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traceable. Logans poem (oXXVII) exhibits a knowSledge rather of the old legend than of the old verses. Hecht, promised; the obsolete hight: mavis, thrush : ilka, every: lav'rock, lark : haughs, valley-meadows:

twined, parted from : marrow, mate: syne, then. 121 cxxix The Royal George, of 108 guns, whilst undergoing a

partial careening in Portsmouth Harbour, was overset about 10 A.M. Aug. 29, 1782. The total loss was

believed to be near 1000 souls. 124 cxxxI A little masterpiece in a very difficult style:

Catullus himself could hardly have bettered it. In. grace, tenderness, simplicity, and humour it is! worthy of the Ancients; and even more so, from the

completeness and unity of the picture presented. 128 cxxxvi Perhaps no writer who has given such strong

proofs of the poetic nature has left less satisfactory poetry than Thomson. Yet he touched little which he did not beautify: and this song, with "Rule Britannia' and a few others, must make us regret that he did not more seriously apply himself

to lyrical writing. 130 CXL 1. 1 Aeolian lyre: the Greeks ascribed the origin of

their Lyrical Poetry to the colonies of Aeolis in Asia Minor Thracia's hills (1. 17) supposed a favourite resort of Mars. Feather'd king (l. 21) the Eagle of Jupiter, admirably described by Pindar in a passage here imitated by Gray. Idalia (1. 27) in Cyprus,

where Cytherea (Venus) was especially worshipped. 131 1. 25 Hyperion: the Sun. St. 6—8 allude to the

Poets of the Islands and Mainland of Greece, to

those of Rome and of England. 133 1. 9 Theban Eagle : Pindar. 135 cxli 1. 23 chaste-eyed Queen : Diana. 136 CXLII Attic warbler : the nightingale. 138 cxliv sleekit, sleek : bickering, brattle, flittering flight:

laith, loth: pattle, ploughstaff: whyles, at times : a daimen icker, a corn-ear now and then: thrave, shock: lave, rest : foggage, aftergrass : snell, biting: but hald, without dwelling-place: thole, bear : cranreuch, hoarfrost: thy lane, alone: a-gley, off the

right line, awry. 142 cxlvii Perhaps the noblest stanzas in our language. 146 cxLvIII stoure, dust-storm : braw, smart. 147 cxLix scaith, hurt: tent, guard : steer, molest. 148 CLI

drumlie, muddy: birk, birch. 150 CLII

greet, cry: daurna, dare not. There can hardly exist a poem more truly tragic in the highest sense than this : nor, except Sappho, has any. Poetess

known to the Editor equalled it in excellence. - CLIII fou, merry with drink: coost, carried : unco skeigh,

very proud : gart, forced : abeigh, aside : Ailsa craig, a rock in the Firth of Clyde : grat his een bleert,

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cried till his eyes were bleared : lowpin, leaping i linn, waterfall : sair, sore : smoor'd, smothered :

crouse and canty, blythe and gay. 151 CLIV Burns justly named this one of the most beautiful

songs in the Scots or any other language. One verse, interpolated by Beattie, is here omitted :-it contains two good lines, but is quite out of harmony with the original poem. Bigonet, little cap ; probably altered

from beguinette : thruw, twist: caller, fresh. 153 CLV airts, quarters : row, roll: shaw, small wood in a

hollow, spinney: knowes, knolls. 154 CLVI jo, sweetheart : brent, smooth: pow, head.

CLVII leal, faithful : fuin, happy. 155 CLVIII Henry VI founded Eton. 160 CLXI The Editor knows no Sonnet more remarkable than

this, which, with CLXII, records Cowper's gratitude to the Lady whose affectionate care for many years gave what sweetness he could enjoy to a life radically wretched. Petrarch's sonnets have a more ethereal grace and a more perfect finish ; Shakespeare's more passion; Milton's stand supreme in stateliness, Wordsworth's in depth and delicacy. But Cowper's unites with an exquisiteness in the turn of thought which the ancients would have called Irony, an intensity of pathetic tenderness peculiar to his loving and ingenuous nature. -There is much mannerism, much that is unimportant or of now exhausted interest in his poems: but where he is great, it is with that elementary greatness which rests on the most universal human feelings. Cowper

is our highest master in simple pathos. 163 CLXIII fancied green : cherished garden. CLXIV Nothing except his surname appears recoverable

with regard to the author of this truly noble poem. It should be noted as exhibiting a rare excellence,the climax of simple sublimity.

It is a lesson of high instructiveness to examine the essential qualities which give firstrate poetical rank to lyrics such as "To-morrow' or 'Sally in our Alley,' when compared with poems written (if the phrase may be allowed) in keys so different as the subtle sweetness of Shelley, the grandeur of Gray and Milton, or the delightful Pastoralism of the Elizabethan verse. Intelligent readers will gain hence a clear understanding of the vast imaginative range of Poetry ;-through what wide oscillations the mind and the taste of a nation may pass ;-how many are the roads which Truth and Nature open to Excellence.

Summary of Book Fourth It proves sufficiently the lavish wealth of our own age in Poetry, that the pieces which, without conscious departure

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from the standard of Excellence, render this Book by far the longest, were with very few exceptions composed during the first thirty years of the nineteenth century. Exhaustive reasons can hardly be given for the strangely sudden appearance of individual genius: but none, in the Editor's judgment, can be less adequate than that which assigns the splendid national achievements of our recent poetry to an impulse from the frantic follies and criminal wars that at the time disgraced the least essentially civilized of our foreign neighbours. The first French Revolution was rather, in his opinion, one result, and in itself by no means the most important, of that far wider and greater spirit which through enquiry and doubt, through pain and triumph, sweeps mankind round the circles of its gradual development: and it is to this that we must trace the literature of modern Europe. But, without more detailed discussion on the motive causes of Scott, Wordsworth, Campbell, Keats, and Shelley, we may observe that these Poets, with others, carried to further perfection the later tendencies of the Century preceding, in simplicity of narrative, reverence for human Passion and Character in every sphere, and impassioned love of Nature: -that, whilst maintaining on the whole the advances in art made since the. Restoration, they renewed the half-forgotten melody and depth of tone which marked the best Elizabethan writers :-that, lastly, to what was thus inherited they added a richness in language and a variety in metre, a force and fire in narrative, a tenderness and bloom in feeling, an insight into the finer passages of the Soul and the inner meanings of the landscape, a larger and wiser Humanity,-hitherto hardly attained, and perhaps unattainable even by predecessors of not inferior individual genius. In a word, the Nation which, after the Greeks in their glory, has be the most gifted all nations for Poetry, expressed in these men the highest strength and prodigality of its nature. They interpreted the age to itselfhence the many phases of thought and style they present:to sympathize with each, fervently and impartially, without fear and without fancifulness, is no doubtful step in the higher education of the Soul. For, as with the Affections and the Conscience, Purity in Taste is absolutely proportionate to Strength :--and when once the mind has raised itself to grasp and to delight in Excellence, those who love most will be found to love most wisely.


166 CLXVI stout Cortez : History requires here Balbóa : (A.T.) It

may be noticed, that to find in Chapman's Homer the 'pure serene' of the original, the reader must bring with him the imagination of the youthful poet;-he must be a Greek himself,' as Shelley finely said of

Keats. 170 CLXix The most tender and true of Byron's smaller poems. 171 clxx This poem, with caxXXVI, exemplifies the peculiar

skill with which Scott employs proper names or is there a surer sign of high poetical genius.

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The Editor in this and in other instances has risked the addition (or the change) of a Title, that the aim of the verses following may be grasped more clearly

and immediately. 194 cxcviii Nature's Eremite : like a solitary thing in Nature.

-This beautiful Sonnet was the last word of a poet deserving the title 'marvellous boy'in a much higher sense than Chatterton. If the fulfilment may ever safely be prophesied from the promise, England appears to have lost in Keats one whose gifts in Poetry have rarely been surpassed. Shakespeare, Milton, and Wordsworth, had their lives been closed at twenty-five, would (so far as we know) have left poems of less excellence and hope than the youth who, from the petty school and the London surgery, passed at once to a place with them of

“high collateral glory.' 196 CCI It is impossible not to regret that Moore has written

so little in this sweet and genuinely national style. CCII A masterly example of Byron's command of strong

thought and close reasoning in verse :-as the next is equally characteristic of Shelley's wayward intensity, and Corv of the dramatic power, the vital identification of the poet with other times and characters, in which Scott is second only to Shakes

peare. 206 ccix Bonnivard, a Genevese, was imprisoned by the

Duke of Savoy in Chillon on the lake of Geneva for
his courageous defence of his tountry against the
tyranny with which Piedmont threatened it during
the first half of the seventeenth century. This
noble Sonnet is worthy to stand near Milton's on the
Vaudois massacre.
Switzerland was usurped by the French under

Napoleon in 1800 : Venice in 1797 (ccxi). 209 ccxv This battle was fought Dec. 2, 1800, between the

Austrians under Archduke John and the French under Moreau, in a forest near Munich. Hohen

Linden means High Limetrees. 212 ccxviii After the capture of Madrid by Napoleon, Sir J.

Moore retreated before Soult and Ney to Corunna, and was killed whilst covering the embarcation of his troops. His tomb, built by Ney, bears this inscription-John Moore, leader of the English

armies, slain in battle, 1809.' 225 ccxxix The Mermaid was the club-house of Shakespeare,

Ben Jonson, and other choice spirits of that age. 226 ccxxx Maisie : Mary. Scott has given us nothing more

complete and lovely than this little song, which
unites simplicity and dramatic power to a wildwood
music of the rarest quality. No moral is drawn, far
Jess any conscious analysis of feeling attempted
the pathetic meaning is left to be suggested by the





mere presentment of the situation. Inexperienced critics have often named this, which may be called the Homeric manner, superficial, from its apparent simple facility : but' first rate excellence in it-(as shown here, in cxcvI, CLVI, and cxxix) is in truth one of the least common triumphs of Poetry. This style should be compared with what is not less perfect in its way, the searching out of inner feeling, the expression of hidden meanings, the revelation of the heart of Nature and of the Soul within the Soul,-the analytical method, in short, --inost completely repre

sented by Wordsworth and by Shelley. 231 ccXXXIV correi: covert on a hillside. Cumber: trouble. 243 ccxLm This poem has an exaltation and a glory, joined

with an exquisiteness of expression, which place it in the highest rank amongst the many masterpieces

of its illustrious Author. 252 cclii interlunar swoon : interval of the Moon's invisibility. 257 CCLVI Calpe : Gibraltar. Lofoden : the Maelstrom whirl

pool off the N.W. coast of Norway. 259 CCLVII This lovely poem refers here and there to a ballad

by Hamilton on the subject better treated in CXXVII

and cxxvIII. 271 CCLXVIII Arcturi: seemingly used for northern stars. And

wild roses &c. Our language has no line modulated with more subtle sweetness. A good poet might have written And roses wild :-yet this slight change

would disenchant the verse of its peculiar beauty. 275 CCLXX Ceres' daughter: Proserpine. God of Torment : Pluto. CCLXXI This impassioned address expresses Shelley's most

rapt imaginations, and is the direct modern representative of the feeling which led the Greeks to the

worship of Nature. 284 CCLXXIV The leading idea of this beautiful description of a

day's landscape in Italy is expressed with an obscurity not unfrequent with its author. It appears to be, ---On the voyage of life are many moments of pleasure, given by the sight of Nature, who has power to heal even the worldliness and the uncharity

of man. 285 1. 24 Amphitrite was daughter to Ocean. 286

1. 1 Sungirt City : It is difficult not to believe that the correct reading is Seagirt. Many of Shelley's poems appear to have been printed in England during his residence abroad : others were printed from his manuscripts after his death. Hence probably the text of no English Poet after 1660 con

tains so many errors. See the Note on No. IX. 289 CCLxxv 1. 21 Maenad: a frenzied Nymph, attendant on

Dionysus in the Greek mythology.

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