed William H. Sumner, on the neck holding real eitate therein, and who shall that the President is vested with powers between Boston and Roxbury.

have resided one year, at least, in the said vastly extensive and importart, and that he

territory, and hold no office of profit unwill bring with him into the government IN 'THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES,

der the territory, or of the United States. more or lels of state politics and state pre.

The governor, by and with the advice judices, and thele facts, to which may Mr. Breckenridge reported from the Committee ap.

and consent of the said legislative council, be added the probability that he will be taken

pointed on the subject,

or of a majority of them, shall have pow. from a large state, must have increased the


er to alter, modify or repeal the laws which difficulties of the convention, in fixing on Erecting Louisiana into two Territories, and provi.

may be in force at the commencement of a mode of choice.

ding for the Temporary Government thereof;

this act. Their legislative powers shall allo which was read, and passed to the second reading.

extend to all the rightful subje&ts of legis. How often have contests, wars and

lation ; but no law shall be valid which is bloodshed, the destruction of confedera. Be it enacted, by the Senate and House

inconsistent with the conftitution of the U. cies, of liberty, and of vast portions of of Representatives of the United States

nited States, with the laws of Congress, of America in Congress assembled, that the human race, arisen from the election all that portion of country ceded by burthen, or disability, on account of his

or which lays any person under restraint, of chief magistrates ? When we conlid

France to the United States, under the religious opinions, declarations, or er that the powers vested in a President of this union, are fufficiently important to

name of Louisiana, which lies south of thip; in all which he shall be free to mainexcite the avarice and ambition of the hu- the Misillippi territory, and of an ealt

tain bis own, and not be burthened for those man heart, its two most active principles, and west line palling from Mislissippi riv.

of another. The governor shall publish to gain pofTefiion of the office; when we conlider the difference of sentiment habit toches, so the weftern boundery of the throughout the faid territory, all the laws

which shall be made, and shall from time and intereit in this country; state pride,

faid ceflion, shall constitute a territory of
the United States, under the name of the

to time, report the lame to the President and state jealousy, which could never be

of the United States, to be laid before territory of Orleans; the government Congrels ; which i! disapproved of by Jaid asleep; the difficulties of fixing upon

whereot shall be organized and adminis. Congress, shall thenceforth be of no force. a proper mode of election, must be almost

tered as follows: infinitely multiplied. And yet this arti

The governor or legislative council shall cle is now selected for alteration. All the a Sect. 2. The executive power shall be have no power over the primary disposal mendments which have been hitherto a. vested in a governor, who shall reside in of the soil, nor tax the lands of the United dopted, went to some general explanation, the faid territory and hold his office dur- States, nor to interfere with the claims to apon very general principles, not chan- ing the term of three years, unless tooner land within the said territory. The gov. ging, but rather expounding the consti removed by the President of the United ernor ihall convene, prorogue, and dissolve

States. He shall be commander in chief tution.

he legillative council, whenever he may of the militia of the said territory ; shall deem it expedient. It hall be his duty to This, as I have before said, is taking have power to grant pardons for offences obtain all the information in his power, in up the inost difficult and the most impor against the said territory, and reprieves for relation to the customs, habits, and dispo. tant article in the constitution, both ia re. those against the United States, until the sitions of the inhabitants of the said territolation to rights and principles. But it is

decision of the President of the United ry, and communicate the same from time said that experience has shown us the ne States thereon shall be made known; and to time to the President of the United Siates. cessity of an alteration in this article ;

to appoint and commission all officers, Sect. 5. The judicial power thall be that an evil has been found in practice to civil and of the militia, whose appoint. || vested in a fuperior court, and such infe. grow out of the constitutional provision, ments are not herein otherwise provided | rior courts, and justices of the peace, as which calls imperiously for a remedy. for, and which shall be established by the legislature of the territory may from

law. He shall take care that the laws be ime to time establih. The juriges of the [TO BE CONTINUED.] faithfully executed.

superior court and the justices of the peace,



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shall hold their offices for the term of appointed by the President in the recess of

are afraid the gun boats, and all the rest of e years. The superior court shall consist of the senate, but to be nominated at the next the boats, will remain at home until a inu.c

three judges, any one of whom shall con meeting thereof, for their advice and con favorable opportunity occurs. ftitute a court : they shall have jurisdi&tion fent ; under the orders of which com

We understand, that in the Gazette of in all criminal cases, and exclufive jurid mandant, the officers, troops, and militia | this evening, or, at farthest, the beginning diction in all those which are capital; and of his station shall be ; who in cases where

of next week, there will be published a original and appellate jurisdiction in all the military have used, under the laws | spirited proclamation from his majelly, civil.cases of the value of one hundred dol. heretofore exifing, fhall act by written orlars. Its sessions shall commence on the ders, and not in person ; and who Thali itating, that until the English in France,

detained as prisoners of war in such manis first Monday of every month, and contin. receive as a full compensation, the pay, I felt violation of the law of nations be reue till all the business depending before rations, and emoluments, allowed io a

lealed, no priloners taken by us will be them shall be disposed of. In all criminal colonel in the army of the United States prosecutions which are capital, the trial shall akting at a leparate station. The President permited io be exchanged. be by a jury of twelve good and lawful men of the United States, however, may unite

Paris papers to the ed, and Dutch jourof the vicinage ; and in all cases criminal the districts of two or more commandants

nals to the 7th inst. have been received. and civil, in the superior court, the trial of posts in one, where their proximity, or

An article from Vienna, of the 20th ult. shall be by a jury, if either of the parties case of intercourse, will permit, without

ftates, in positive terms, the complete fai. require it. The inhabitants of the said ter injury to the inhabitants thereof; The Courts of St. Petersburgh and Berlin, for

lure of the negociations carried on by the ritory shall be entitled to the benefits of the governor shall receive an annual fallary of writ of the habeas corpus ; they shall be dollars, payable quarter.yearly at the the purpose of adjusting the differences be. bailable, unless for capital offences where

iween France and this country. treasury of the United States. the proot shall be evident, or the prelump Seât. 9. The President of the United

The following official return of our Vol. tion great ; and no cruel or unusual pun. States is hereby authorized to stipulate with

unteer Force was made on Friday at the

War-Office ishment ihall be intl Eted.

any Indian tribes owning lands on the east Seat, 6. The laws in force at the com

Infantry, side of the Mississippi, and residing there

297,502 mencement of this act, and not inconfift on for exchange of lands, the property of

31,600 ent with the preceding restrictions, shall the United States, on the west side of the


6,207 continue in torce, until altered, modified, Mifidlippi, in cale the said tribes shall reor repealed by the legislature. move and settle theron : but in such stip

Total 335,209! Sect. 7. The governor, secretary, judg. ulation, the said tribes shall acknowledge

If we add to these our Regulars and Mi. es, and all general officers of the militia, themselves to be under the protection of

litia, we too may boast our 500,000 Fightshall be appointed by the President of the the United States, and shall agree, that ling Men. United States, in the recess of the senate, they will not hold any treaty with any forbut shall be noininated at their next meet. eign power, individual ftate, or with the

DUNKIRK, OCT. 25. ing for their advice and consent. The individuals of any state or power; and that

We here from Vallenciennes, that all the . governor, secretary, judges, members of they will not sell or dispose of the said lands English prisoners in that town have been the legislative council, justices of the peace, or any part thereof to any fovereign pow. . The reason alligned for this is, that four

sent to Luxemburgh, 'under a Arong guard. and all other officers civil, and of the mili er, except the United States, nor to the tia, before they enter upon the duties of fubje&s or citizens of any other sovereign

English prisoners, at large on their parole, their respective offices, hall take an oath power, nor to the citizens of the United | lately made their escape. Most of the Irish or affirmation, to lupport the constitu'ion States. And in order to maintain peace | They have colourably a certificate from

in France, are permitted to go at large. of the United States, and for the faithful and tranquility with the Indian tribes who discharge of the duties of their office; the reside within the limits of Louisiana, as

fome Ambassador, generally the American, governor, before the President of the Unit ceded by France to the United States, the

which by direction is never examined. Fif. ed States, or before a judge of the supreme || act of congress passed on the thirtieth day I tythousand men are thought sufficient to or district court of the United Şiates; the of March, one thousand eight hundred and

carry Ireland. They reckon on iwo thirds secretary, judges, and members of the le two, entitled "An act to regulate trade and

of the population of that country being with gislative council, beforethe governor ; and

them. intercourle with the Indian tribes and to all other officers, before such períons as prelerve peace on the frontiers," is here.

Great pains are taken to remove all lense the governor shall direct. The governor by extended to the territories erected and

of fear of the English navy ; and to this ef. shall receive an annual salary of dol. establilhed by this act.

fect Itrong intimations are given that there lars; the fecretary of dollars; and the

Sect. 10. This a&t shall be in force from lubduing it. The effect of these insinua.

are more ways than one of avoiding, it not judges of dollars each ; to be paid

the end of the present feflion of congress. quarter-yearly out of the revenue of impost

tions is to inspirit the common soldiery, and and tonnage, accruing within the saidier

diminish their dread of naval power. ritory. The members of the legislative

LONDON, NOV. 12. council fhall receive no compensation. Our Dover correspondent observes in his Seet. 8. The residue of the province of leder dated Thursday, Nov. 10, four

MARRIED, Louisiana, ceded to the United States, shall o'clock, P. M.“ About nine o'clock this

Io this city, by Mr. Sampson, on the evening of remain under the same name and form of morning, the whole of the blockading

the 13th ult. Mr. DANIEL RODMAN, student of government as heretofore ; save only, that squadron stationed for some time off Bou

law at Albany, to Miss ELIZA JENKINS, of the paramount powers exercised by the logne, was seen from our heights fteer

Hudson. tormer governors of the province, 'shalling for the Downs. The wind strong at now be transfered to a governor to be ap- N. W. Bonaparte's armada may, therepointed by the President of the United fore, now put to led, without any inter

DIED, States; and that the powers exercised by !ruption from our ships.


At Claverack, on Tuesday morning last, Mrs. the commandant of a poft or district, shall however, the wind has shifted to W. N. GERTRUDE VAN Ness, in the 97th year of het be bereafter vested in a civil ollicer, to be W. and blows such a hurricane, that we



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Resølv'd (remote from noise and strife)

In peace to pass his latter life.

AT the close of the season in which
It was proclaim'd ; the day was set ;

Shuter first became so universally and so Behold the gen’ral council met.

deservedly celebrated, for performing the The Wireaty. The Fox was Viceroy nam'd. The crowd

character of Master Stephen, in the reviv. To the new Regent humbly bow'd.

ed comedy of Every Man in his Hu. Wolves, bears, and mighty tigers bend,

mour, he was engaged to perform a few And strive who most shall condescend.

nights in a principal city in the north of He straight assumes a solemn grace,

England-It happened, that the stage in
Collects his wisdom in his face.

which he went down (and in which there The crowd admire his wit, his sense ;

was only an old gentleman and himself) DESCRIPTION OF AN

Each word hath weight and consequence. was stopped on ihe other side Finchley
The flatt'rer all his art displays:

Common, by a single highwayman, who
He who hath pow'r is sure of praise.

having put the usual compliment to the old A Fox stepp'd forth before the rest,

gentleman, and receiving his contribution, A RURAL POEM. And thus the servile throng addressid :

turned towards Shuter (who fat on the other

Ide of the coach afleep or at least pretended How vast his talents, born to rule,

to be fo faluting him with a smart flap on And train'd in virtue's honest school!

the face, and presenting his pistol, he com. Few years are past, since, on the paddock green,

What clemency his temper sways !

manded him to deliver his money inftantly, Deneath the hill, the old Farm House was seen,

How uncorrupt are all his ways !

or he was a dead man. “ Money,” returns Round which the barley-mows and wheat ricks rose,

Beneath his conduct and command

Shuter, with a shrug, a very deliberate yawn, And cattle sought refreshment and repose.

Rapine shall cease to waste the land :

and a countenance inexpressibly vacant, The cock, proud marching with his cackling train,

His brain haih stratagem and art ;

O lud, Sir, they never truits me with any, Sought the barn-door, to pick the scatter'd grains ;

Prudence and mercy rule his heart.

for nuncle here, always pays

for me twin. The trotting sow her spotted offspring led,

What blessings must attend the nation

pikes an'all, your honour." The highway. And gobbling turkies rear'd their crimson heads.

Under this good administration !

man gave him a few curles for liis fiupidiiy,' The mistress there, and blooming daughters drest

and rode off, while the old gentlemangrun

He said. A Goose, who distant stood, In russet stuffs, their new.made cheeses prest,

bled, and Shuicr with infinite fatisfaétion Summond the swine the full repast to share,

Harrangued apart the cackling brood.

and laugh, pursued the rest of his journey. And rais'd their poultry with assiduous care,

Whene'er I hear a knare commend, From whose increase their private fortune grew,

He bids me shun his worthy friend, Their ancient right, and still acknowledged due ;


What praise ! what mighty commendation !
While in the fields young master held ihe plough,
But 'tiras a Fox wlio spoke th' oraiion.

FOR 1804.
Form'd the square load, or trod the fragrant niow :

Foxes this government may prize

To City Subscribers, Two Dollars and Fifty Familiar still, he crack'd the ready joke,

As gentle, plentiful, and wise ;

Cents, payable quarterly. And sure applause attended all he spoke.

If they enjoy the sweets, 'tis plain,

To those who receive them by mail, Two Dol. For change, sometimes, with unremitting care,

We Geese must feel a tyrant reign. He led his heathful stock to pastures fair,

What havoc now shall thin our race,

lars, payable in advance. Along ihe green-woods verge would guard the fold When ev'ry petty clerk in place,

To those who take their papers at the office, in From crafty foxes and marauders boid ;

To prove his taste, and seeni polite,

bundles, or otherwise, a deduction from the city The helpless lambs, with tender toil, would guide Will feed on Geese both noon and night!" price will be niade. To shelt'ring bush, or hay stack's sunny side ;

A handsome Title Page and Table of Contents, In herbs and simples he was skill'd full well,

will accompany the last number of the volume. He taught their virtues crude disease to quell;

Advertisements inserted in a handsome and con. And, on the festive eve of shearing heard


spicuous manner, in the Advertiser which accompallis praise proclaim'd his noblest, best reward !

nies the Balance. By rain confin'd, the sounding fiail he plied,

Norscorn'd the meanest lab'rer by his side.
All day the rustic clamour fili'd the air,

Ν Ο Τ Ε.
And health, content, and cheerfulness were there.

A GAY young spark, of a deistical The first and second Volumes of the Balance; turn, travelling in a stage coach to Lon may be hall on the following terms. don, forced his sentiments on the compa First Volume--unbound

S 2 ny, by attempting to ridicule the Scrip. Second l'olume,

S 2, 50 Literary Oleanings. tures; and among other topics, made hun. Botb Volumes,

S 4 self merry with the story of David and Co

If bound, the price of binding (either plain or elFOR THE BALANCE. liah, strongly urging the impossibility of a

egant) will be added. — An unbound volume may be youth like David, being able to throw a

sent to any post-office in the state for 52 cents post. stone with sufficient force, to sink into the I HAVE always admired the pleasant il giant's forehead.

age ; or to any post office in the union for 78 cents. giant's forehead. On this he appealed to and easy ityle in which Gay wrote his the company, and in particular to a grave fables. In the following, the politician | gentleman of the denomination called will find many touches that cannot fail | Quakers, who fat filent in one corner of

HARRY CROSWELL, to please him :the carriage.--" Indeed, friend," replied

Warren-Street, Hudson. " A Lion, tir'd with state affairs,

he, “I do not think it at all improbable, WHERE PRINTING IN GENERAL IS EXECUTID Quite sick of pomp, and worn with cares, if the Philistine's head was as soft as thine."

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governments which are exercised by a It will, in their main course ; ftill, the

representative body, obtain the name of force of sudden temptation may caulethem, Hither the products of your closet-labors bring, Republics.

for a time, to swerve from the line of Enrich our columns, and instruct mankind. What may be esteemed the best form of duty. government ?

Does not external respect for wife and
That is the best form which, in a given

virtuous men imply the reality and precase, shall ensure the best administration ;

vailing influence of true religion, in a POLITICAL CATECHISM. or #hall draw into exercise the most wil.

State or nation ? dom, virtue and power. But no form of

It does; and this may secure important Being a sketch of what might, on a matured plan,

government is the best for all nations, or, blessings to the State, by securing the blesbe taught in Schools, and also, by Heads of Families, to Youth and Children. at all times, for any one nation.

fings of heaven. What principles are necessary to sup.

What are the means proper to form a (CONTINUED.) port Republican freedom ?

people of this character ? Intelligence and virtue in the mass of

The institution of the youth in colleges, the people. Intelligence to discern, and

or in common schools, the support of the HICH are the principal de. virtue to choose, wise and good men for public worship of God, the prompt exeFartments of Government ?

public employment. This is the basis on cution of the laws of the State, and the They are the Legislative, Executive, which rests the whole fabric of Republi.

diffusion of information among the people and Judicial departments. can Freedom.

from the press, are among the principal What are their several provinces ? What is intended by virtue as applied

means of this. To the Legislative belongs the business to this subject ? :

Is it not important that heads of fami. of legislation, or the enacting of laws for By virtue is intended that temper

lies, schools and colleges, instruct the the government of the State ; to the Ex which prefers the public interest, when || youth under their care, in the principles ecutive, that of carrying into effect the feen, to any private interest ; or, at least,

seen, to any private interest; or, at leaft

, ll of government, and inculcate the duties measures adopted by the Legislature, for to any which will prelent itself, in the or

which they owe to it as citizens ? the general defence and safety, with prin- || dinary course of events.

It is; and much improvement might cipal reference to foreign relations ; to

Is not this the same as true religion ? || be made in the education of the youth, in the Judicial, that ot interpreting the laws, 'It is either true religion, or that rel.

this relpect, and our critical situation, as a and dispensing justice to the citizens and

peat for it, which, in the usual state of nation, demands particular attention to this others who may be parties in suits.- things, governs the external conduct.

subject. But the various powers of government Will this external respect for religion

Is the public worship of God esential are variously distributed in smaller matmake those, who pollefs no higher prin

to the well being of the State ? ters, among the several departments. ciple, true to the public intereft, in all

It is ; the love and fear of God, the What are the principal forms of gov events ?

common father and saviour of men are ernment?

It will not ; all such men will have | promoted by it, and these are the grand They are those which are exercised by their price ; but, in

their price ; but, in a settled state of cement of society. one, by the few, or by the many, and the things, that price will seldom be offered. The reason if you please ? various combinations of these ; the first Will not virtue in its proper sense, fe. The reason is this : that the love and is called monarchy ; the second, aristoc cure the fidelity of those who polefs it, fear of God are a principle of justice and racy; and the third, democracy, Thole to the interest of the State ?

good will to men, who are the offspring

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