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days, directing them to the one sacrifice and offering of Christ. This they typically represented, and through faith they were encouraged to apply the virtue and efficacy of it to their consciences every day. (Tou λalpevovla) "him that did the service," was the priest only, but respect is had to every one that brought his gift or offering to the altar; chap. x, 1; particularly every one who brought his sacrifice to be offered, that atonement might be made for him. And (TEλεwo) to make perfect, comprehends the whole of divine' worship in all individuals. He speaks not of purging our minds from vices, (as Grotius insinuates) but of purifying conscience by atonement made for the guilt of sin; and he opposeth not those sacrifices to the doctrine of the gospel, but to the sacrifice of Christ.

§6. "Which stood only in meats," &c. It is acknowledged that there is no small difficulty in the connexion of the words, or their relation to what precedes; and therefore expositors have multiplied conjectures about it, in whose examination we are not concerned. I shall therefore no farther consider any of them, than as they relate to what I judge to be the true coherence of the passage. The things instanced in comprize a great part of the Levitical institutions, and his assertion concerning them may, by a parity of reason, be extended to them all. For to render his description of them comprehensive, the apostle expresseth them in a particular enumeration of the heads to which they might be reduced, "meats and drinks and divers washings;" and then to shew that he intends all things of a similar na-, ture he adds the general nature of them all, that they were "carnal ordinances."

(Movov ETI ẞpuμari) "only in meats," &c. Whereas there is an ellipsis in the words, our translators have supplied it with, "which stood;" but it may be other

wise supplied. For having mentioned the gifts-and sacrifices of the law, the apostle makes an addition to then of the remaining institutions and ceremonies, whose very nature and use declared their insufficiency for the end in question: "and other laws, only concerning meats and drinks. and divers washings:" which in general he calls "carnal rites." Hereby is the argument in hand carried on and completed.

$7. For the nature of them, they consisted in "meats and drinks." Meats; or, things to be eaten, or not eaten, as being clean or unclean; an account of which is given. Lev. xi.; with reference to such things doth the apostle reflect on the Levitical institutions, in these words: "Touch not, taste not, handle not, which all are to perish with their using," Col. ii, 21, 22; and the prohibition of "drinking wine or strong drink in the holy place." Lev. x, 8, 9, may be here respected; see also verse 17, 18. The laws concerning the feasts of the whole people, with their eating and drinking before the Lord, Lev. xxiii, may be also referred to, Lev. xxxiii. These divine ordinances were therefore "concerning meats and drinks,” that were necessary to be observed, with their offering of gifts and sacrifices, declaring of what nature they were. And the observance of them all was at the same time imposed on them.

They also consisted in, or were concerning (dia@opous Bathopo;) "divers washi gs." (Barouos) baptism, is any kind of washing, whether by dipping or sprinkling; putting the thing to be washed into the water. or applying the water to the thing itself to be washed. The apostle seems to have a particular respect to the washings of the priests, and of the offerings, in the court of the tabernacle before the altar; for those were such, as without which the gifts and sacrifices could not be rightly offered,

§8. It is added in the description, (na Sinapati apnos, institutis carnalibus) "and carnal ordinances," rights of worship arbitrarily imposed, whose (jus) right depended on the pleasure of God; and they are said to be of the flesh, for the reason given, ver. 13. "They sanctified to the purifying of the flesh,” and no more. The distinctive copulative (na) and, seems therefore to contain an addition of all those legal ordinances which any way belonged to the purification of the law. The faith of believers now is rather weakened than confirmed by all things of the like nature, diverting their minds from an immediate respect to, and total dependence on the one sacrifice of Christ.

$9. Concerning all these things it is affirmed, that they were (εTIεieva) imposed on the people. I rather judge that in this word he had respect to all the things whereof he had discoursed from the very beginning of the chapter; and so the use of it in the neuter gender is proper.

They were things "imposed" on the people; properly, (incumbentia) lying on them, as a burden. There was a weight in all these legal rights and ceremonies, which is called a yoke too heavy for the people to bear, Acts xv, 10; and if the imposition of them be principally intended, it respects the bondage they were brought into by them; were so imposed on them, as that they might feel their weight, and groan under the burden.

$10. "Until the time of reformation;" whereas he had undeniably demonstrated that they were not to be of perpetual use in the church, nor could ever effect that state of perfection which God designed for it, he now declares that there was a certain determinate season fixed in the purpose and counsel of Ged, for their

cessation and removal the time (diebwagws) of direc


The time intended is sufficiently known and agreed upon; the great season of the coming of the Messiah, as the king, priest, and prophet of the church, to order and alter all things, so as it might attain its perfect state; and it is thus called (καιρος διορθώσεως) because in it God finally disposed and directed all things in the church to his own glory, and the eternal salvation of his people, see Ephes. i, 10.

$11. (II.) We may hence observe:

1. There is a state of perfect peace with God to be obtained under imperfect obedience. For it is charged as a weakness in the legal administrations that they could not give such peace where any sin remained; it is therefore to be found only in the sacrifice of Christ. Being justified by faith we have peace with God.

2. Nothing can give perfect peace of conscience with God, but what can make atonement for sin; and whoever attempts it in any other way but by virtue of that atonement, will never attain it either here or hereafter.

§12. 1. There is nothing in its own nature so mean, but the will and authority of God can render it of sacred use and sacred efficacy, where he is pleased to ordain it. Such were the meats and drinks, and divers washings, under the law, which, however contemptible in themselves, had a religious use from the appointment of God.

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2. The fixing of times and seasons for the state of things in the church, is solely in the hand of God, and at his sovereign disposal.

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3. It is a great part of the blessed liberty which the Lord Christ brought into the church, that it enjoys freedom from legal impositions, and every thing of the like nature, in the worship of God.

4. The time of Christ's coming was the time of the general final reformation of divine worship, wherein all things were unchangeably directed to their proper



But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is to say, not of his building.

$1. Connexion of the words. $2 (1.) Their exposition. The person spoken of. $3. Christ being come. $4 An High Priest $5 By his own greater and more perfect tabernacle. $6. Not made with hands. $7, 8. (II.) Observations.

§1. THE account of the Levitical priesthood, in sanetuary and services, was completed with the last verse. Amongst them the service of the high priest in the most holy place on the day of expiation was principally, though not exclusively, designed; for the whole description of the sanctuary, and the services of it, is also regarded in comparison between Christ in his office, and these things. "But Christ," &c.

$2. (I.) The person spoken of is (Xpolos) "Christ." I have observed before the variety of appellations by which the apostle on various occasions expresseth the divine Redeemer in this epistle, otherwise than he is wont to do in any other of his epistles; sometimes he calls him "Jesus" only, sometimes "Christ," sometimes "Jesus Christ," sometimes "the Son," and sometimes "the Son of God." And in this he had respect to the various notions which the Jewish church had concerning his person from the prophecies and promises of the Old Testament. And he employs none of them culiarly but when there is a peculiar reason for it, as there is in this place: he doth not say "Jesus" is come,


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