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senger is then applied to for a dona. The Neapolitan sailors never go to sea tion in the following verse, which is without a box of small images or pupsung by the little beggars :
pets, some of which are patron saints,
inherited from their progenitors, while “ Belli, Belli Giovanotti,
others are more modern, but of tried Che mangiate pasticiotti E bevete del buon vino,
efficacy in the hour of peril. When a Un quattrin sull' altarino."
storm overtakes the vessel, the sailors
leave her to her fate, and bring upon On the calends of May, the founda- deck the box of saints, one of which tion festival of the altars of the Lares is held up, and loudly prayed to for præstites was eelebrated in all the assistance. The storm, however, ina houses of ancient Rome. The Lara- creases, and the obstinate or powerless rium, bearing the small household saint is vehemently abused, and thrown gods, was decked on this occasion with upon the deck. Others are held up, fresh garlands of flowers and foliage, prayed to, abused, and thrown down. and modern antiquarians believe that in succession, until the heavens bethe custom of the Roman children is. come more propitious. The storm a relic of the ancient festival.
abates, all danger disappears, the saint It would be easy to multiply ex- last prayed to acquires the reputation amples of similar coincidences ; I shall of miraculous efficacy, and, after their conclude, however, with one of many return to Naples, is honoured with instances of Neapolitan superstition. prayers.
ALL FOR LOVE; AND THE PILGRIM TO COMPOSTELLA. BY ROBERT SOUTHEY,
ESQ. LL D. POET LAUREATE, &c.*
MR SOUTHEY here presents us with tudinous agencies of saints and angels a brace of metrical legends, drawn -departed spirits and demons. Thao from that inexhaustible and hitherto laba and Kehama have shewn what unrifled store-house, the Roman Ca. he could effect with the gorgeous sue tholic, or as it may less offensively, perstitions of Arabia and Hindostan; and perhaps more justly be called, but these have no substance in Engthe Pseudo-Christian Mythology. Nó lish imaginations, no significance for, English Protestant, perhaps no living English hearts. Mr Sonthey has done Romanist, is so well acquainted with for them all that could be done. He the religious fables which, from the has presented them to the inward eye, first century to the intellectual age of distinctly, yet with all the splendid Joanna Southcote and Prince Hohen- effects of multitude. Bodied forth by loe, have encrusted the Christian his romantic fancy, they very much church, as the prolific author of this resemble such a dream as might visit little volume.
the late slumbers of a child after the Few men, with understanding and first sight of a Christmas pantomime, morals so thoroughly Protestant, have or Easter melo-drama. He has done imagination and feelings to compre- more-he has breathed a soul into hend so fully the beautiful in Ro- shadows, gay and restless as gold and manism, while his keen sense of the purple sunbeams on the western ocean. ludicrous, only subdued by a deeper But the soul is not their own—it is sense of religious awe, makes him as not Arabesque, nor Hindoo, nor Ori. quickly alive to its absurdities. Thus ental, but Christian English. No qualified, he might, in the wealthy power of genius can reconcile, though autumn of his powers, fulfil the pur- it may disguise, the incongruity of a pose of his forward spring, by enrich- sensual religion with an almost ascetic ing the English language with a Poem morality. Even the human manners founded on the imaginative and hu- and actions which enter into the texman parts of the Catholic creed- ture of the story are at variance with adorned with all its ceremonial pomp the sentiments and characters. Nei. -its sensuous pathos—its strange self-ther Oneiza nor Kailyal could have denials—its soul-enthralling self-in. existed in a land of Harams. We do dulgences—and exalted by the multi- not allude to these discrepancies as
London, Murray, 1829.
faults-though critical faults may be earth while it was full of wonders more than excused, when they denote visited cities now wrapt in desert sandsa pertinacity of moral virtue. Mr as with a winding sheet, and empires Southey's iinagination, which exer- sunk beneath the shifting oceancises a magical control over the ele passing like silent shadows through ments of the visible universe, in no regions of an unknown tongue, or wise transforms or modifies his moral proclaiming the truth with most mie sense, which remains among monsters raculous organ to savage tribes and and necromantic illusions, unchanged, barbaric monarchs-hermits, whose undaunted, as Ulysses in the bower of solitude was frequented by guardian Circe. But in reality, these incon- angels, and assaulting fiends, whose sistencies are involved in the subjects life,“ remote from public haunt," was to which bis peculiar genius, and the one fierce combat with demoniac horcourseof hisstudies, directed his choice. rors, or imaginary voluptuousnessMilton encountered tenfold greater ab- infants that were consecrated in the surdities and contradictions in his Pa- womb-and penitents that rose from radise Lost-yet who can wish that the grave of everlasting destruction he had chosen another theme? Who among all that multitude of hallowed would part with Thalaba and Keha. names, which, thicker than stars, throng ma-because, in order to address the the wide heaven of popish fantasysympathies of Europeans, it was ne- what spot of ground may not find a cessary to semi-Christianize Oriental. glorified patron-what grief but may ism? Though we are sometimes de claim a sympathizing comforter-what ceived into the expectation of a coup- work of war or peace but may ask a de-theatre, when the destroyer Thablessing-what can a poet dream, laba, and the gentle Glendoveer, shall which can want a subliming and throw off their infidel garments, and sanctifying precedent? And for that turn out, the one a concealed agent of peculiar faculty which Mr Southey the Vice Society, (is it still in existe possesses, of commending character. ence ?) and the other a missionary in istic images and sounds to the inward disguise ; yet, on the whole, we are eye-what wider or fairer field than rather pleased to find our old friends the various and picturesque habits of Justice, Prudence, Temperance, and monks, friars, and nuns, the pageFortitude, Faith, Hope, and Charity, antry of processions, the marvels of Cleanliness, and Godliness, in all clie religious architecture, as displayed in mates, and under all modes of beliet. Cathedrals, rich with “ ancient imaz' But a Catholic subject would have gerie ;" that from the pealing towers presented none of these difficulties. look down on populous cities—in conFor whatever may be the sins of the vents, crowning the vine-clad hills of. Catholic church, they are not sins of Spain and Italy, or offering shelter omission—there is no true feeling of and food, and good men's prayers to a Christian heart to which she does such as plod the bare passes of the not afford an exponent. The blessed Alps-in abbeys, that reared their vast Mary—the divine womanhood—the magnificence 'in seclusion-and in virgin glorification of maternity, is jewelled shrines, where bended knees surely the most beautiful, the loveliest,' and devout kisses wore away the purest idea to which the erring spirit marbles, the oratories, crosses, holy of man ever paid unbidden homage; wells, and hermitages, even the rosary, and even among the inferior host of " so beautiful, whether hanging from saints- tender maidens and young the neck of youth, or busily moving children, who suffered all torments in the hand of the aged ?”—The vese and strange fire for their Saviour's per bells, which unite a whole nalove-nuns that melted away in vi- tion in one act of adoration—the sosionary ecstasies, or struggled in so- lemn masses, which impute to the litude with unutterable pangs-be- dead a continuous interest in the piety stowing the warmest affections of a of the living—the midnight chants passionate female nature on spiritual -the never dying psalmody of devobeings, and pining with the heart sick ted brethren, who, in ordered succes. ness of deferred hope for the day sion, receive and transmit the flame when death should consummate their of ceaseless worship--the matins, and mystic espousalsa-pilgrims who pags- even-songs, heard" duly in sad, and ed from land to land, and roamed the still, and sacred solitude the deep,
calm, traditional tone, and time-hal- lustration-how varied and powerful lowed language of the ritual service- a machinery may such a creed supply sounds which solemnize the air, speak to a poet capable of due selection and ing of what we are, and what we shall arrangement,-a poet of a learned be, partake, even more than the song imagination, and a healthy taste, who of birds, or melody of woods and was could embody and illuminate the faire ters, of that sublimed, chastened, and est conceptions, and soften or conceal idealized humanity, which Poetry de- the foul and odious lineaments of su. lights to find or beget in the objects of perstition ! sense; while, in the mystic enthusi- The immense mass of legendary asm, and scholastic casuistry, which narrative which the Catholic church have grown up under the ample covert has produced and sanctioned, must of the Roman church, employment is needs contain a vast variety of incia furnished to the subtlest intellect, and dent, both probable and marvellous ; a cup of enchantment is proffered to and though many, perhaps most of the the thirsty soul. For the Catholic later inventions, bear evident marks faith, truly Catholic in its compre- of quackery and interested fraud, being hensiveness, however presumptuous, in fact neither more nor less than ly, in regard of truth and unity, it puffing advertisements of particular may have usurped the title, is all shrines and relics, or more criminal things to all me:-it accommodates impositions in support of a creed out. all tastes and humours—its dogmati. worn, strongly marked by the unimacal tenets, established as they are by ginative sameness and vulgarity which bulls and councils, and sanctioned by almost always adhere to venal falsethe terrors of temporal and eternal hood; for justly " dull and venal,” fire, however strict and tight they con- are coupled in the Dunciad; there fine the simple conscience, to the ini. are also many stories conceived in a tiate, are but like conjurors' knots, better spirit, some devised with good which seem too fast to be unloosed, and honest intentions; others, doubt. yet are easily slipped, without breach less, believed by the relators, records or harm done, by those who know of illusion, which lift up the veil of how, and no one the wiser, so that the our nature, and histories of true and sceptical Logician, the illuminated lovely piety, furnishing most delightPantheist, may sit down with the dull, ful evidence, that Heaven will never wonder-loving, miracle-bolting, mat- suffer those to remain in darkness, ter-of-fact, literal Believer, as easily who love and desire the light, whata. as the Stoic, the Epicurean, and the ever impediments men or devils may Platonist, kept peace with the plain oppose to its beams. The ray that idolator within the pale of ancient streams through the quaint imagery Polytheism.
of a painted window, displaying the In truth, the Roman Catholic sys- gaudy hues and distorted figures of tem is not the work of man, but of saints, angels, and dragons, though time and destiny-formed by the con- discoloured as it passes, and doomed to fluence and compromise of divers sects struggle with the unnatural glimmer and factions-a joint-stock bank of of noon-tide lamps, and pure hallowe errors, trading in the name and uponi ed tapers, is the same celestial body the credit of pure Christianity—to that glads the vernal morning. which corrupted Judaism contributed Utterly rejecting, as we do, the cri. much, Paganism more, and each par- tical dogma, that poetry of the highest ticular variety of heresy its quota. class absolutely requires supernatural The policy of the Roman pontiffs, that agency to produce its full effect, we master-piece of Satanic subtlety, conwould fain see what Mr Southey could fined all these lying spirits within its perform on a large scale, with the mimagic circle, and rendered them all raculous powers of Catholic credulity. its serviceable slaves. It were diffi. It seems that no other machinery is cult to devise a shape of fallacy, a left for a modern poet, capable of susphantom of superstition, that hath not taining a deep, moral, rational
, or uni. an equivalent, or any separable truth versal interest. The serious simpliof the heart or of the understanding, city of Protestantism forbids any poewhich may not find an efficient sym- tical use of natures which our scrip. bol in the Papal Pantheon. How wide tural faith pronounces divine. Even a range of thought, allusion, and ils in Milton, many pious persons are
wounded by the intermixture of hu- than as sober realities. Distance of man inventions with the words of re- place has the same effect on the mind velation. Allegorical personifications as distance of time. Our belief in the can only be tolerable in an express al. Chinesian Pekin is as shadowy as our legory, or apologue; and allegory (with belief in the Egyptian Thebes; and due reverence to the shades of Spenser, it would be mere self-delusion to say, and of John Bunyan) is a thing not that we have any very satisfactory asmuch to our taste. The Greek and surance of the existence of either. Latin Deities, what with bad school. But the Roman Catholic faith, and all boy Latin, and worse Cockney Eng. its attendant ministrations, lie at our lish, have become downright bores. own door; it grew out of the true re. Indeed, they never meant much, apart ligion into which we are baptized, and from local and patriotic associations. it has left evidence in our language, While Minerva guarded the Acropolis, our customs, our sacred temples, and and Jupiter kept state in the Capitol, hoary ruins, of its substantive reality. they were awful beings; but to one That Mr Southey had once a definite who was neither Greek nor Roman, purpose of composing a poem, on the they could never have been more than plan we have been recommending, he magnificent forms, ideal glorifications himself declares in the introductory of bodily strength or beauty; and letter or chapter of his Vindiciæ Ecwhatever poetic worship they may still clesiæ Anglicanæ, where
also exretain, is owing far more to the paint. plains the honourable and reverential ers and sculptors, than to the poets. scruples which prevented the execu. The Gothic mythology has been par- tion of the design. He perceived altially tried, with but very partial suc- so, in the quaint legends and extracess. It is too obscure, too monstrous, vagant dogmata of Hagiology, ample too full of horrors, and far too un- materials for the production of humor. wieldy and unimaginable, to enter in- ous effects and coinbinations, which he to any composition where the gorgeous had thoughts of representing, in some dimness and rapid coruscations of ly“wild and wondrous song," whereric madness could not be unremitting in his graphic fancy might have rival. ly maintained. Of the Mahometan and led the Diableries of Caillot's pencil ; the Braminical systems, we have al. but his profound respect for the very ready spoken. They may be turned errors and excrescences of religion to good account in pure romance, made him relinquish the intention. where little more is required than to Yet, not to leave the world without a delight the eye of Fancy with bril- sample of what he could have done, liant costume and luxuriant scenery; he here presents us with two legends, but they cannot be connected with a serious and a comic-a tragedy and English feelings, and are so little fa a farce-the one wild, solemn, and miliar to ordinary readers, that an un. pathetic, the other a story of a cock due space must be occupied in expla. and a hen. natory detail (which is any thing but On first opening the volume, we poetry) to render it intelligible. It is discover a neatly engraved frontispiece, true, the allusions may be explained and a poetical dedication to Caroline in the notes, or the prologomena, but Bowles. We are glad to see such a that is an inartificial expedient, and tribute to female worth and genius. makes the volume bulky and expen. Then follows, “ All for Love, or a Sinsive. We are afraid, too, that we ner Well Saved.” The plot of which, united brethren and sisteren of the taken from an apocryphal life of St three kingdoms find a great difficulty Basil, we shall endeavour briefly to exa in transferring our sympathies and af- plain. A young man, named Eleëmon, fections to the regions of Islamism and freedman to Protesias, a wealthy citizen Boodhism. The affairs of india are of Cæsarea, falls in love with Cyra, his closely intertwined, not only with our master's daughter. The inequality of political, but in many instances with conditions, and the damsel's absolute our personal and family interests, and destination to the cloister, cut him off yet it is wonderful how little the public from natural hope. Fearing even to ihink or know about them. The man, woo the high-born maid, he tries the ners, the feelings, the religion of Easte efficacy of secret prayers, vows, and ern nations, present themselves to the sacrifice. He prays to all the saints imagination rather as splendid fictions and to the blessed Virgin, but meets VOL. XXVI. NO. CLIV.
with no success--then tries Venus, Thou comest of thine own accord, Artarte, Diana, (a more unsuitable pas And actest knowingly. troness of a love-cause, by the way, than the immaculate Mary herself,)
• Dost thou, who now to choose art but all in vain. Their images were
free, deaf-their oracles were dumb. De
For ever pledge thyself to me, spairing, yet not resigned in his de
As I shall help thee, say?' spair, he has recourse to the sorcerer *I do, so help me, Satan!' said Abibas, who, like a true fortune-teller, The wilful castaway." begins with informing him of his own name and errand ; and finally, after The old gentleman, however, gen. some scoffing parley, refers him, with tleman though he be, likes to do bua letters of introduction, to his master siness in a business-like way, and will the Prince of the Air. Eleëmon, “ in have a bond of his new devotee. A the strength of evil shame," ventures scroll and reed are brought instantasoul and all for love-repairs, accord- neously; the point of the reed applied ing to the sorcerer's directions, to a to Eleëmon's breast, "just where the Pagan's tomb, and performs the magic heart-stroke plays," produces an elecceremonies enjoined. A strong arm tric shock, and draws a drop of his seizes him, and with a whir of invi- heart's blood, with which he signs the sible wings, he is carried through the fatal testament that bequeaths him to air-faster of course, than hurricanes, eternal perdition. How the Evil One torrents, lightning, and sunbeams, performs his engagement may be seen leaving moon and stars behind-yet in the following beautiful verses :still rapt onward in the same erect attitude as he stood on the Pagan tomb,
Look at yon silent dwelling now! his bearers gradually assuming visible
A heavenly siglit is there, shape, as he approaches the habitation
Where Cyra in her chamber kneels of unblest spirits-till, arrived at the Before the Cross in prayer. utmost north, the realın of outer night, they appear in their proper substance She is not loth to leave the world; and angel fiendishness. Here the Fall. For she hath been taught with joy en Seraph sits on a throne of ice—and To think that prayer and praise thenceverily, the poet puts killing cold words
forth into his mouth. Something like the Will be her life's employ. nitrous winds of Madrid, which will not put a candle out, but will kill a And thus her mind bath she inclined, man. He is one of the best devils in
Her pleasure being still, Modern Poetry, as far as he goes- (An only child and motherless,) nearly equal to Mephistopheles. He
To do her Father's will. is the very spirit of scorn-his breath “burns frore, and frost performs the
The moonlight falls upon her face, work of fire." No imaginable rage
Upraised in fervour meek, of Hell could murder, like the unim
While peaceful tears of piety passioned, uncreating contempt of this
Are stealing down her cheek. hopeless scoffer. He scornfully accepts the tablets, and speaks of love like a
That duty done, the harmless mad goblin damn'd. However, the bargain
Disposed herself to rest;
No sin, no sorrow in lier suul, is soon completed. The "young Amorist" is to have his master's daughter
No trouble in her breast. with her father's consent; and health,
But when upon the pillow then, wealth, long life, and all worldly bless
Composed, she laid her head, ings for her portion, on condition of
She little thought what unseen Powers renouncing his baptism, and all hopes
Kept watch beside her bed. of salvation, and surrendering himself, rescue or no rescue, to the eternal one
A double ward had she that nighil, my for ever. Satan, like an honour.
When evil near her drew; able gentleman, as he is, is anxious
Her own Good Angel guarding her, to make his own fair dealing in the
And Eleëmon's too. transaction manifest. "Remember I deceive thee not, Their charge it was to keep her safe Nor have I tempted thee;
From all unholy things ;