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States and probably will continue to do so after the awarded

war is over. Many believe that it would be easily ; of dollar possible, with modern ships and submarines, for Europe i importar

to land an army upon our shores. When one European nt the cas

country is at war with another it almost certainly we had

injures or affects our commerce. The whole world is when the

now so intricately bound together that any great waste
of life or property such as is caused by war must make,
broadly speaking, the whole world poorer. If we have
goods to sell it is desirable that other nations should

be able to buy. They cannot have as much means to But not buy if they are losing life and wealth in war. Evi

dently we are being more and more closely connected
with the welfare of all peoples.

Second: new forces of a positive type at work have Commerce, been pointing toward a greater unity among all peoples. invention We have just spoken in the preceding paragraph of

and

science our relation as buyers and sellers, as borrowers and

unite the creditors. Another very important fact is that with world our telegraphs and frequent mails, with the greater amount of travel between people of different countries, with the multitude of immigrants who have come to us from Europe, and with the lesser number who return to Europe after living here for a time, we are coming to understand other peoples better. They are not so foreign as they were. It is one striking illustration of this that representatives of the different nations now meet together and arrange common postal laws so

that a two-cent stamp is of the same color among all
ery
to

peoples in the postal union; and the same is true for
the stamps of the other denominations. Banks arrange
to pay checks in any part of the world through their

allied banks. Men in various scientific societies meet
is
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inventions that will promote human welfare, the methods of relieving poverty and sickness, of administering law and preventing crime. In all these ways the world

is becoming united. Coöpera Third: coöperation in so many ways suggests that it tion

may be possible to coöperate in protecting liberty and needed to

doing justice. Coöperation is in some ways a larger protect liberty

idea than peace. Peace suggests that I am not to interfere with any one by violence. Coöperation suggests that I shall positively help him. Now the nations are positively helping each other in many ways. Will they not be forced to carry out the thought further and

help each other to maintain liberty and justice? and

Just how this can be done it is yet too early to say. democracy One suggestion is that a League of Peace be formed

after the present war is over, which shall not merely
encourage nations to make agreements but shall compel
them to keep agreements, which shall guard the smaller
nations from having their liberty taken away, which
shall free the peoples of Europe from the ever-present
fear that has oppressed them so long, and led them to
spend such great sums in constant preparation for war
and to maintain such enormous armies. It is clear
that unless something of this sort can be done humanity
cannot make more than very slow progress.
even in this country expend enormous sums for our
small army and navy. Unless some better method of
protection is devised the expenditure that each country
will think necessary in order to protect itself from
others will increase until it will take all that the country
can produce. Education and all kinds of progress will
be stinted.

And if we believe sincerely in democracy we shall need especially to coöperate with others for its defense.

We now

democracy

For if there is any enemy to democracy it is militarism. Militarism means the doctrine that military power ought to be the great aim of the state and that the military class ought to be the ruling class. In some Why European countries the military class itself sincerely is enemy holds this doctrine. Further, this class has been so to efficient in many ways that it has been able to convince many of other classes that the only safety of the nation lies in the militarist system. Such a military class despises democracy in the sense of self-government, for it thinks itself the only class fit to govern. It may put this belief into the old language that it governs by divine right. It ridicules democracy in the sense of equality, for it considers itself superior to other classes. It is often brutal and contemptuous toward civilians. Nations that prefer other ends than power are looked down upon by such a military class as weak and degenerate. It is indeed entirely probable that peaceful and democratic nations will be at a disadvantage in resisting a sudden attack by a militarist power. Perhaps they cannot defend themselves singly without setting up a military class of their own. Their best, if not their only course, is therefore to combine for protection and peace. The only hope for protecting our own democracy and for helping the growth of democracy in other countries is through positive coöperation. In President Wilson's great words, " The world must be made safe for democracy."

CHAPTER XXX

WAR AND RIGHT

O

Is war

ever right?

Arguments for war

UR policy has been to cultivate peace. Should a nation ever go to war? There are three

views about this which have been so much discussed recently that it is well to state them.

First: war is a good thing. Second: war is always evil and always wrong. Third: while war is always an evil it is not the worst thing; war is sometimes right.

Let us see what the arguments are for each of these three views. We shall have to condense the arguments so that they will be somewhat like a debater's brief. The militarist argues:

War is a good thing, for

(a) War makes men brave; in peace they become weak and cowardly.

(6) It is through war in the past that the brave nations have prevailed over the weak ones and so have survived. If there had been no war there would have been no selection of the most efficient peoples.

(c) War makes men think of something besides themselves. It holds up an ideal of loyalty and patriotism. In peace men become selfish and think only of private gain. It is a more glorious thing to die for country in battle than to live a selfish or idle or luxurious life and die of disease.

(d) War unites all the members of a nation into one strong state which is then able to provide for science and art, for education, for the care of the laboring

war

people. Bismarck held that the three wars fought by Prussia under his advice, in 1864 against Denmark, in 1866 against Austria, and in 1870 against France, were the only way to make a united Germany. It was only by blood and iron—not by talk or negotiationthat this could be done.

(e) War is the only way to make a change in the territory of peoples corresponding to the changes in their needs and ability. If a nation at one time is strong and covers a large territory, but later becomes degenerate and does nothing for progress, it ought not to hold all its territory as against a nation which is progressive, a nation which will make advances in science, education, and other forms of civilization. On the other hand, the pacifist urges :

Arguments (a) War is simply murder on a large scale. Killing against is killing. To kill a million men is a million times as bad as to kill one man. Wearing a uniform does not change the essence of the act. Fundamentally, war means killing innocent men who usually are not at all responsible for whatever wrong their government has done.

(6) War makes men brutal. It compels men to stifle every tender or generous feeling toward their opponents. It frequently leads men, under the plea of military necessity, to kill women and children, to torture people, and in general to outrage every decent feeling.

(c) War crushes all freedom of action, of speech, and even of thought. There is no chance for the soldier to discuss or question whether he is doing right or wrong. He not only simply gives up his life blindly but also allows the government to take the place of his conscience. Even men not in the army are frequently

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