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Christ; from hence was the life, glory, and usefulnes of these things.

VERSES 6. 7,

Now when these things were thus ordained, the priests went ab ways into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the service of God; but into the second went the High Priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself and ju the errors of the people.

$1. Introduction. 2. The priests alone entering into the first tabernacle. (3 How often. $4. For what purpose. $5. The High Priest alone entering in the second. 6. How often. $7. With blood, offered. $8. For himself at the people. $9. Observations

§1. HAVING given an account of the structure of the tabernacle, in the two parts of it, and the furniture of those several parts distinctly; to complete his argument the apostle adds in these verses the consideration of their sacred use. "Now when these things" (di, vero,) now, or but; we render it "now when," because the latter is included in the tense of the word following.

When these things were thus (κατεσκευασμένων) or dained, and ordered, they stood not for a magnificent shew, but were designed for constant use in the service of God.

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§2. "The priests went always into the first tabernacle." They alone entered into the sanctuary; all others were forbidden to approach it on pain of excision. These priests were the posterity of Aaron, unless excepted by some legal incapacitating blemish. The inspection of the whole was committed, in an especial manner, to the high priest, Num. iv, 10; Zech. iii, 7; yea, the actual performance of the daily service of this part of the sanctuary was in the first

place charged on him; Exod. xxvii, 21; but the other priests being designed to assist him on all occasions, this service in process of time wholly devolved on them. And if the high priest did at any time minister in this part of the sanctuary, he did it not as the high priest, but as a priest only; for all his peculiar service belonged to the most holy place.

Yet must it be observed, that although this was the peculiar survice of the priests, yet was it not their only service; for to them belonged the offering of sacrifices, which was accomplished in the court without, on the brazen altar, before the door of the tabernacle; the mentioning of which did not answer the apostle's purpose in this place.

This was the great privilege of the priests under the Old Testament, that they alone might enter into the sanctuary, and make an approach to God; and this privilege they had merely as they were types of Christ: but under the gospel it is one of the principal privi leges of believers, that, being made "kings and priests unto God" by Jesus Christ, this distinction, as to special gracious access to God, is taken away, Rev. i, 5; Eph. ii, 18; Rom. v, 2.

§3. (Ala Tavlos Eliα1) "they went always, into the first tabernacle." They were to enter, but to go no farther; they were not even to look into the most holy place, nor to abide in the sanctuary when the high priest entered into it, which the apostle here hath an especial regard to. They entered into the first tabernacle, but they went no farther. The first veil, or the covering of the door of the tabernacle, Exod. xxvi, 36, 37; being only turned aside as they entered, it closed immediately on their entrance into the sanctu ary. And this they were to do with an especial reverence of the presence of God, which is the principal

design of that command, "thou shalt reverence my

sanctuary," Lev. xix, 30. They entered it (dia ævios, quovis tempore, jugiter) always, every day. There was no divine prohibition as to any times, wherein they might not enter into the sanctuary as there was with respect to the entrance of the high priest into the most holy place, which was allowed once a year; and their services required that they should enter into them daily; but the word doth not absolutely signify "every day," seeing there was a special service for which they entered only once a week, but includes all times, as occasion required.

§4. (Τας λαιρειας επιτελονιες) accomplishing the ser vices. The expression is sacred, respecting mystical rites and ceremonies. It is not perfecting or accomplishing only, but sacredly ministering. In their discharge of the priestly office, accomplishing the sacred services committed to them. This consisted in-dressing the lamps of the candlestick; supplying them with holy oil and cleaning them, that their light might be properly preserved-burning incense every day with fire taken from the altar of burnt offerings, which was in the court before the door of the tabernacle; and this was performed, evening and morning, immediately after the daily sacrifice-changing the shewbread every sabbath in the morning, &c.

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$5. But into the second went (μovos o apXiεpeus) the high priest alone," and no other person, Lev. xvi, 2, 32; and he was to be so alone, as that none were to attend in order to assist him in any part of the service; yea, no one was allowed to be in the other part of the sanctuary where he might so much as see the veil opened, verse 17, but all the priests, as well as the people, were kept without the sanctuary. Hence there was always provided, the next in succession, to

perform this office in case of sickness or occasional pollutions of the actual high priest; and he was called the second priest, 1 Kings xxv, 16. From whence in times of disorder and confusion they had afterwards two high priests at once. This entrance was a type, both of the entrance of Christ into heaven, and of our entrance by him to the throne of grace, ver. 24, chap. x, 19, 20. And this was the veil which, in the temple, was rent from top to bottom, upon the death of our Savior, Mat. xxvii, 51. For by Christ the way was laid open to the holy place, and the gracious presence of God discovered to all that come to God by him.

§6. "Once every year." The first order to this purpose was a prohibition, or negative precept, that the high priest should not come at all times into the holy place, Lev. xvi, 2; that is, not every day, as he did into the sanctuary; not at any time of his own choice. Afterwards it was limited to once a year, and the precise day of the year was determined by the law, viz. the tenth day of the seventh month, or Tizri, which answered nearly to our September: this was the great day of atonement, Lev. xvi, 29.

But whereas it is said that he entered once every year; the meaning is, that upon one day in the year only he did so; for it is evident that on that day he went twice into it, yea, most probably, four times. For he killed not the goat until he came out of the holy place, after he had carried in the blood of the sacrifice for himself, Lev xvi, 3-11-14; after this he carried the blood of the goat that was offered for the sins of the people, ver. 15, and it is highly probable that, before he carried in the blood, he was to go in with the incense to make a cloud on the mercyAnd it is evident he could not carry the incense


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and the blood at the same time; wherefore this "once every year" intends on the one day only.

$7. "Not without blood, which he offered." After the high priest had filled the holy place with a cloud of incense, he returned to the altar of burnt offerings without the tabernacle, where the sacrifice had been newly slain; and whilst the blood of the beasts was fresh, and as it were living, Heb. x, 20, he took of it in his hand, and entering again into the holy place, sprinkled it seven times with his finger towards the mercy-seat, Lev. xvi, 11-14. And there is an emphasis on the expression, not without blood, to manifest how impossible it was that there should be an entrance into the gracious presence of God, without the blood of the sacrifice of Christ. The only propitiation for sins is made by his blood, and it is by faith alone that we are made partakers of it, Rom, iii, 25, 26.

"Which he offered;" where, or when he offered it, is not expressed; in the holy place there was no use of blood, but only for the sprinkling of it: but the sprinkling of blood was always consequential to the offering properly so called; for the oblation consisted principally in the atonement made by the blood at the altar of burnt offerings, Lev. xvii, 11; wherefore by the Greek term (por Deper) he intends (7) only to bring and not to offer properly.

$8. For himself and the errors of the people;" he hath respect to the distinct sacrifices that were to be offered on that day; the first was of a bullock and a ram, which was for himself. Such was the imperfection of their state, that they could have no priest to offer sacrifices for the sins of the people, but he must first offer for himself the blood of other creatures.

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