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Under our form of government, the President occupies a place that has no exact parallel in the government of any other important country. In the last analysis we are governed by public opinion, of which the President is chief exponent. He is the country's spokesman, not merely by custom but by express Constitutional provision and mandate. He is directed to inform Congress from time to time concerning the vital interests of the United States. He is also made the spokesman of the country in its dealings with foreign governments.

The President's Messages to Congress are not merely a form of communication between the executive and the lawmaking authority, but they are intended to give information and guidance to the citizenship. Thus we have a surprising quantity of important historical and governmental material of an authoritative kind in the unbroken series of Presidential messages and addresses, beginning with the first inaugural of George Washington and coming down to the latest official utterance of Woodrow Wilson.

All of our Presidents have been fully responsive to the duty of giving information to Congress and the country concerning the carrying-on of the government and the public concerns of the nation. Not one of them in the list has come seriously short in this regard, although some of them have been more conspicuous than others in point of literary or oratorical ability.

Perhaps no other President has, relatively speaking, use of written and spoken appeals to Congress, to American citizens, and to the public opinion of the world, as has Woodrow Wilson. His utterances have shaped events, not only in the current sense but in the larger aspects of history. His Messages to Congress have been unusual in their frequency, vital in their relation to policies, and notable in the fact that he has appeared in person to present them. All of these Messages are published in this little volume.

Besides these Messages to Congress, however, he has made many important addresses of a semi-official nature since assuming the Presidency, while he has been the author of a series of diplomatic notes and of proclamations relating to international affairs that constitute state papers of the highest significance. These documents also are included in the present volume, together with much material of Presidential authorship relating to the conduct of the war and to the policies of the Government.

The remarkable literary quality of Mr. Wilson's addresses is only eclipsed by their statesmanlike character in relation to public affairs of great moment. His sentences and paragraphs, in their discussion of world affairs, have helped to crystallize the vague longings of right-thinking men in all nations into something like definite policies for permanent peace on the basis of democracy and international justice. This collection of state papers and Presidential utterances is not, therefore, of transitory interest and importance, but of permanent value; and it ought to be in the home and at the hand of every intelligent citizen.



Biographical Sketch of Woodrow Wilson . . . xi
First Inaugural Address (March 4, 1918) ... 1
Special Message to Congress, Urging Tariff Revi-

sion (April 8, 1913) . . . . . . .
Statement Regarding “Lobby” Influences on Tariff

Legislation (May 26, 1913) . . . . . . 9
Special Message to Congress, Urging Currency Legis-

lation (June 23, 1913) . . . . . . .
Address at Gettysburg Reunion (July 4, 1913). . 14
Special Message to Congress, on Mexico (August

27, 1918) . . . . . . . . . . .
Address at Rededication of Congress Hall, Phila-

delphia (October 25, 1913) . . . . . .
Address before Southern Commercial Congress,

Mobile, Ala. (October 27, 1913) . . . .
First Annual Message to Congress (December 2,

1913) . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Special Message to Congress, on Trusts and

Monopolies (January 20, 1914) ....
Proclamations Concerning Shipment of Arms into

Mexico (February 3, 1914, and October 19, 1915)
Special Message to Congress, Urging 'Repeal of Free-

Tolls Provision for American Ships at Panama

(March 6, 1914) . . . . . . . . .
Special Message to Congress, on the Tampico Inci-

dent (April 20, 1914) . . . . . . . 69
Instruction to Attorney-General to Sue for Dissolu-

tion of New Haven Railroad Mergers (July

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