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Italy.-Under wheat and flour regulations, in 1938, the service of delivery of grain to the mills is under control of the Minister of Corporations.
Japan.—A commerce and industry order effective on July 9, 1938, provided that ordinances may be issued to prohibit increase in the price of articles designated, above those ruling on the date of the order. A number of products have been named. A far-reaching program adopted in 1939 by the Central Price Commission will include more rigid control over the costs of raw materials, freight, labor wages, and other relating cost factors. A 10-year plan has been announced in Taiwan for increase in agricultural production and diversification of crops other than rice.
Latvia.-Under a law passed in December 1938, syndicates are to be established for the purpose of rationalizing branches of trade and industry. An Institute of Economic Research will make recommendations for rationalization plans.
Mexico.-A decree published August 12, 1938, provided for a Regulatory Committee for the Control of Commodities, and further regulation of the supply, distribution, and prices of the necessities of life. Departments will be formed to regulate customs tariffs, taxes, subsidies, transportation, crop credits, clearing houses, produce exchanges, and other factors bearing on the price of food. When necessary, the committee may buy, sell, and store commodities in order to regulate the price.
Under a decree of October 4, 1938, the Government may fix the maximum price at which sales shall be made to consumers in the country. There are also production groups formed under the Ministry of National Economy, which are subject to instruction as to their production plans, and must sell through a central organization. The National Commission for Foreign Trade has been directed to assist in the organization of exports, preparation of trade agreements, and control of the quality of goods exported.
Executive orders published in August 1938 incorporated into the national reserves all potassium salts and phosphate rock deposits not theretofore covered by concessions, including deposits lying under surfaces of privately owned property.
Norway.-A committee has been organized for the purpose of investigation and study of the various unfair trade practices, with a view toward revision of the Unfair Competition Act of 1922.
Poland.-The Law for the Encouragement of Private Investments, April 9, 1938, and regulations thereunder, granted special tax exemptions on investments, for a 5-year period, to build up industries deemed of national importance, including industrial plants, agricultural projvects, mineral and petroleum prospecting and refineries, and building plans. A law dated August 5, 1938, empowered the Minister of Agriture and Agrarian Reform to secure the supply of articles of prime necessity (food, clothing, and fuel), to store such products, and to fix prices, in order to prevent undue increase in price.
Peru. A law dated July 27, 1938, provided for Government control of the prices of articles or services to the public and prohibited an increase in prices at that time prevailing without permission of the Minister of Public Welfare.
Portugal.--Under decrees in 1938, a board was established to control standards and exportation of cotton from the colonies, and a minimum price was fixed. If the landed cost of American cotton in Portugal is lower than the fixed price for the colonial product, the difference is to be refunded to the purchaser of colonial cotton by the Cotton Board. To provide funds for the payment of this subsidy, a tax is collected on all foreign cotton imported.
Salvador.--A new constitution was signed on January 20, 1939.
Switzerland. A federal decree dated July 8, 1938, placed all war materials under Government regulation, including arms, ammunition, explosives, aviation equipment, and chemical products.
Turkey.—The Tobacco Monopoly Act of June 10, 1938, created a State monopoly for control of the culture, manufacture, transportation, and sale of tobacco products.
Venezuela.-A petroleum law published January 6, 1939, declared the petroleum industry to be a public utility. The right to explore, exploit, manufacture, refine, and transport petroleum products, may be exercised by the Government or through concessions granted for that purpose. The National Coffee Institute was reorganized and granted new powers, under an executive decree of January 18, 1939.
Yugoslavia.--A Government regulation issued June 24, 1938, provided for formation of a joint stock company, under Government ownership and direction, which shall acquiqre and operate steel mills, iron foundries, and iron and coal mines.
On April 1, 1938, the Minister of Agriculture was authorized to draft plans for a system of public warehouses for farm products. A privileged company for warehouses was registered on August 15, and a special board set up for the purpose of fixing standards for farm products to be warehoused. Government loans will be granted on products placed in storage. A decree effective on July 1, 1938, authorized a permanent fund for land conservation projects, flood control, and soil improvement. A decree published on July 12, 1938, included regulations for control of fruit intended for exportation.
A petroleum decree published July 1, 1938, declared mineral oils, resins, and gases found in the earth or on its surface to the property of the state. Prospecting and exploitation may be conducted by the Autonomous State Monopolies Administration, or concessions may be granted under regulatory conditions. Expropriation by the state is permitted. Imports and exports are under Government control, and maximum wholesale prices may be fixed by the Minister of Finance.
SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON THE EXPORT
TRADE ACT 1
Anderson, B. M., Jr. Competition and combination. The Webb Act. American
Academy of Political and Social Science. Annals, March 1919. V. 82: 210-212. Barnes, Joseph. The Webb-Pomerene Act of 1918. In Government promotion
of foreign trade in the United States. Prepared for the fifth Biennial Conference of the Institution of Pacific Relations. Banff, Canada, August 14
to 28, 1933. New York, American Council Institute of Pacific Relations, 1933. Bartells, E. J. The Webb law in operation. Address before the Seventh National
Foreign Trade Convention, May 14, 1920, at San Francisco, New York, Na
tional Foreign Trade Council, 1920. pp. 658-663. Beer, Henry Ward. America's answer to foreign combines. American exporters
meet the cartel menace on its own ground. Export Trade and Finance, July 7,
1928. V. 19:15-18. Bissell, L. H. The Webb Act: its legal aspects. An address delivered at the
Sixth National Foreign Trade Convention, Chicago, April 25, 1919. New York,
National Foreign Trade Council, 1919. pp. 461-470. Brown, James L. Exporting through the Webb-Law Associations. Comparative
Law Series, June 1939. V. 2: (new series) 257-275. Charls, George H. Organization of a district export selling company under the
Webb law. An address delivered at the Fifth National Foreign Trade Convention, Cincinnati, April 18, 1918. New York, National Foreign Trade Council,
1918. pp. 318-344. Colt, Frederick A. Exporting cotton textiles. Address delivered at the Twentieth
National Foreign Trade Convention, Pittsburgh, April 26, 1933. New York,
National Foreign Trade Council, 1933. pp. 163–169. Colt, Frederick A. The operation of Webb-law export associations—Textiles.
Address delivered at the Eighteenth National Foreign Trade Convention, New York, May 28, 1931. New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1931. pp.
233–240. Colver, William B. Concentration and control in industry and trade. In
American problems of reconstruction, Elisha M. Friedman, ed. New York,
E. P. Dutton & Co., 1918. pp. 177–195. Copland, D. B. and Norris, J. G. Some reciprocal effects of our Anti-trust laws
with special reference to Australia. (With particular reference to the WebbPomerene Act) American Academy of Political and Social Science. Annals,
January 1930. V. 147:117–124. Davies, Joseph E. Combinations for export trade under the Webb Act. Amer
ican Academy of Political and Social Science. Annals, March 1919. V. 82:
150–158. Davies, Joseph E. Cooperation in foreign trade. Address delivered at the
Third National Foreign Trade Convention, New Orleans, January 28, 1916.
New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1916. pp. 454462. De Courcy, Harold, and Brown, James L. The export trade act, by H. De
Courcy, and export trade through Webb-law associations, by James L. Brown.. Washington, D. C., U. S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1935.
G. L. B. 162. 35 pp. Processed. De Courcy, Harold. Increased exports of Webb Act associations. Commerce
Reports, October 23, 1937. p. 838.
1 Compiled by Madge E. Harkness, assistant librarian, Federal Trade Commission.
Donovan, J. J. The operation of Webb law export associations—Douglas Fir.
Address delivered at the Eighteenth National Foreign Trade Convention, New York, May 28, 1931. New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1931. pp.
240-250. Duncan, C. S. Legalizing combinations for export trade. Journal of Political
Economy, April 1917. V. 25: 313–338. Fort, John Franklin. Webb law and foreign trade. Scribner's Magazine, May
1919. V. 65:643–644. Fournier, Leslie. The purposes and results of the Webb-Pomerene Law. Amer
ican Economic Review, March 1932. V. 22:18-33. Gent, Ernest V. After the W. R. A.--The Webb-Pomerene Act. An address de
livered at the Twenty-second National Foreign Trade Convention, Houston, November 19, 1935. New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1935. pp.
18-20. Gent, Ernest V. America fights for foreign markets. World's Work, May 1930.
V. 59:24-27, 115. Gent, Ernest V. Operation of Webb Law export associations-Zinc. An address
at the Eighteenth National Foreign Trade Convention, New York, May 28,
1931. New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1931. pp. 220–227. Gent, Ernest V. Why is not the Webb law used more generally by inland manu
facturers engaged in foreign trade? An address before the Twentieth National Foreign Trade Convention, April 27, 1933, at Pittsburgh, Pa. New York, Na
tional Foreign Trade Council, 1933. pp. 335–346. Grace, Morgan H. Twelve years' experience with Webb law associations. An
address before the Eighteenth National Foreign Trade Convention, New York,
May 28, 1931. New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1931. pp. 245–250. Guaranty Trust Co. of New York. Combining for foreign trade, plans and
methods of operation. New York, Guaranty Trust Co., 1920. 15 pp. Guaranty Trust Co. of New York. Export trade combinations permitted by the
Webb law. New York, Guaranty Trust Co., 1918. 46 pp. Guest, Charles E. The operation of Webb law export associations—Rubber. An
address delivered at the Eighteenth National Foreign Trade Convention, New York, May 28, 1931. New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1931. pp.
227-233. Hines, Walker D. Cotton Textile Institute takes steps to strengthen export
trade. Joint representation under the Webb-Pomerene Act. Textile World,
January 19, 1929. V. 75: 353–354. Huebner, Grover G., and Kramer, Roland L. Cooperative exporting in the
United States. In Foreign trade-principles and practice. New York, Apple
ton & Co. 1931. Chapter XXII. Hurley, Edward N. Awakening of business. New York, Doubleday, Page &
Co., 1919. Chapters VII-XII. Hurley, Edward N. Co-operation in foreign trade. An address before the
Seventeenth National Foreign Trade Convention, May 22, 1930, at Los Angeles.
New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1930. pp. 172-176. Interpretation by Federal Trade Commission of provisions of Webb-Pomerene
Export Trade Act respecting formation of export association by silver producers.
Commercial and Financial Chronicle, August 9, 1924. V. 119: 649–650. Jones, Eliot. The Webb-Pomerene Act. Journal of Political Economy, No
vember 1920. V. 28: 754–767. Jones, Franklin D. Export associations. In Trade association activities and
the law. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1922. pp. 223–236. Judd, Edwin E. Export Management under the Webb-Pomerene Act. An ad
dress before the Seventh National Foreign Trade Convention, May 14, 1920, at San Francisco. New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1920. Pp.
664-670. Judd, Edwin E. Webb-Pomerene Act problems. Experience and difficulties of the
export manager of one corporation organized under this act. World Markets,
June 1920. V. 7: 47–48. Kirsh, Benjamin S. Foreign trade functions of trade associations. University
of Pennsylvania Law Review, June 1928. V. 76: 891–925. Kirsh, Benjamin S. Trade Associations in law and business. New York,
Central Book Company, 1938. Chapter XI, Foreign Trade Functions, pp. 321-374.
Klein, Julius. Foreign trade combinations. An address before Foreign Com
merce Group luncheon, May 8, 1928. Sixteenth annual meeting Chamber of
Commerce of the United States of America. U. S. Daily, May 9, 1928. pp. 1, 5. Kramer, Roland L. The American cartel system in export trade. Success
and failure experienced by Export associations organized under the Webb
Pomerene Act. Export Trade and Finance, October 27, 1928. V. 19: 7-9. Lamb, George N. Selling American walnut abroad-Seven years' actual ex
perience of a combination under the Webb-Pomerene Act. Export Trade and
Finance, October 23, 1926. V. 16: 11-15. Litman, Simon. Combinations for export trade. In Essentials of international
trade. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Ine., 1927. 2d ed. Chapter XXIV. Love, Ellen L. The Export Trade Act (Webb-Pomerene law). George Wash
of Pennsylvania Law Review, June 1928. V. 76 : 891–925. Montague, Gilbert H. Agreements in American export trade. An address at the
Fourteenth National Foreign Trade Convention, May 27, 1927, at Detroit, Mich.
New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1927. pp. 400-414. Montague, Gilbert H. Cooperation in foreign trade: why not at home? An
address delivered at the luncheon session of the American Manufacturers Export Association and the National Foreign Trade Convention, New York,
May 28, 1931. New York, National Foreign Trade Council, 1931. pp. 215-219. Montague, Gilbert H. Cooperation under the Webb-Pomerene law for the re
habilitation of Europe after the war. An address delivered at the Fifth National Foreign Trade Convention, Cincinnati, April 18, 1918. New York, National
Foreign Trade Council, 1918. pp. 302–317. Montague, Gilbert H. The Federal Trade Commission's investigation of foreign
trade conditions (Report on Cooperation in Export Trade). American Academy
of Political and Social Science. Annals, January 1916. V. 63: 67-68. Montague, Gilbert H. The Webb bill and the antitrust laws. American Bar
Association Journal, April 1917. Vol. 3: 145–164. National Association of Manufacturers of the United States of America. Export
trade development. A plan for the organization and conduct of export corporations ... under the Webb-Pomerene Act. New York, The Association, 1919.
National Association of Manufacturers of the United States of America. The
Namusa plan for export trade development. A nonprofit organization incorporated in the State of New York and qualified as an export association
under the Webb-Pomerene Act. New York, The Association, 1919. 12 pp. National Foreign Trade Council. The Webb bill. Report of Committee on
Cooperation in Foreign Trade. for enactment of H. R. 17350 (Webb bill); Fourth National Foreign Trade Convention, Pittsburgh, January 25, 1917.
New York, The Council, 1917. pp. 155–182. National Shawmut Bank of Boston. An introduction to the Webb law. An
act to promote export trade and for other purposes. Approved April 10,
1918. Boston, 1919, 32 pp. (Shawmut Series No. 109.) Notz, William F., and Harvey, Richard S. American foreign trade, as promoteď
by the Webb-Pomerene and Edge Acts with historical references to the origin and enforcement of the antitrust laws. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill Co.,
1921. 593 pp. Notz, William F. Export trade problems and an American foreign trade policy.
Journal of Political Economy, February 1918. V. 26: 105–124. Notz, William F. New phases of unfair competition and measures for its sup
pression-national and international. Yale Law Journal, February 1921.
V. 30: 384-394. Notz, William F. Ten years' operation of the Webb law. American Economic
Review, March 1929. V. 19:9–19. Notz, William F. The Webb law, its scope and operation. Journal of Political
Economy, July 1919. V. 27:525–543. Notz, William F. The Webb-Pomerene Act—its importance to the foreign credit
man. Credit Monthly, January 1922. V. 24:9_16. Notz, William F. The Webb-Pomerene law-extraterritorial scope of the un
fair competition clause. Yale Law Journal, November 1919. V. 29:29_45. Putting together the typical export associations. The Americas, February 1919.
V. 5:8-11. Regulation of export practices by the Federal Trade Board. The Americas,
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