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Fourth. A certificate of residence for six months in the same commune prior to the marriage. The commune in question must be the commune in which the marriage is to take place. This certificate is generally given by the "concierge " or proprietor or other person of the house where the applicant resides.

For convenience in regard to what is required at the "Mairie" in the way of formalities and regulations for marriages in Paris, the following should be carefully studied:

The publications of marriages last ten days and commence always the Sunday following the demand at the Mayor's office to publish the "bans." The publications ("bans ") are received between the hours of ten A. M. and three P. M. every day of the week except Saturday. The days specially set apart for marriages in Paris are Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. The "fiancé" and his family are not allowed to publish the "bans" without authority from the "fiancée" and her family. In order to have the "bans " published, it is necessary that the ' fiancée or her father and mother present themselves at the Mayor's office where the marriage is to take place and produce the following papers (" pièces "):

First. Attestations on ordinary paper that is to say, not "papier timbré" of the proprietor, or his manager, or the "concierge" of the place of residence for the preceding six months. This attestation must be "visaed" by the commissary of police of the quarter. Receipts for lease of rooms or apartments, etc., are not allowed to be received as evidence of six months' continuous residence.

Second. Birth certificate or its equivalent.

Third. If there has been a previous marriage, the

certificate of death must be produced if the former husband or wife died; if one or the other has been divorced, then a transcription of the divorce must be produced.

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Fourth. If either party be a minor and the parents be dead, the necessary authorization must be produced from the "conseil de famille." Whenever the like publication must be made elsewhere the party requiring it is given a duplicate of the "bans."

Four days before the marriage is to take place at the Mayor's office, the other papers must be produced. These

are:

First. The written consent of parents (or its equivalent), or, if dead, a death certificate. The equivalent of the consent of parents in the case of Americans or English is, as stated elsewhere, a certificate of custom showing that it is not the custom in these countries to require the consent of parents when the legal age for marriage has been reached.

Second. In the case of a French person there is, as elsewhere shown, a necessity for producing the consent of the grandparents if the father and mother are dead. If the grandparents be dead, then their death certificates are required if they exist. If it is not known where they died, then a declaration under oath is necessary to that effect. All these papers must be written on papier timbre," except the "concierge's attestation, and the consent of the "conseil de famille." If any of these papers come from another department than the Seine, then these papers must be legalized before the proper officer.

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The formalities of the civil marriage in France are prescribed by section 165 and following of the Civil Code.

The marriage must be celebrated publicly and before the civil officer (either a Mayor or his deputy) of the domicile of one of the parties. The two publications of the banns or notices must be made in the municipality chosen for the future domicile of the married couple.

Sections 74 and following of the Civil Code ordains that, on the day designated by the parties after the time for the publications, the civil officer shall read to the parties in the City Hall, in the presence of four witnesses (related or not), the papers relating to the civil status of the parties and to the formalities of marriage, and he shall also read chapter VI of the Civil Code relating to the respective rights and duties of husband and wife to be found under the title of marriage. (See "Duties of Mar

ried Women.")

He shall then ask the future husband and wife and the persons authorizing the marriage, if they are present, to declare whether a marriage contract has been made, and, in case of the affirmative, the date of this contract and also the name and residence of the notary who has made it. (See "Tradesmen.")

He shall receive from each party, one after the other, the declaration that they wish to take each other as husband and wife; he shall declare in the name of the law that they are united by marriage, and he shall immediately draw up a certificate to that effect.

The civil marriage is the French marriage. If there is a religious ceremony after it, this is not strictly a marriage at all. It is a "bénédiction." In French newspapers you will see that the Rev. So-and-So blessed the marriage of So-and-So. A religious marriage must not, under heavy penalties, take place until after the civil marriage has been celebrated.

In regard to divorce, there is much to be learned from France. In the first place, the causes for divorce are very liberally accorded by the Code.

One does not have

Very slight causes

to commit adultery to obtain divorce. which show an apparent unsuitability of the spouses for life in common practically open the door to divorce.

Even persistent application on the part of both parties for divorce, on the ground that life as man and wife is not possible, was sufficient to dissolve the union. An effort is now being made to grant divorce on the application of only one of the parties for this cause mentioned. While this step is not to be recommended, on the ground that history, in connection with Rome, shows that a limit must be placed somewhere in order that marriage may be respected, still, where a judge in divorce may use a proper discretion, it is very doubtful whether the power would be abused in America. But where both husband and wife wish to be divorced, and persist in this step for a considerable time, it would be moral to facilitate the gratification of this mutual desire.

Marriage with a corespondent is forbidden at present in France, but it is a sign of the times that this provision of the Code is sought to be repealed. By article 298 of the Civil Code, when divorce has been pronounced for adultery, the party against whom it has been pronounced cannot marry his or her paramour. Now, when a divorce has been pronounced against a party for insults (“ injures graves"), such as exchange of correspondence between a married person and a third party, and presumptive adultery is claimed, the Court, it is argued, may go so far as to pronounce divorce for adultery, and if this be done marriage with the corespondent is forbidden under article 298. Bearing in mind that a decision in France is not

binding upon any court, and that a precisely similar case decided under this (or any other article) of the Code must be argued all over again as if (for practical purposes) no decision had ever before been rendered on the point, it is easy to see that this particular article gives rise to grave confusion on the question of divorce in France. Hence an effort to repeal this article. It may be remarked, "en passant," that this very article was repealed by the Chamber in 1882, but disallowed by the Senate. The repeal is now advocated by such eminent men as MM. Louis Barthou, formerly Minister for Public Works; Caillaux, formerly Minister for Finance; Millerand, Deputy, Poincaré, formerly Minister for Public Instruction, formerly Minister for Finance.

This effort to repeal the article seems to me justifiable. That it should be considered honorable to marry a girl one has seduced from virginity and not allowable to marry a woman one has led astray from her husband after divorce has been pronounced against her is, to my mind, illogical.

The French procedure in divorce is admirable. According to the Code, the petitioner presents personally his requête, whereupon the Judge, if he deems a prima facie case has been made out, issues an order for the two parties to appear before him privately. The parties are heard on the points set out in the requête and the Judge attempts a conciliation. If this conciliation is not possible, permission is given to the petitioner to get out a This permission or order is subject to appeal. As in all civil matters, the case is tried by a Judge without a jury. There are other delays. The procedure, however, except as to the jury, is not unlike ours after the point referred to above.

summons.

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Here we have a law based on psychological principles. Agree with thine adversary quickly whiles thou art in

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