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named building being donated by him to his fellow Catholics on condition that his body be allowed to rest under its altar.
“Baroness de Pontalba was active in having the name of the square changed to that of New Orleans' hero, and largely contributed to the erection of that hero's statue, the unveiling of which she witnessed from the balcony of her splendid row of new buildings.
“This square was also the scene of the drama which in 1803 culminated in the closing of the French and Spanish rule in Louisiana and the inauguration of an ownership in which the United States acquired territory larger than itself, and which purchase raised this republic to the position of first class among powers.
“This square, surveyed in 1718, has been the scene of many public gatherings of historic note. Indignant citizens met here to protest against the Spanish occupation in 1764. Alejandro O'Reilly in 1769 reviewed here the 4000 troops brought over by him from Spain to suppress the revolution, and a few days later the shots that gave Louisiana her first patriot martyrs echoed across this spot.
“The cession back to France by Spain, and from France to the United States in 1803, both occasions with military éclat, marked the end of monarchial ownership—and the next scene, the crowning of Jackson with laurels, began the epoch of American activity that has made New Orleans one of the greatest marts of the world.
“General Lafayette was welcomed to the Crescent City in this square, and a beautiful triumphal arch was built in its center to dignify the occasion; this was in 1826. The Cabildo was fitted up for Lafayette's accommodation and temporarily bore the name of 'Maison de Lafayette.'
"Zachary Taylor, returning from Mexico, was another conquering hero honored in the old square with much ceremony.
"The statue to Jackson is by Clark Mills and marks the spot where the American flag of fifteen stars was unfurled in 1803. This statue was unveiled by Henry Clay. The Cabildo, now occupied by the Supreme Court of Louisiana, and shortly to be permanently dedicated by the Louisiana State Museum as its History Department (1910) was, during the Spanish régime, the governing seat of the Mississippi Valley. It became later the City Hall (Hôtel de Ville).
“It was in the Sala Capitular, now the Supreme Court room of this building, that the documents were signed that turned over to the administration of Thomas Jefferson the greatest domain ever peaceably acquired in the history of the world. The Louisiana Historical Society will have its domicile in this room when the building will be turned over to the State Museum–1910.
“The Cathedral is the third building occupying its site, two parish churches previously had been there; this present structure was erected in 1796.
“The Presbytère of early days, which balances the Cabildo on the opposite side of the Cathedral, is now used as the Civil District Court House. It will be occupied in 1910 by the Commerce and Industry Department of the State Museum.
“We now pass into Chartres Street (old Condé), and three blocks down we come to the oldest original building in all the country west of the Alleghanies, half a century older than the Spanish Missions of California, viz: The Ursuline Convent of 1727, later the State Capitol and to-day the business office of the Archdiocese of New Orleans, the residence of the Chancellor under His Grace, Archbishop Blenk.
“The building, remarkable for its construction, is built of brick imported by the Western Company; its woodwork done by ship carpenters; hardware made in a blacksmith's shop ; its timbers hewn with an adze, all giving testimony to-day of the thoroughness of our early pioneers. It was built in six years; the Ursuline nuns, during all that time, were provided for by Governor Périer, who gave them Bienville's house to live in.
“It was in the rear of this Convent that O'Reilly, Spanish Governor, ordered the execution of the first American revolu
tionists, in 1769. Many distinguished visitors have entered its historic portals during the two hundred years of its existence. Louis Philippe (later King of the French), General Jackson and other notable personages have left their names upon its records.
“From Esplanade, another avenue which owes its fair dimensions to the space left by New Orleans' ancient fortifications, we pass into Burgundy Street, and leave behind us the Vieux Carré of 1815.
“We are now riding over the site of the Marigny plantation, in whose country home the great naturalist, Audubon, was born.
“The present Convent of the Ursuline nuns attracts attention next. This sisterhood was the first to teach in America (1727). They entered this building in 1824.
“We come now to Jackson Barracks, partly fortified and always occupied by several companies in the United States service.
“On the opposite side of the river, in view of the Barracks, is seen the large 'dry dock' anchored alongside the Government Naval Reservation. This dock is capacious, the largest in America, and will lift any ship that floats to-day.
“We next pass the 'abattoirs,' whence the meat supply for the city is obtained by methods scientific and humane.
"The immense building rising before us is the largest sugar refinery in the world, the ‘American Sugar Refinery.'
“And now we approach the memorable battlefield of 1815, where was decided the fate of New Orleans, perhaps of all Louisiana. Here were buried many hundreds of brave English after the battle; but the cemetery to-day is a national one and is the resting place of Federal soldiers who fell in the civil war.
“Here Andrew Jackson won that "fair renown' which raised him to the Presidential chair."
Taking part in the ride were the Governor of Louisiana, the Mayor of New Orleans, Members of Congress from Louisiana, and other distinguished guests.
At the conclusion of the ride the party embarked on vessels of the government service and proceeded to Jackson Barracks from the foot of Canal Street. After an inspection of the troops at the Barracks the party assembled at a luncheon in the Barracks, tendered by the Society and arranged for by Lieutenant-Colonel Stephen M. Foote and his officers. Professor Fortier was on the programme to make an address during this luncheon, but it was not expected that the guest of the day would be called upon to reply. President Taft, however, showed his appreciation of the effort made to provide a unique entertainment for him in an impromptu address of great felicity.
ADDRESS OF PROFESSOR FORTIER.
“We have now completed the historical ride, during which we have had the pleasure of being guides to a highly distinguished party, and as chairman of the committee, I shall have the honor to give, on this occasion, an outline of Louisiana's contribution to the history of the United States, and, I may add, to the history of the world.
“Indeed, Mr. President, the events which have taken place on our soil have more than local importance, and should be known to all Americans. As citizens of the United States we take an interest in the glorious records of all the States of the American Union. We read with pleasure the inscriptions to be found on the monuments in Boston, at Lexington and at Concord, but we do not believe that all the history of our country is centered in and around Boston. We believe that a great part of that history took place in and around New Orleans.
“On leaving Canal Street at Rue Royale you entered, Mr. President, the Vieur Carre of our city, the Nouvelle-Orleans of 1718, which is so admirably situated between the deep and broad Mississippi and beautiful Lake Pontchartrain. Bienville had understood the great importance of establishing his new town on the banks of the mighty river which we see rushing towards the Gulf. The Mississippi had been explored to its mouth in 1682 by the heroic La Salle, who had given to the immense country watered by it and its tributaries the euphonious name of Louisiane, for Louis XIV, who was then ruling France with untiring energy and wonderful magniticence. La Salle's discoveries were of great importance for the future history of the United States, and so were, in 1699, the settlement of the colony of Louisiana at Old Biloxi, now Ocean Springs, and the rediscovery of the Mississippi by Iberville, the brave Canadian sailor.
“The streets of New Orleans bear still the names given them by the founder of the city. We have Royale, Bourbon, Bourgogne, Orleans, Conti, St. Louis, and we had Conde, now Chartres, where we have just seen the Archbishopric, formerly the Convent of the Ursuline nuns, who were the first teachers of girls in the colony, and who contributed to give to the women of New Orleans the elegance and charm which still characterize them. The gentle Sisters arrived in 1727, and their order has had a distinguished career in Louisiana.
“It was no easy matter to succeed in establishing a colony in the New World, and the French, under Iberville and Bienville, and the descendants of those men, were just as energetic as the Englishmen who settled Virginia and Massachusetts. On the banks of the Mississippi there were forests to be cut down in order to cultivate the fertile land deposited by the great river; the turbulent waters of that river were to be held in their bed by strong embankments, and the hostile Natchez and Chickasaws had to be subdued. It was only then that the work of civilization could be begun, and the admirable culture of the French could be extended to the Mississippi Valley. The future of New Orleans was predicted in 1722 by Father Charlevoix, who said that the place would one day be an opulent city and the metropolis of a great and rich colony. The prediction has been verified and New Orleans is at present the metropolis of our Southern country, and, with the opening