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David went away into the wilderness, and all his faithful subjects went with him, wherever he went. Which is agreeable to what is represented to be the spirit and practice of the true followers of Christ in the time of Antichrist, Rev. xix. 4. "These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth."
1 KINGS XIX. 19, 20.-" So he departed thence and found Elisha," &c. The truth with respect to what is related in these verses probably was thus. Elijah was directed by the Spirit of God to cast his mantle upon Elisha. But Elijah had not the design of God fully made known to him; supposing it to be intended as a sign that Elisha should be prophet after him, agreeable to what God had said to him at Mount Sinai. But God had a farther meaning in it, which was intimated by his Spirit, which went with Elijah's mantle as it passed over to Elisha; viz., that he should immediately forsake all, and devote himself to the performance of the business of a prophet. Elisha, supposing that Elijah had this design of God made known to him, and had been directed to cast his mantle on him, with this view, has at first some reluctance, and desires of Elijah that, by his prayers, he would obtain leave of God for him to go first and kiss his father and mother. Elijah, surprised at this request, as was natural, supposing him thus ignorant, says, Go back; for what have I done that should hinder it? However, Elisha, who understood the mind of God, soon recovers from his reluctance, and went no further back than his oxen; and took them and the instruments, and offered up all to God, signifying by this action, his full consent to make a sacrifice of all his worldly possessions to the great and infinitely important concerns of his ministry.
2 CHRON. V. 12, 13, 14.-When the priests and Levites were as one to make one sound, in praising God with singing and instruments of music, saying, He is good, for his mercy endureth forever, then the glory of the Lord came and filled the house. So, when it shall come to that in the latter days, that the ministers of the gospel shall generally be united in preaching the true doctrines of it, those doctrines that are in a peculiar manner evangelical, by which is manifested the glory of God's eternal mercy; free, sovereign, and immutable grace, through Christ Jesus, and shall be united in affection, and act in union, as fellow laborers and fellow helpers, then shall the glory of God remarkably appear; the Spirit of God, a spirit of light, holiness and joy, shall descend from heaven in a very new and glorious manner, and remarkable success attend the preaching of the gospel everywhere; and then shall be the proper commencement of the church's rest, peace and glory upon earth. The peaceful reign of Solomon, in the possession of unparalleled wisdom, riches and glory, after the militant and tumultuous reign of David, is evidently typical of the peaceful, joyous, and glorious reign of Christ in the latter day and God's dwelling in the temple, as the settled place of his rest, after removing to and fro in a tabernacle, is typical of the glorious manner of his dwelling with his church in the latter day, as compared with preceding times. The largeness of the temple compared with the tabernacle, represents the vast increase of the church; and the cloud of glory filling the temple, represents the filling of the whole earth with God's glory.
PSAL. lxxxii. 8.-" Arise, O God, judge the earth, for thou shalt inherit all nations." The design of these words, in their connection with the foregoing verses, confirms, that the princes of Israel are there called gods, and sons of God, with reference to Christ, the true King of Israel, and as being types of him. The three verses in their connection import thus much: God has given these princes and judges the name of gods or sons of God, as they are exalted to the place of kings and saviours of his people, who are God's heritage or king
dom, but they die like men; whereby it appears, that they are no gods, nor are the true sons of God; but were men, and no more than images and shadows of him. But oh! that he who is truly God, who is indeed the Son of God, the true king, judge and saviour of God's people, the antitype of these, would come and reign, not only over the land of Israel, but over the whole earth; when God's Israel shall fill the earth, and all nations shall be God's people. It is observable that when it is said in this verse," Arise, O God," the word God is Elohim, the same that is used verse 6th, "I have said ye are gods." They were called Elohim; but Christ is the true Elohim; just as the manna in the wilderness was called bread, but Christ is the true bread from heaven.
PSALMS lxxiii. 4.-"There are no bands in their death." In the original the words are, Ein, chartzabbuth Lemotham," which might more properly have been rendered, their death hath no bands; the Hebrew of the Latin verb sum, with the prefix Lamed, being used for have. The meaning seems to be, that they appear to be at liberty from death, as though they were out of his reach. Their death is here represented as a person that is indeed their enemy, or an officer of vengeance, that they greatly deserve to be delivered up to, and that has a commission against them, and would fain seize them, and make them his prisoners, but has no bands to bind them. They live long, and live without the fears of death, which are, as it were, the bands of death. That this is the meaning is confirmed by the following words of the sentence: "But their strength is firm."
JER. XXXI. 32. "Not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt." That covenant was, as it were, founded in the redemption out of Egypt. Therefore when God made it with the people, he prefaced it thus: "I am the Lord thy God which brought thee out of the land of Egypt, and out of the house of bondage." It is hence natural to suppose, that the covenant of which the prophet here speaks, would not be one founded on that redemption; but on some other, far better and more glorious redemption.
ZECH. xiv. 4.-" And his feet shall stand that day upon the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem, on the east, and the Mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof towards the east, and towards the west, and there shall be a very great valley," &c. The mountains were round about Jerusalem like a wall; of which Mount Olivet was the chief. This stood on the east, between Jerusalem and the greatest Gentile nations; those nations that were the most malignant and formidable enemies of Israel. The dividing of this mountain under the feet of Zion's Redeemer, and making such a wide valley or plain on the east of Jerusalem, whereby there would be any easy access for the Gentile nations, signifies the breaking down of the partition wall between the church of God, and those that are without, and afar off; and that remarkable removing of obstacles signified by God's causing that every mountain and hill should be brought low; and the drying up of the river Euphrates, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared. The mountain's being thus divided, by Christ's treading on it, significantly and beautifully represents the ease with which, in the exercise of his sovereign and mighty power, he overcomes the strongest and proudest enemies that oppose the salvation of his elect; agreeably to what is said in the fourth chapter of this book, verse 7th," Who art thou, O great mountain! Before Zerubbabel thou shalt become a plain." And chap. viii. 6, "Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, if it be marvellous in the eyes of the remnant of this people in these days, should it also be marvellous in my eyes, saith the Lord of Hosts?" The opening made through the mountains here is
represented as very wide, to signify the abundant grace, and free and open access for vast multitudes; agreeably to Isa. lx. 11, and Rev. xxi. 25.
MATT. xii. 30, "He that is not with me is against me." The true reason of Christ's making this observation in this place, where he is reproving the Pharisees for saying, that he cast out devils by Beelzebub, is this: these Pharisees had, till now, appeared to exercise that kind of prudence, falsely so called, which is commonly to be seen among those, who count themselves wise and great men, and think it becomes them to let matters of religion much alone, and not to appear forward and zealous, or give out their thoughts freely. When, in view of the miracles which Christ wrought, the multitude were affected, and some appeared zealous to follow him; when the esteem that he gained among the people was so great that they apprehended themselves in danger of having their glory eclipsed, and of losing the respect of the people, and their authority over them, the Pharisees could keep silence no longer. They openly showed what was in their hearts before; a fixed enmity against Christ, and that truly they never had been indifferent as they appeared.
HEB. X. 37.-" For yet a little while, and he that shall come, will come, and will not tarry." It cannot be justly inferred from these words, that the apostle expected Christ's last coming to judgment in that generation. All that could reasonably be understood by them is, that the time of their sufferings was short, and it would be but a little season before they would be wholly delivered from all their enemies, and should receive the recompense of the reward they hoped for. This appears by the context, and also by the obvious meaning of the place referred to in the Old Testament. If this and the next verse be compared with Hab. ii. 2, 3, 4, it will be manifest that the apostle refers to what is there said. The vision is for an appointed time, but in the end it shall speak and not lie though it tarry, wait for it, because it will surely come, it will not tarry. Behold his soul which is lifted up is not upright in him; but the just shall live by his faith. The thing that it is there said will come and will not tarry, is God's people's deliverance from the oppression of their enemies, especially from the Babylonish captivity; as appears by the context.
JOHN V. 27.-" And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of Man." Christ is the more fitted to be the judge of men, for his being himself a man, one of the same race, having the same faculties, senses and organs, living in the same world under the same law, and in the midst of the same temptations. It tends to confirm the faith of the saints that their near kinsman and elder brother performed obedience for them, and wrought out the righteousness that they depend upon for justification in the judgment, and also suffered from the same unrighteous enemies; this tends to encourage and confirm their faith that he will vindicate them in the judgment, and plead their righteous cause against their unrighteous enemies.
ROM. viii. 23.-"And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body." The apostle had been representing, in the preceding verses, that the whole creation was, as it were, in a state of travail, to bring to the birth, i. e., to bring the children of God into a state of liberty, happiness and glory. This in verse 19, he calls the manifestation of the sons of God, alluding to children's being brought forth to the light when they are born. This was to have its highest fulfilment at the resurrection, when they shall be born from the grave, and manifested in the most public manner in the proper glory of God's children, and shall receive the most public testimonies of God's fatherly love. Even in this present state, Christians, by
receiving the spirit, which is a filial spirit, a spirit of adoption, are brought forth, as the sons of God, and have the liberty and privileges of God's children in part. Yet it is but in part. They have only the first fruits of the spirit of adopion; and they themselves therefore join with the creation around them, groanwithin themselves, waiting for the most glorious, the ultimate and perfect manifestation of the sons of God, when they shall be born from the grave.
EPHES. i. 18." The glory of his inheritance in the saints." It appears to me the true sense of this passage is, his inheritance in heaven. In the Greek it it, ev rois arious, which might have been literally translated, in the holy places; which if we suppose the apostle means heaven, would have been very agreeable to his way of speaking. In the next verse but one, where he evidently means in heaven, he expresses it thus, ev ɛnovoaviois, in the high. So in chap. ii. 6, 3, 10. In Heb. i. 3, he expresses it thus, ev vunλos, in the high. The same is expressed in Luke ii. 14, ev visos, in the highest. If it may thus be called the heavenly, the high, and the highest, it may as properly be called the holy. The land of Canaan was called the holy land, and the city Jerusalem the holy city; mount Zion the holy mountain, and the temple the holy place. And heaven is eminently the holy land, the holy city, mountain and temple.
ROM. vii. 25.-" With the mind I myself serve the law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin." This Mr. Locke paraphrases thus: "To comfort myself therefore, as that state requires, for my deliverance from death, I myself, with full purpose, and sincere endeavors of mind, give up myself to obey the law of God; though my carnal inclinations are enslaved, and have a constant tendency to sin. This is all I can do, and this is all, I being under grace, that is required of me, and through Christ will be accepted." In his notes he observes, "I myself is in the original, Avtos εyo, i. e. (says Mr. Locke), I the man, with all my full resolution of mind. Avros and you might both have been spared, if nothing more had been meant here than the nominative case to dovlevo," see note, verse 20. He observes again on the words, "ov ɛho εyo, I would not, I in the Greek is very emphatical, as is obvious, and denotes the man, in that part wherein he is chiefly to be counted himself, and therefore with the like emphasis, verse 25, is called Avros εyo, I my own self." The apostle would doubtless intimate that when he, the saint, was himself, and acted himself, he served the law of God; and when he served the law of sin, he was as it were not himself, but led captive by an enemy. That is agreeable to verses 17, 20, and 22. These things plainly show that the apostle speaks in the name of a saint, and not the name of a wicked man.
1. How does it appear that something has existed from eternity?
2. How does it appear that this earth and the visible system are not from eternity?
3. How does it appear that the existence of man is derived and dependent? 4. How do you prove the natural perfections of God, viz., his intelligence, infinite power, foreknowledge and immutability?
5. How do you prove his moral perfections, that he is a friend of virtue, or absolutely holy, true, just and good?
6. How do you prove that the Scriptures are a revelation from God? And what are the evidences, internal and external ?
7. How do you prove the divine mission of Christ?
8. How do you prove the divinity of Christ?
9. How do you prove the personality and divinity of the Holy Ghost? 10. How do you prove that the persons in the Trinity are one God? 11. Whence arose the Manichean notion of two Gods, and how is it confuted?
12. Whence arose the polytheism of the Pagans, and how confuted? 13. Whence was it that the knowledge of the one true God, in which Noah was instructed, was not preserved among his posterity in all ages?
14. Why are not mankind in all ages (their internal faculties and external advantages being sufficient) united in right sentiments of the one true God?
15. Were the moral character of God and the moral law understood and loved, would there be any objections against revealed religion?
16. What is the true idea of God's decrees?
17. How do you prove absolute and particular election? 18. Did God decree the existence of sin?
19. Why did God decree sin?
20. In what sense did he introduce sin into the universe?
21. How do you reconcile this with the holiness and goodness of God? 22. What is necessary to constitute a moral agent?
23. Are men moral and free agents?
24. What is the difference between natural and moral power and inability? 25. How is absolute moral necessity, or inability, consistent with the free agency of men?
26. How is the doctrine of universal, absolute decrees, consistent with the agency of men?
27. How do you prove a universal and special providence? 28. What is the covenant of redemption?
29. If man was created in origional righteousness, how is that consistent with moral agency? It being said that a necessary holiness is no holiness.
30. What was the constitution under which Adam in innocency was
31. Was Adam under the same necessity of falling that we are of sinning?