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the miseries of such a conteft. As on, and still continued to desolate nothing.could be more glorious to the southern and eastern provinces Ruffia than the progress of this of the empire; doubts were also war, so nothing can be more hap- poffibly entertained of the temper py than its conclusion. A long and disposition which prevailed series of victories are crowned by a nearer home. These and other peace, which reflects as much ho- causes seemed to render it prudent, nour upon the firmness and wisdom if not necessary, to draw those conof her councils, as the former did quering armies nearer the center, Juftre upon her arms.
who were attached by their successes The losses in lives, and sover- to government, and from their cignty, are not the greatest which long absence, were strangers to dothe Ottoman empire has experi- niestic parties and cabals. It should enced. She has fatally exposed a alto be obterved, that there did not weakness which was before un- seem to be any great cordiality beknown; the loss of character and tween the dividers of Poland; two estimation, is not less ruinous to. of whom could not refrain from states than to individuals. This looking feparately with an evil eye mighty empire is indeed confider- at the shares obtained by others, ably fallen, and has bowed less to and seemed eager to enter into any the prowess of a brave enemy, than new cheme of partition, by which under the weight of her own in- they might benefit individually. ternal disorders.
It seems therefore to have behoved The late Grand Vizir, after Russia to disengage herself from a every exertion which abilities and weak enemy, who could only be courage are capable of to reclaim dangerous by keeping her entana degenerate foldiery, being over- gled, and to concenter her force in borne by their caprice, and licen- such a manner, as to be prepared tiousness, fell a victim to the in- at all events against new neighdignation and grief which they bours, whose power was dangerous excited; having been first obliged, and ambition boundless. for the immediate preservation of The fatal change which fo imhis troops, to sign a peace, which mediately took place in the Turkish was very unequal to the power and grand army, after the specimens it glory of the Ottoman arms. He had given of submislion to order deserved a better fate, and to go- and discipline, and the vigour and vern better men.
ability Thewn by its commanders in It will probably hereafter be a the preceding campaign, muft namatter of surprize, that in such a turally excite our curiosity. In this fituation of affairs, Russia granted respect, however, it cannot at prea peace upon any moderate terms sent be gratified. No details are to its proftrate enemy. We have, to be expected from a Turkish cahowever, formerly thewn many binet or army; and the Ruflians, causes which rendered a peace very satisfied with their success, have no defirable to Ruflia: nor had these occasion to enter into a' recital of causes been removed or letřened by any particulars which might lefsen any late events.
The rebellion of the glory or difficulty of their atPugatscheff had been long carried chievements. Such information can
only only be obtained near the scene of Soon after the close of theyear, the action, and will undoubtedly be Grand Signior Muftapha the Third, hereafter communicated, either by Emperor of the Turks, departed this some one of the most curious and life at Constantinople,
Jan. 2ift. intelligent of the European mini-, in the 58th year of his fters at the Porte, or of those fo- age and the 17th of a reign, which reign officers who served in thecon- had in its latter part been the most tending armies upon the Danube. unfortunate of any in the Turkish For such curious and useful inqui- annals from the time of Bajazet. His ries or details, we have been more fon, Sultan Selim, being then only indebted to the industry and obser- entered into his 13th yeas, seemed vation of the French ministers and too young to sustain the reigns of secretaries, for above a century past, government in the present critical than to those of all the other na- situation of affairs. The emperor tions in Europe,
accordingly, with a wisdom and We can only suppose for the pre- disinterestedness which does honour fent, that the licentiousness, con- to his memory, appointed his brotempt of order, and other evil ha- ther Abdulhamet to succeed him in bits, contracted during a long the throne. To this prince, under peace, under a weak, venal and the strongest terms of recomienindolent government, were become dation, he confided the care of his fo inveterate, that they could not infant fon: a trust rendered sacred be remedied: that any appearances by all the ties of gratitude ; but to the contrary, were rather a part precarious from the barbarous maxof the disorder, and proceeding ims of the Ottoman family. from a temporary caprice, than the It is a justice due to humanity to effect of any real amendment: and rescue the character of the late emthat nothing less, than what is perɔr, from the oblivion or connearly an impoflibility, a total tempt which too generally attend change in the original conftitution misfortune. If he was not posseland lystem of government, can re- fed of those great, dazzling, and Itore that falling empire to it pri- fatal qualities, which excite the aditine state. It is certain that the miration of mankind, and in which, European provincial troops in the to their misfortune, too many of Ottoman service, both horse and his ancestors were superiorly emifoot, gave many striking instances nent, he was blessed in a great of that valour for which they were degree with those happier ones, of ever celebrated; but the lives of humanity, justice, and benevolence. these brave men were constantly Numberless instances of these ocsacrificed to the cowardice or dif- curred during his reign, which obedience of the mob of Asiatics would not have been omitted in an and Conftantinopolitans, in which eulogium on the most exalted chathey were involved. The Janizaries racters. His moderation and clealso gave many instances of a def- mency with regard to his Christian perate courage; but were in other subjects, notwithltanding their arespects fo profligate, mutinous and vowed disaffection, and the allittdisorderly, as to render those occa- ance they gave to a conquering enem fional efforts useless,
my, when the very existence of the [A] 2
empire was in question, cannot be tisfied with the accession of Abduleasily paralleled, in the histories of hámet, and wanted to place the the most refined civilization, and young Prince Selim upon the under the influence of the purest throne. Though these commotions religion. His iait act with respect were easily quelled, it does not to the succession, thewed a pa- seem impoflible, that the discontent triotism, which will be more ad- which appeared upon this occasion mired than imitated, and a great- might have some share in the subness of mind equal to the most re- fequent ill conduct of the army. nowned of his predeceflors.
Several actions which took place The new prince having taken on the Danube early in the Spring, the necessary measures for the pre- seemed to indicate a vigorous camservation of public order and tran- paign. Detachments from the conquillity, which, in that empire, is tending armies frequently croised always a matter of moment and dif- that river, and these expeditions, ficulty upon such occations, seemed though productive of no essential to turn his attention with great di- benefit, were attended with confiligence to the carrying on of the derable loss on both sides. war. Numerous levies were accord- In the mean time, the Porte was ingly made, and an order being not inattentive to the advantages passed that all persons who were which might be derived from Puguilty of túmults or disorders thould gatscheft's rebellion, and was acbe sent to serve on board the fleet cordingly indefatigable in exciting in the Black Sea, the terror of that the various nations of Tartars, who punishment operated fo strongly on furround orare intermixed with the the profligate, as to produce a lur- Ruliian empire, to increase the inprising effect in preserving the ternal disturbances. It is not difpeace of the metropolis. The em- ficult to persuade people, who seem peror also iflued a rescript signed to be born for nothing but war, to by himself, commanding the offi- take up arms. The Tartars, howcers, governors of provinces and ever, are not now in the condition, military tenants, to act with the which at different periods enabled utmost diligence in their refpective them to conquer a great part of the departments for the carrying on of world. That overgrown empire the war, and those whose imme- which has sprung up among them, diate duty it was, to join the army has by degrees either swallowed forthwith, at the head of chosen up, broken, or separated, their difbodies of the best troops they could ferent nations in Tuch a manner, as procure, and to act with the utmost to render an union of arıns or counzeal and valour for the service of cils, or any general and formidable the state and religion, and the re- alliance impracticable. Their be. covery of those provinces, which ing also cut off from the modern had been wrefted from the empire. improvements in war, arms, and
In the mean time there were discipline, is an insuperable bar to some disturbances at Adrianople, their becoming again terrible. and other places where the army They could, however, be troulay, through the nuutiny of some bletome, and increase the confusion of the Janizaries, who were diila- already caused by Pugatscheff. The
Porte accordingly, fent Doulet freed from some other material Gherai, the late Chan of the Cri- embarratinents. The heavy clouds mea, with a considerable sum of which hung on the fide of Sweden money, and attended by several of- were now dispersed, and it was no ficers of his kindred and friends, longer necessary to keep an army among the Nogais and Cuban Tar- on that frontier; while the Austritars, where he was soon joined by ans and Pruflians so effectually ocabove 10,000 mens This body cupied Poland, and overawed the was attacked and routed by a Rul- inhabitants, that the Rusians were fian detachment, before any effec- freed from all apprehensions in that tive junction of these nations could country. Marshal Romanzow's ar
As the Tartars still my was accordingly rendered very dream of their ancient glory, and formidable. fancy themselves, before trial, to be After various motions and actions as invincible now as they were in on the Danube, the marshal having the days of Tamerlane, they were received a freth reinforcement of so much furprized and dispirited by 10,000 regular troops, and a lupthis defeat, that no farther service ply of 30,000 recruits, made the could be expected from them, and necessary dispositions for passing the Tartar prince found matters so that river. A large fleet of boats hopeless, that having divided his having been prepared for that purmoney among his friends and adhe- pose on the river Argis, under the rents, he quitted the country. conduct of General Soltikow, fell Similar measures were pursued and down to the Danube, and notwithattended with similar success, a- Itanding a considerable opposition mong the Balkirs, Kirgis, and some both by land and water, that geother tribes, all of whom were neral effected a landing on the ready for insurrection or war; but other side near Tutukay, in the were unequal to the purpose. night between the 16th and 17th
A considerable armament was of June. The passage being now also prepared at Constantinople, for secured, the Generals Kameniki the support of the Tartars, and and Suwarow also crossed the river their confederates the Coffacks, and at the head of their respective diother insurgents in the Crimea. In vifions, the whole amounting to the mean time, fuch diligence was about 50,000 men. used in reinforcing the grand army, followed in four days by Marshal that it became inore numerous than Romanzow with the remainder of it had been since the commence- the army, who encamped near Siment of the war, and the Grand liftria, which he seemed again to Vizir was said not to have less than threaten with a liege. 200,000 combatants under his In the mean time, there was a command on the Danube.
continued series of actions between Nor was the court of Petersburg the Rutlian Generals and different less diligent to enable Marshal Ro- bodies of the Ottoman forces : In manzow to open the campaign with one of these, General Soltikow vigour. Though the rebellion of was vigorously attacked by the Pugatscheff seemed a considerable Basha of Ruszick, who was impediment, yet Ruflia was now length with difficulty obliged to
quit a well fought field, after a to return to the army, the minisa severe engagment of several hours ters, instead of punishing this lawcontinuance. In this action, the less crew, were under a neceflity Arnauts, and other bodies of the of furnishing them with vessels for Turkish European troops, shewed their transportation to Afia. the greatest courage, and could The rage of mutiny, or the teronly be foiled by the discipline and ror of the enemy, became so unifirmness of the Russian infantry, versally prevalent, that if some of and the excellent management of the Turkith accounts are to be retheir artillery. This engagement lied on, no less than 140,000 men, was remarkable, as being the last either abandoned their colours toin which the Turks acted with the tally, or refused to act under their vigour or spirit of men.
officers. Even in the grand camp June 20.
On the same day, the at Schumla, and under the vizir's
Reis Effendi, having own eye, before matters were armarched at the head of 40,000 rived at their ultimate state of dismen to oppose the Generals Ka- order, he could not restrain the menski and Suwarow, was defeated Europeans and Asiatics from cutwithout a blow, the whole army, ting each other to pieces. It is both cavalry and infantry, having also said, that minister was abandeserted their colours so shamefully, doned by his whole cavalry, so that they equally evaded the dan- that the immense army which he ger of being killed or taken. The commanded at the beginning of whole Turkish camp, with a fine the campaign, was in a few days train of brass artillery, which had reduced to nothing. been cast under the directions of Such are the fatal but certain the Chevalier Tott, were the re- effects of luxury, degenerate manwards of this cheap victory. The ners, and a weak and venal goTurkish accounts make this run vernment, which upheld for a time away army to consist of 70,000 by the renown of įts former greatmen, and represent the conquerors nefs, neglects, or despises the vironly as a handful.
tues which raised it to power and From this time, disorder, mu- glory. A vaft empire tumbling tiny, and dismay, seized all the to pieces, under the weight of its Turkish armies, and they absolutely vices and profligacy, exhibits a refused to face the enemy. They leffon of awful instruction. The plundered the baggage, robbed and great empires of the world have, murdered their officers, and aban- however, fallen in this manner, doning their colours, disbanded by without any benefit to their succefthoufands, and marched in great fors from the example. bodies towards the Hellespont, Marshal Romanzow did not neg: committing every kind of outrage lect the advantages which by the way. Their arrival in the present situation of affairs afforded. neighbourhood of Conftantinople He placed the different divisions was so terrible to the court and of the army in such advantageous city, that when all prayers, pro- fituations, and possessed himself of mises, and offers of money, were such important posts, as totally to found ineffectual to induce them cut off all communication between