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was approved by the Senate on Oct. 28 of that year. On the following day the ratifications of the two governments were exchanged and the treaty was publicly proclaimed by the President. Less than two months later the French flag was hauled down from the territory, never to be raised again, and in its place the glorious Stars and Stripes went up, never, let us hope, to be replaced. On March 26, 1804, was approved an act creating the territory of Orleans, and by the act of Feb. 20, 1811, the people of the territory of Orleans were authorized to form themselves a constitution and state government.
“Meanwhile, in 1810, Captain George Depasson and Captain Thomas, with 120 men, captured the Spanish garrison at Baton Rouge and a provisional government was established by the people and on the 29th of September, 1810, an act declaring the territory of West Florida to be a free and independent state,” was passed by a convention of the people. By direction of Congress the President took possession of the province, and on Dec. y Governor Claiborne raised the flag of the United States at St. Francisville. A little later the whole district was by proclamation annexed to the territory of Orleans and divided into the six parishes of East Baton Rouge, Feliciana, St. Helena, St. Tammany, Pascagoula and Biloxi. On April 14, 1812, an act of Congress was approved enlarging the limits of the state of Louisiana by the inclusion of the parishes of the district between the Mississippi and Pearl Rivers, thus giving to the state of Louisiana its present limits.
“The people of the territory having on Jan. 22, 1812, formed for themselves a constitution and a state government, and given to the state the name of the State of Louisiana, Congress, by an act approved April 8, 1812, declared the state of Louisiana to be one of the United States of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states. It was not, however, until April 30, 1812, 100 years ago today, that by its final provision the act took force and the state of Louisiana entered into that galaxy of states whose luster has grown with the years and will continue to shine undimmed so long as popular government shall rest on good, wise and patriotic citizenship.
“For more than 120 years prior to the cession to the United States, the vast region comprised within the Louisiana purchase had been in the possession alternately of either Spain or France, Accustomed to laws, habits, language and government so different from their own, it is not surprising that the act by which they were converted from subjects to citizens was not at first regarded with enthusiasm by the original inhabitants of the ceded territory. The disfavor with which they viewed the transfer was augmented rather than diminished by the provisions for their government contained in the act of 1804, and by the possibly injudicious selection of the officers to administer them, who are said to have had no knowledge of the language of the people and no sympathy with their feelings.
“English was established as the official language of the government and courts of justice, and the innovation of trial by jury was introduced. The native population refused to forsake their mother tongue, and as juries were chosen by lot, it often happened that some of the jurors knew no English, and confusion was the result. Much apprehension was excited among the people of the country by the first laws passed by Congress relative to the land titles, and the failure of Congress to allow them to elect their own Legislature was regarded as an indignity put upon them. Events, liowever, were shaping toward a fusion of the Latin and AngloSaxon elements and the drawing closer of Louisiana to the Federal Union. The process of assimilation was begun by the putting into operation of the territorial government of Louisiana as an integral part of the United States, but its progress was hindered by neighborhood of a hostile foreign power. While the United States was establishing its authority in the Orleans territory, Spain still retained its hold of West Florida.
Spanish garrisons were maintained at Baton Rouge and Natchez. The town of Natchitoches, on the western frontier of the Orleans territory, was in the possession of Spanish troops, and the town of Mobile was held by the Spaniards, notwithstanding the right of the United States to West Florida. This was the situation when, on July 25, 1805, the arch conspirator, Aaron Burr, landed at New Orleans with his scheme for the invasion of Texas and Mexico and the erection of a new government in the Southwest. Burr's later bold movements appeared to threaten New Orleans, into which city he had sent many secret agitators of his scheme. Governor Claiborne warned the people of the penalty affixed to treason by the laws of the United States. Martial law prevailed; but while Burr's treason had found favor with some, his machinations found no response in the large majority of the people, who remained loyal and in full accord with Governor Claiborne.
“The time was now approaching when the prophecy of Na. poleon, 'I have given to England a rival that will sooner or later humble her pride,' was to be in a measure fulfilled.
“The war of 1812 with England had little effect upon Louisiana until near its close; but in the fall of 1814 it became apparent that New Orleans would be attacked. General Jackson hastened to its defense, and on that memorable 8th of January, 1815, the army of Pakenham was crushed. It is said that Jackson came to New Orleans 'with many of the preconceived American prejudices against the native inhabitants,' and that he had been warned by one in high authority that the loyalty of the people to the United States was questioned, and that there were many treacherously-inclined people in the city of New Orleans especially. After the battle he publicly thanked the citizens of New Orleans for their enthusiastic patriotism. Had New Orleans and the Creoles been disloyal the battle of New Orleans might not have been won. The names of Villeré and Plauché, of Latour, Dacquin and Lacaste and of the Battalion d'Orleans, as well as the memory of the patriotic Creole women who gave their time as hospital nurses, bear witness to their loyalty. By the battle of New Orleans prejudices were removed; the French and American inhabitants became better acquainted; the harriers raised between them by difference of language and customs were, in great part, removed. Louisiana became more firmly cemented to the other states and began that rapid march of progress which has made her the great state she is today.
“During the Spanish rule of Louisiana immigration was restricted rather than encouraged. So it is not a matter of wonder that at the time of its acquisition by the United States the favorablysituated city of New Orleans had but 8,000 inhabitants. So soon as the annexation to the United States took place there was a notable emigration to Louisiana from other parts of the country. With an equable climate and a fertile and alluvial soil, nearly all of which was capable of cultivation, the State of Louisiana afforded unusual attraction to the planter and the agriculturist. Within its borders could be raised not only sugar cane, cotton, tobacco and rice, but fruits and berries, wheat, corn and truck and forage crops. Its forests, said to be to-day the best and finest of their kind remaining in the United States, offered opportunity for the lumber men, while today her mineral resources, though few, include salt, sulphur, petroleum and natural gas. In 1907 Louisiana ranked seventh in the states in salt production, while for the same year her sulphur output was more than $5,000,000 and her petroleum production exceeded 5,000,000 barrels. The fisheries of Louisiana too, afforded a remunerative field. Her lakes, rivers and streams and her coast waters were, as they are to-day, stocked with a varied and abundant supply of fish, to say nothing of the great oyster industry of the gulf, which yet awaits a larger development. : “But it is not to her soil or her natural resources alone that Louisiana owes her prosperity and her greatness. Lying at the mouth of one of the greatest river systems of the world, which drains a great temperate zone equal, as has been said, in extent to all Europe, except Russia, and situated between two mountain ranges, with 19,000 miles of navigable rivers and one-fourth of the railroad mileage of the world, Louisiana is the natural gateway to the ocean of the products of the soil and mines and the factories of this great valley. Especially is this true with respect to the almost unopened markets of the countries bordering the Caribbean Sea. New Orleans is the logical entrepot of the products which those republics export to the United States. It is logically and, in fact, a great distributing point for our exports to Central America and the Caribbean. It is due to this favorable situation that New Orleans is today the second port of the United States in the amount of its foreign trade.
The possibilities of future commercial growth for New Orleans which will be greatly stimulated by the opening of the canal, are shown in some degree by the record of the last few years. I find that in 1907 the imports through this great port were substantially $46,000,000, while in 1911 they had mounted to nearly $67,000,000. An increase of $20,000,000, over 40 per cent, in the short space of four years is certainly a gratifying indication of the trade that may be confidently expected when the water way is opened and the distances between New Orleans and the ports of the west coast of South America, Australia and the Orient are shortened, as they will be, by so many thousands of miles.
Great as has been the growth of the progress of Louisiana during the past hundred years, who can fortell the advancement that