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covering its natural strength and vagant and ridiculous projects, are vigour.
M. de Silhouette and the abbe TerThe island of Corsica enjoys very ray, both loft in vain, idle, and few advantages from nature and frivolous fpeculation. The last did situation, and this dear-bought con not blush to own, in 1769, that the queft, in time of universal peace, king was insolvent; and he pursued proves the restless and incroaching measures pretty much fimilar to disposition of the French' ministry, those practised by the regent to reat the same time that it erinces their cruit the royal finances. folly, as the perpetual poffefsion of This monarch was prompted to it will never be adequate to the the exertion of his prerogative beblood and treasure wasted in this yond the attempts that ever were fruitless acquisition.
made by Lewis XIV. in the meriIt seems as if the king of France dian of his ostentatious power: the had lost his intellects and funk into suppression of the Jesuits, a religious dotage long before his death, by the order, whose intrigues, wealth, and choice of his ministers, and the per- politics, aimed at the supremacy of nicious measures he permitted them Christendom, was one of those bold to pursue. The French nation strokes of authority: the other most judged, from his unconcern at the odious and unpopular act of royaldeath of Madame Pompadour, that ty was the diffolution of the parliahe was glad to be rid of an imperi- ments of the kingdom, and the ous and insolent mistress, who began creation of new courts of judicature by sharing his royalty, and finished in their place. Though the parlia. by engrossing it to herself. Yet the ments of France had assumed to coquetry, wantonness, and levity of themselves a share of the legislative Madame Barré, who by dint of art power, which they never had in tried to supply the unkindness of their institution, they were beheld nature, ensnared the weak, un as the guardians of the people, and guarded monarch, who could not made a noble stand for their liberty please her as a man. It was by and property, against the oppressive her malignant insinuation that the ediets of the crown. Lewis XIV. duke of Choiseuil was disgraced, in the height of his displeasure exiland the duke D'Aiguillon, the most ed them for a time, but he never unpopular nobleman in France, im- carried his resentment farther. peached and convicted by a fove Lewis XV. encouraged, by his reign court of judicature of the moft royal munificence, men of letters odious acts of oppression, was not
and artists, and sometimes admitted only screened from justice and ex them to his presence; not that he emplary punishment, but nominat was a judge of literary merit and the ed prime minister, and admitted to fine arts, but he was told the glory the king's confidence and familia- of a king chiefly confifted in the rity, to the scandal and universal princely rewards and ditlinctions reproach of the nation.
granted to merit. He died unla. The two ministers of the finances mented by a loyal people, whom during this reign, who have amused, he had too long injured and imdeceived, and been laughed at by poverished, and left, like Lewis the French nation, for their extra XIV. the state in its decline, to
the natural efforts of its vigorous true foresight of his great qualities, conftitution.
was extremely fond of him ; and, This monarch was seized, in his coming one day to fee him ride, the old age, with the small-pox, which young prince had the misfortune to had already been uncommonly fa- be thrown from his horse with such tal in his family ; and, after a few violence, that those about him days illness, died at Versailles, on cried out he was killed; which af. the roth of May,' 1774, in the fected the duke to such a degree, fixty-fourth year of his age, and that he fainted upon the spot, and the fifty-ninth from his acceflion to died in a few days of the fright. the throne *.
His mother, the dowager of Sa.
voy, governed his dominions dur. Some Particulars of the Life of
ing the minority of Victor Ama. · Charles Emanuel III. the laté
deus, who soon after espoused Anna
Maria of Orleans, only daughter to King of Sardinia.
Philip duke of Orleans, and brother · As the House of Savoy is one of the to Lewis XIV. by Henrietta Maria,
+ most ancient and illustrious in Eu- daughter of our King Charles I. so rope, having produced no fewer than that he became nearly allied to our thirty-four fovereigns, celebrated for royal family, and his son, the late their victories and political talents; king of Sardinia, was the first prince and as there is no kingdom in Italy of the Popith line after the heirs with the strength and fate of which male of the house of Stuart, but it imports us so much to be well ac- excluded from this succession by the quainted as Sardinia, whose power, act of settlement. under the late king, was exerted for Charles Emanuel was born at the noblest purposes in preserving the Turin the 27th of April, 1701 ; freedom and independency of his own and ca
and gave singular proofs of poffelJubjeets and bis allies; we apprehend
sing uncommon abilities during the the following sketch of his transactions,
early part of his life. In the year compiled from the best authorities, will
" 1722, he married the princess Ann not be unacceptable to our readers. of Neubourgh. who died a few
TICTOR AMADEUS, the first months after. In compliance with
V king of Sardinia, fueceeded the commands of his father, in the · his father, Charles duke of Savoy, year 1724, he entered into a second
in the year 1675, and that by a matrimonial union with Polyxena, very surprising accident. He was princess of Hesse Rhinfels, by whom then a boy, and had just begun his he had issue Victor Amadeus duke exercises. His father, who had a of Savoy, born the 26th of June,
* The late dauphin of France married Maria Josepha of Saxony, who died at Versailles, the 13th of March, 1767, aged thirty-five years, by whom he had issue,
Lewis Augustus, the present king, born 1754, who was married in the year 1770, to Maria Antonietta, sister of the Emperor of Germany, born 1755.
L. Stan. Xavier, Count de Provence, born 1755.
1726, who now poffefses the throne ed them with the necessity he was of Sardinia; Eleonora Theresa, under to secure his father's person, Maria Gabrielle, and Maria Feli- he demanded their advice : and they cia. Whilft prince Emanuel was were unanimously of opinion, that employed in the education of his fa- as well for the sake of his subjects mily, the king, worn out with the as himself, he should continue to continual fatigues of a long and administer affairs with the same spi. active reign, was defirous of pas- rit, æconomy, and prudence, which fing a few years in retirement with he had shewn from the time he had the countess St. Sebastian, whom mounted the throne. he had privately married, and re. În following their advice, he solved io renounce the throne in thewed himself a true father to his favour of his son. This extraordi- country; for there is nothing more nary resignation took place in the certain, than that it was with the month of September 1730, and was utmost reluctance and concern that made with great folemnity, in the he took the only measure that was presence not only of the great mi. left for him to take, that of confinnifters of his court, but also of al. ing the old king to the palace of most all the nobility, and persons Montcalier, where he remained to of distinction, in his dominions. the day of his death, which was the He reserved to himself an annuity last of O&tober, 1732, in the 67th of one hundred and fifty thousand year of his age. livres per annum; and, having re- In consequence of a rupture be. commended moderation to his son, tween the houses of Austria and and fidelity to his fubjects, resigned Bourbon, which happened on the his crown with the utmost appear- death of Auguftus king of Poland, ance of satisfaction.
in the year 1733, his Sardinian MaEmanuel mounted the throne jesty signed an offensive and defen(which his father had quitted) in five alliance with France, to which his thirtieth year; and, a short 'Spain afterwards acceded. The time after, was not a little embar- true design of this wise prince in rassed at the efforts Victor Ama, making this treaty was that expressdeus made to recover the reins of ed in his manifeito, viz. reitoring government, which he had so so- the balance of power in Italy, where lemnly resigned. The old king, he thought the house of Austria at the instigation of the lady he had had acquired too great an ascenmarried, grew dissatisfied with his dancy. private condition, and began to It is at least certain, that many form designs of resuming his dig. of the Italian potentates had just nity, which he prosecuted in a man- reason to complain of the conduct ner suitable to so wild and incon- of the court of Vienna ; and that fiftent a project, and to the charac- notwithstanding this, their comter of the person at whose instance plaints were very little regarded ; he was weak enough to attempt it. which, joined to his own particular The young king acted a very wise grievances, induced his Sardinian and discreet part. He called toge majesty to believe, that, if the plan ther the great officers of state and laid down in this alliance couid be the nobility, and, having acquaints carried into execution, the affairs
of Italy would not only be put into The Imperialists were obliged to a better condition for the present, retire; but prince Lewis of Wirbut that all things might be pro-temberg,who fucceded count Merci perly settled, on a right and folid in his command, brought his forces basis, for the future. When the in very good order to Reggio, and, French army began to pass the the field marshal count Koningsegg Alps, Count Traun, at that time . coming to take the command, it governor of Milan, was so little
was not long before he made the apprised of the true state of things, French sensible of his superior ca. that he offered his Sardinian maje. pacity; for, on the 15th of Sepfty all the affistance in his power, tember, 1734, he passed the Secto impede their paffage; to which chia, surprised a part of the French the king answered coldly, that they army, and obliged marshal Brodid not come as enemies.
glio, who was a horse officer, and Marihal Villers commanded the ought to have known the fords betFrench army, and, his Sardinian ter, to make his escape without his majesty having - joined his troops, breeches. This brought on the the conquest of the Milanese was battle of Guastalla, which was very foon atchieved. The king fought on the 19th, and therein the made his campaign in person, as king of Sardinia commanded in he likewise did the next year; but, person. He had already gained a the queen falling dangerously ill, great character in public and prihe was constrained to return to Tu vate life; he was the father of his rin in the latter end of the month family and of his people; enjoyed in of June, 1734: and during his his court the pleasures of a regular abience was fought the famous and amiable economy, at the same battle of Parma. Count Merci com time that he was revered and ador. manded the Imperialists; he was ed by his subjects. He had thewextremely ill of the gout, but that ed a reach in politics much supedid not hinder his taking post on rior to his age, but his behaviour the right of the firit line of his in. in the battle of Guastalla obscured fantry, in his armed chair, where, all that he had hitherto performed, with great coolness and intrepidity, and the fplendor of that victory, he gave his orders till he was mor which was entirely owing to his tally wounded. The French gene- personal courage and his conduct, ral was monsieur de Coigni, who threw his former great actions into having been lately deceived by the shade, since all Europe rung now Imperialits palling the Oglio, and with his praises as a hero. penetrating into the Parmesan, In the beginning of the next which he thought impractable, he year died his queen, which how-, was the more concerned to recover ever did not hinder the king from his reputation by gaining a battle. appearing again in the field, where
This rendered the dispute very ob count Koningsegg found himself finate and very bloody ; for some obliged to yield to the great fupe. people say, that there never was an riority of the allies, and the skill action, in which the business was of the Spanish general, the duke determined by small arms, that de Montemar, one of the ableft lasted lor:ger than this, except the proficients in the art of war then in ensuing battle of Guaitalla.
Europe. All the Imperialists had in her sex to all the virtues that
arose from the pretensions of the On this occasion his Sardinian Spaniards, who attacked part of the majesty had a convincing proof of queen of Hungary's dominions in the steadiness, good faith, and up- Tuscany. Emanuel supported her right intention of the court of with great fpirit; and, when the France; for, the British ministry Spaniards marched an army towards having concerted with the court of Turin, he defended his country so Vienna a plan of peace, by which effectually, that the enemy, after Tortona and the Tortonese, Novara attempting to force his intrenchand the Novarese, together with ments ac Villa Franca, were obligthe Vigevanafque, were to be de- ed to abandon their design of petached from the duchy of Milan, netrating through the country of and annexed for ever to Piedmont, Nice; and they were also defeated the French court, by a clandestine in another attempt they made thro? negociation, deprived him abfo the valley of Barcelonetta. It is lutely of one of these districts, and true, that in the winter they fell only left him the choice of the upon the duchy of Savoy, and other two, in which fituation he made themselves masters of it'; but preferred the former. These pre- the king foon drove them out again, liminaries were figned October 3, and covered that country till che 1735; and were in every respect close of the year, when, by dint favourable to France, injurious to of superior force, they became maher allies; fatal to the house of Au sters of it again.
By this time the ftria, and destructive of the balance face of affairs was somewhat change
ed in Europe, and his Sardinian It was from this time that his
majetty was more at liberty to avow majesty pursued, with the greatest his real intentions; which, when iteadiness, his original system of he found himself secure of being restoring and preserving, to the ut supported by his allies, he did most of his power, the balance of without fcruple; and his troops Italy, by preventing the encroach. had a very considerable share in the ments of either of the two great famous battle of Campo Santo, families, whose quarrels have so which was fought in February 1743, long disturbed the peace of that in which Count Aspremont, who country, and indeed of all Europe. commanded the forces in chief, lott
At the pressing instances of his his life. It is very true, that, afsubjects he contenced to a third ter the Court of Vienna thought fit marriage; and, in the month of, to recal Marhal Traun, and send March, 1737, espoused the prin- 'Prince Lobkowitz towards the froncess Elizabeth Theresa, fister to the tiers of Naples, his majesty did not late emperor, then duke of Tur
appear extremely vigorous in fup. cany, a princess who joined all the porting that measure; but the reaaccomplishments that are amiable son is very plain, and was no other VOL. XVII