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ventional use of it, exhibited more magnificently in
Lycidas than in any other pastoral, is apparently of
Roman origin. Milton, employing the noble freedom
of a great artist, has here united ancient mythology,
with what may be called the modern mythology of
Camus and Saint Peter,-to direct Christian images.
- The metrical structure of this glorious poem is
partly derived from Italian models.
1. 11 Sisters of the sacred well : the Muses, said to
frequent the fountain Helicon on Mount Parnassus.
1. 10 Mona: Anglesea, called by the Welsh Inis Dowil
or the Dark Island, from its dense forests. Deva
(l. 11) the Dee: a river which probably derived its
magical character from Celtic traditions : it was
long the boundary of Briton and Saxon. These
places are introduced, as being near the scene of the
shipwreck. Orpheus (1. 14) was torn to pieces by
Thracian women. Amaryllis and Neaera (1. 24, 25)
names used here for the love-idols of poets : as
Damoetas previously for a shepherd. L. 31 the blind
Fury: Atropos, fabled to cut the thread of life.
Arethuse (1. 41) and Minoius : Sicilian and Italian
waters here alluded to as synonymous with the
pastoral poetry of Theocritus and Virgil.
1. 3 oat: pipe, used here like Collins' oaten stop 1. 1,
No. cxlvi, for Song. L. 11 Hippotades: Aeolus, god
of the Winds. Panope (1. 14) a Nereid. The names
of local deities in the Hellenic mythology express
generally some feature in the natural landscape,
which the Greeks studied and analyzed with their
usual unequalled insight and feeling. Panope repre-
sents the boundlessness of the ocean-horizon when
seen from a height, as compared with the limited
horizon.of the land in hilly countries such as Greece
or Asia Minor. Camus (1. 18) the Cam; put for King's
University. The sanguine flower (1. 21) the Hyacinth
of the ancients; probably our Iris. The pilot (1. 24)
Saint Peter, figuratively introduced as the head of
the Church on earth, to foretel 'the ruin of our
corrupted clergy, then in their heighth' under
Laud's primacy.
1. 3 the wolf: Popery. Alpheus (1. 7) a stream in
Southern Greece, supposed to flow underseas to join
the Arethuse. Swart star (1. 13) the Dogstar, called
swarthy because its heliacal rising in ancient times
occurred soon after midsummer. L. 34 moist vows:
either tearful prayers, or prayers for one at sea.
Bellerus (1. 35) a giant, apparently created here by
Milton to personify Bellerium, the ancient title of the
Land's End. The great Vision :-the story was that
the Archangel Michael had appeared on the rock by
Marazion in Mount's Bay which bears his name.
Milton calls on him to turn his eyes from the south

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homeward, and to pity Lycidas, if his body has drifted into the troubled waters off the Land's End. Finisterre being the land due south of Marazion, two places in that district (then by our trade with Corunna probably less unfamiliar to English ears), are named, -Namancos now Mujio in Galicia, Bayona north of the Minho, or perhaps a fortified rock (one of the Cies Islands) not unlike Saint Michael's Mount,

at the entrance of Vigo Bay. 58 LXVI 1. 4 ore: rays of golden light. Doric lay (l. 23) Sici

lian, pastoral. 60 LXX

The assault was an attack on London expected in
1642, when the troops of Charles I reached Brent-
ford. *Written on his door' was in the original title
of this sonnet. Milton was then living in Aldersgate
1. 10 The Emathian Conqueror : When Thebes was
destroyed (B.C. 335) and the citizens massacred by
thousands, Alexander ordered the house of Pindar
to be spared. He was as incapable of appreciating
the Poet as Lewis XIV of appreciating Racine : but
even the narrow and barbarian mind of Alexander
could understand the advantage of a showy act of

homage to Poetry. 61 1. 1 the repeated air Of sad Electra's poet: Amongst

Plutarch’s vague stories, he says that when the Spartan confederacy in 404 B. c. took Athens, a proposal to demolish it was rejected through the effect produced on the commanders by hearing part of a chorus from the Electra of Euripides sung at a feast. There is however no apparent congruity between the lines quoted (167, 8 Ed. Dindorf) and the result

ascribed to them. 62 Lxxu. This high-toned and lovely Madrigal is quite in the

style, and worthy of, the 'pure Simonides.' 63 LXXV Vaughan's beautiful though quaint verses should

be compared with Wordsworth's great Ode, No.

CCLXXXVII. 64 LXXVI Favonius: the spring wind. 65 LXXVII Themis: the goddess of justice. Skinner was grand

son by his mother to Sir E. Coke ;-hence, as pointed
out by Mr. Keightley, Milton's allusion to the bench.
L. 8: Sweden was then at war with Poland, and

France with the Spanish Netherlands.
67 LXXIX I. 10 Sydneian showers: either in allusion to the

conversations in the 'Arcadia,' or to Sidney him-
self as a model of 'gentleness' in spirit and de

meanouir. 71 Lxxxiv Elizabeth of Bohemia: Daughter to James I, and

ancestor to Sophia of Hanover. These lines are a

fine specimen of gallant and courtly compliment. 72 LXXXV Lady M. Ley was daughter to Sir J. Ley, afterwards

Earl of Marlborough, who died March, 1628-9, coin


cidently with the dissolution of the third Parliament of Charles' reign. Hence Milton poetically compares his death to that of the Orator Isocrates of Athens,

after Philip's victory in 888. B. 338 B, C, 70 XCII, XCIII These are quite a Painter's poemš. 80 XCIX From Prison : to which his active support of Charles I

twice brought the high-spirited writer. 84 CV Inserted in Book II as written in the character of a

Soldier of Fortune in the Seventeenth Century. 85 CVI

Waly waly: an exclamation of sorrow, the root and the pronunciation of which are preserved in the word caterwaul. Brae, hillside : burn, brook : busk, adorn. Saint Anton's Well: at the foot of

Arthur's Seat by Edinburgh. Cramasie, crimson. 87 CVII burd, maiden. 88 CVIII corbies, crows: fail, turf: hause, neck: theek,

thatch.-If not in their origin, in their present form this and the two preceding poems appear due to the Seventeenth Century, and have therefore been

placed in Book II. 90 CXI The remark quoted in the note to No. XLVII applies

equally to these truly wonderful verses, which, like
'Lycidas,' may be regarded as a test of any reader's
insight into the most poetical aspects of Poetry.
The general differences between them are vast: but
in imaginative intensity Marvell and Shelley are
closely related.—This poem is printed as a translation
in Marvell's works : but the original Latin is ob-
viously his own. The most striking verses in it, here
quoted as the book is rare, answer more or less to
stanzas 2 and 6:-

Alma Quies, teneo te! et te, germana Quietis,
Simplicitas! vos ergo diu per templa, per urbes
Quaesivi, regum perque alta palatia, frustra:
Sed vos hortorum per opaca silentia, longe

Celarunt plantae virides, et concolor umbra.
L'Allégro and Il Penseroso. It is a striking proof of

Milton's astonishing power, that these, the-earliest pure Descriptive Lyrics in our language, should still remain the best in a style which so many great poets have since attempted. The Bright and the Thoughtful aspects of Nature are their subjects: but each is preceded by a mythological introduction in a mixed Classical and Italian manner. The meaning of the first is that Gaiety is the child of Nature; of the second, that Pensiveness is the daughter of Sorrow

and Genius. 92 CXII 1. 2: Perverse ingenuity has conjectured that for

Cerberus we should read Erebus, who in the Mythology is brother at once and husband of Night: But the issue of that union is not Sadness, but Day and Aether:--completing the circle of primary Creation, as the parents are both children of Chaos, first-begotten of all things. (Hesiod)


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1. 12 the mountain nymph; compare Wordsworth's Sonnet, No. ccx. L. 38 is in apposition to the preceding, by a grammatical license not uncommon

with Milton. 94

1. 1 tells his tale: counts his flock. Cynosure (1. 14) the Pole Star. Corydon, Thyrsis &c. : Shepherd

names froin the old Idylls. 95

1. 24 Jonson's learned sock : the gaiety of our age would find little pleasure in his elaborate comedies. L. 28 Lydian airs: a light and festive style of

ancient inusie. 96 OXITI 1. 3 bestead: avail. L. 19 stary'd Ethiop queen:

Cassiopeia, the legendary Queen of Ethiopia, and

thence translated amongst the constellations. 97

1. 29 Cynthia : the Moon: her chariot is drawn by

dragons in ancient representations. 98

1. 16 Hermes, called Trismegistus, a mystical writer of the Neo-Platonist school. L. 27 Thebes &c. : subjects of Athenian Tragedy. Buskind (1, 30) tragic. L. 32 Musaeus : a poet in Mythology. L. 87 him that left

half told: Chaucer, in his incomplete Squire's Tale.' 99 1. 2 great bards : Ariosto, Tasso, and Spenser, are naming it, in the common criticism of our day, artificial. There is, again, à nobleness of thought, a courageous aim at high and, in a strict sense manly, excellence in many of the writers : --nor can that period be justly termed tame and wanting in originality, which produced poems such as Pope's Satires, Gray's Odes and Elegy, the ballads of Gay and Carey, the songs of Burns and Cowper. In truth Poetry at this as at all times was a more or less unconscious mirror of the genius of the age : and the brave and admirable spirit of Enquiry which made the eighteenth century the turning-time in European civilization is reflected faithfully in its verse. An intelligent reader will find the influence of Newton as markedly in the poems of Pope, as of Elizabeth in the plays of Shakespeare. On this great subject, however, these indications must here be sufficient. PAGE NO.

here intended. L. 9 frounced: curled. The Attic

Boy (1. 10) Cephalus. 100 CXIV Emigrants supposed to be driven towards America

by the government of Charles I. 101

1. 9, 10 But apples, &c. A fine example of Marvell's

imaginative hyperbole. CXV 1. 6 concent: harmony.

Summary of Book Third it is more difficult to characterize the English Poetry of the eighteenth century than that of any other. For it was an age not only of spontaneous transition, but of bold experiment: it includes not only such divergences of thought as distinguish the ‘Rape of the Lock' from the ‘Parish Register,' but such vast contemporaneous differences as lie between Pope and Collins, Burns and Cowper. Yet we may clearly trace three leading moods or tendencies :—the aspects of courtly or educated life represented by Pope and carried to exhaustion by his followers; the poetry of Nature and of Man, viewed through a cultivated, and at the same time an impassioned frame of mind by Collins and Gray :- lastly, the study of vivid and simple narrative, including natural description, begun by Gay and Thomson, pursued by Burns and others in the north, and established in England by Gol mith, Percy, Crabbe, and Cowper. Great varieties in style accompanied these diversities in aim: poets could not always distinguish the manner suitable for subjects so far apart; and the union of the language of courtly and of common life, exhibited most conspicuously by Burns, has given a tone to the poetry of that century which is better explained by reference to its historical origin than by pens: scorning, rallying: dowie, dreary: doffin' and gabbin', joking and chatting: leglin, milkpail: shearing, reaping: bandsters, sheaf-binders : lyart, grizzled: runkled, wrinkled : fleeching, coaxing:gloaming,

The Bard. This Ode is founded on a fable that

Edward I after conquering Wales, put the native Poets to death.-After lamenting his comrades (st. 2, 3) the Bard prophesies the fate of Edward II and the conquests of Edward III (4): his death and that of the Black Prince (5): of Richard II, with the wars of York and Lancaster, the murder of Henry VI, (the meek usurper,) and of Edward V and his brother (6). He turns to the glory and prosperity following the accession of the Tudors (7), through Elizabeth's reign (8): and concludes with a

vision of the poetry of Shakespeare and Milton. 113 CXXIII I. 13 Glo'ster : Gilbert de Clare, son-in-law to Edward.

Mortimer, one of the Lords Marchers of Wales. 114 1. 3 Arvon: the shores of Carnarvonshire opposite

Anglesey. L. 25 She-wolf: Isabel of France, adul

terous Queen of Edward II. 115 1. 16 Towers of Julius : the Tower of London, built

in part, according to tradition, by Julius Caesar. L. 22 bristled boar : the badge of Richard III. L. 28 Half of thy heart: Queen Eleanor died soon after the conquest of Wales. L. 38 Arthur: Henry VII named his eldest son thus, in deference to British feeling

and legend 117 cxxv The Highlanders called the battle of Culloden,

Drumossie. 118 cxxvi lilting, singing blithely: loaning, broad lane : bughts,

twilight: bogle, ghost: dool, sorrow. 120 CXXVIII The Editor has found no authoritative text of this

poem, in his judgment superior to any other of its class in melody and pathos. Part is probably not later than the seventeenth century: in other stanzas a more modern hand, much resembling Scott's, is

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