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the Company could hardly have been made effectual for any further purpose. But they are of historical interest, as the germ out of which the Anglo-Indian codes were ultimately developed. In this connexion they may be usefully compared with the provisions which, twenty-eight years after the charter of Elizabeth, were granted to the founders of

Massachusetts. Resem- In 1628 Charles I granted a charter to the Governor and blance to Massa- Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England. It chusetts created a form of government consisting of a governor, Company.

deputy governor, and eighteen assistants, and directed them to hold four times a year a general meeting of the Company to be called the great and general Court,' in which general court 'the Governor or deputie Governor, and such of the assistants and freemen of the Company as shall be present shall have full power and authority to choose other persons to be free of the Company and to elect and constitute such officers as they shall think fitte for managing the affairs of the said Governor and Company and to make Lawes and Ordinances for the Good and Welfare of the saide Company and for the Government and Ordering of the said Landes and Plantasion and the People inhabiting and to inhabit the same, soe as such Lawes and Ordinances be not contrary or repugnant to the Lawes and Statutes of this our realme of England.' The charter of 1628 was replaced in 1691 by another charter, which followed the same general lines, but gave the government of the colony a less commercial and more political character. The main provisions of the charter of 1691 were transferred bodily to the Massachusetts constitution of 1780, which is now in force, and which, as Mr. Bryce remarks !, profoundly influenced the convention that prepared the federal constitution of the United States in 1787.

Thus from the same germs were developed the independent republic of the West and the dependent empire of the East.

a

1 American Commonwealth, pt. 2, chap. xxxvii. See also Lyall, British Dominion in India, p. 54.

2

The Massachusetts Company may be taken as the type of Other

English the bodies of adventurers who during the early part of the trading seventeenth century were trading and settling in the newly com

panies. discovered continent of the West. It may be worth while to glance at the associations of English merchants, who, at the date of the foundation of the East India Company, were trading towards the East. Of these the most important were the Russia or Muscovy Company and the Levant or Turkey Company 1 The foundations of the Russia Company 2 were laid by the Russia

Company. discoveries of Richard Chancellor. In 1553-54 they were incorporated by charter of Philip and Mary under the name of the Merchants and Adventurers for the discovery of lands not before known or frequented by any English.' They were to be governed by a court consisting of one governor (the first to be Sebastian Cabot) and twenty-eight of the most sad, discreet, and learned of the fellowships, of whom four were to be called consuls, and the others assistants. They were to have liberty to resort, not only to all parts of the dominions of our cousin and brother, Lord John Bazilowitz, Emperor of all Russia, but to all other parts not known to our subjects.' And none but such as were free of or licensed by the Company were to frequent the parts aforesaid, under forfeiture of ships and merchandise-a comprehensive monopoly.

In 1566 the adventurers were again incorporated, not by charter, but by Act of Parliament, under the name of “the fellowship of English Merchants for discovery of new trade 3,' with a monopoly of trade in Russia, and in the countries

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A good account of the great trading companies is given by Bonnassieux, Les Grandes Compagnies de Commerce (Paris, 1892). See also Causton and Keene, The Early Chartered Companies (1896), the article on 'Colonies, Government of, by Companies' in the Dictionary of Political Economy, the article on ‘Chartered Companies’ in the Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England, and Egerton, Origin and Growth of English Colonies (1903).

? As to the Russia Company, see the Introduction to Early Voyages to Russia in the publications of the Hakluyt Society.

* This is said to have been the first English statute which established an exclusive mercantile corporation.

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of Armenia, Media, Hyrcania, Persia, and the Caspian Sea.

In the seventeenth century they were compelled by the Czar of the time to share with the Dutch their trading privileges from the Russian Government, and by an Act of 1698, which reduced their admission fine to £5?, their doors were thrown open. After this they sank into insignificance.

A faint legal trace of their ancient privileges survives in the extra-territorial character belonging for marriage purposes to the churches and chapels formerly attached to their factories in Russia. Some years ago they existed, perhaps they still

exist, as a dining club 2. Levant The Levant Company 3 was founded by Queen Elizabeth Company

for the purpose of developing the trade with Turkey under the concessions then recently granted by the Ottoman Porte. Under arrangements made with various Christian powers and known as the Capitulations, foreigners trading or residing in Turkey were withdrawn from Turkish jurisdiction for most civil and criminal purposes. The first of the Capitulations granted to England bears date in the year 1579, and the first charter of the Levant Company was granted two years afterwards, in 1581. This charter was extended in 1593, renewed by James I, confirmed by Charles II, and, like the East India Company's charters, recognized and modified by various Acts of Parliament.

The Levant Company attempted to open an overland trade to the East Indies, and sent merchants from Aleppo to Bagdad and thence down the Persian Gulf. These merchants obtained articles at Lahore and Agra, in Bengal, and at Malacca, and on their return to England brought information of the profits to be acquired by a trade to the East Indies. In 1593 the Levant Company obtained a new charter, empowering them to trade to India overland through the terri

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1

10 & 11 Will. III, c. 6. 2 MacCulloch, Dictionary of Commerce, 1871 edition. 3 As to the Levant Company and the Capitulations, see below, p. 353.

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