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Published on the first and fifteenth day of every month, by Cummings, Hilliard, & Co. No. 1 Cornhill, Boston.---Terms, $5 per annum, payable in July.
Vol. I.

No. 8.



thing susceptible of change. The progress strangers, even those from the Havana and

of population has been checked, the forms the West India islands, are liable to this Notes on Mexico, made in the Autumn of deserted and resumed, cities destroyed. gers from this fatal disorder, and many

of government repeatedly changed, mines infection. No precautions can secure stran1822. Accompanied by an Historical The great merit of M. de Humboldt's work, have died at Jalapa, who only passed through Sketch of the Revolution, and Transla- therefore, instead of superseding in any Vera Cruz. Humboldt mentions instances tions of official Reports on the Present degree the value of a subsequent production, of persons, who left the ship immediately State of that Country. With a Map: By in reality excites in the minds of states on their arrival, stepped out of the boat a Citizen of the United States. Philadel- men and students of foreign countries, a de- that conveyed them on shore into a litter, phia, 1824. 8vo. pp. 359.

sire for more recent information. We re- and were carried rapidly to Jalapa, having Ir little is known in this country of the ceive with additional curiosity, the report been attacked with yellow fever, and neighbouring region of Mexico, we have of a traveller so intelligent as our country- having died of black vomit

. The Spanish only ourselves to blame for our ignorance. man, and so abundantly qualified to make physicians regard this as the place where Of no country in the world, with the excep- observation. The previous knowledge of the disorder had its origin, and pretend to tion of the oldest States of Europe, are bet- the land, which we may have derived from trace the yellow fever of the Havana, of the ter accounts in existence. The single work such sources as Humboldt, gives a zest to West India Islands, the United States, and of Humboldt-the “Essay on New Spain” the narrative and the remarks, by which our Spain, to Vera Cruz. -the first fruits of his memorable voyage; acquaintance with the same country is Mr Poinsett proceeded on his journey, the first overflowings of a genius so fertile, brought down to the present day.

without delay, and travelled by night unand of an observation so comprehensive; Mr Poinsett (for we are sure he has no der the protection of six dragoons. The is of itself sufficient to mal us thoroughly reason to wish that his name should not description, which he gives of the vehicles, acquainted with Mexico. A book more be associated with his work) sailed from roads, and places of reception for the travvaluable than the “ Essay on New Spain,” Charleston in August 1822,' in the Cor- eller, is sufficiently alarming. The various has never appeared in the same department vette, John Adams. This vessel was bound insects armed with stings, constitute alone, of inquiry; and it is with regret that we in the first instance to Puerto Rico, of in this region, a formidable annoyance. It understand the republication of the trans- which important island some interesting in- is impossible, says Mr Poinsett, without exlation of it in this country must still remain formation is given in the first chapter of perience, to form an idea of the torments incomplete, from the cold reception of the this work. On the 30th of September, they of the crawling, skipping, and flying insects two first volumes. In general, we are sailed from Puerto Rico for Vera Cruz, of this country :-bugs and worse than bugs, sorry to say that the curiosity which the where, on the 18th of October, they came ileas, sancudos, and musquetoes at night, and works of M. de Humboldt have excited in to anchor. They found that place in the gnats and xixens in the day. The latter this country, is in no degree proportioned extraordinary position, which it still main-|(pronounced bi-hen) is a very small wingto their merit and importance. Few give tains, the town in the hands of the indeed insect, that draws blood from the face themselves the trouble even to know what pendents, and the castle which commands or hands the instant it alights on them. they are; and an advertisement has ap- it, in that of the Royalists. The chief in- This it does so dexterously, that the first peared in the Philadelphia papers, on be- terruption to trade which resulted from this notice you have of the puncture is a small half of the library of some public Institu- state of affairs, was the duty of 8 per cent. pustule of blood, which remains visible for tion in that city, in which inquiry is made levied by the commandant of the castle, some days, while the part becomes inflamfor a complete copy of M. de Humboldt's on the merchant vessels entered. At the ed and painful. Relation Historique, a book of which two Customhouse in the city, another, and a Mr Poinsett arrived on the 21st at Jaonly of the four volumes, of which it is to high duty is exacted by the Independents, lapa, a city, which gives its name to the consist, have as yet been published. according to a tariff drawn up in haste, well known medicinal plant, that grows in

The name of Mexico must be our apolo- and without discrimination between coarse its neighbourhood. This city is a place of gy for this digression. It was impossible and fine goods of the same description. If general resort in the Summer for the innot to think first of M. de Humboldt in con- the goods are to be transported to the cap- habitants of Vera Cruz, who come here to nexion with it. Our respectable country- ital, in conformity of that most extraordi- escape the heat, the insects, and the disman, the author of the work to which we nary monument of Spanish financial folly, eases of the low country. When Mr Poinnow ask the attention of our readers, has they are subject to the alcavala, a further sett passed through this country, almost all drawn liberally from him, and acknowl- duty of twelve and a half per cent. the females of Vera Cruz were at Jalapa, edges the obligation in terms that do honor Mr Poinsett describes the town of Vera to escape the dangers which might attend to his candor. Many things, however, in Cruz as compact and very well built, and the siege of the Castle. Mr Poinsett here which they coincide, he has doubtless given so extremely neat and clean, that from the received the attentions of General Echafrom his own personal observation, since, examination of the interior, it would be varri and his suite. though his passage through the country difficult to account for the pestilential dis- The next day the journey was continued was quite rapid, his perfect command of the eases, for which it is unfortunately cele- in a litter, a case six feet long and three Spanish language, and his access to the brated. On going beyond the limits of the wide, with three upright poles fixed on political leaders in power, gave him great city, however, the cause of these diseases each side to support à top, and curtains of opportunities of inquiry. It is to be borne appears. It is surrounded by sand hills and cotton cloth. This case is carried by in mind, moreover, that it is now more than ponds of stagnant water, which, within the means of long poles passing though leather twenty years since M. de Humboldt visited tropics, is cause sufficient to produce the straps, which are suspended from the saddle Mexico, and that these twenty years have black vomit and bilious fever. The inhab- of the mules, and in the same manner as a been nearly all in the highest degree itants, and those accustomed to the climate, sedan chair is borne by porters. A mateventful, and productive of change in every are not subject to the former disease, but all tress is spread at the bottom of the case, on


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1810 1811



which the traveller reclines. It is, says from 1690 up to 1802. The other table, than two hundred and fifty yards from the summit, Mr Poinsett, a very luxurious method of furnished by Don Jose Mariana Paria in and rising every day. After failing in his attack passing the mountains, unless the mules 1822, contains a similar account from 1802 chinery of the mine of Valenciana to be burnt, and

Guanaxuato, Mina caused the maprove unruly, for then the litter is tossed up to 1821. The following are the most in the owners have not funds to renew it. From these about in a strange manner. This mode of teresting years.

mines we went to a shaft called Guadeloupe, conveyance was exchanged at Nopaluco for



where we found two malacates in operation. These for a return carriage, which there overtook

machines are used to free mines from water, and 1809

26,172,982 them, on its way back from Vera Cruz to


to draw up the ore. A malacate is a drum of

about ten feet in diameter, attached to a vertical the Capital. The construction, and mode

10,041,796 1812

spindle, a shaft of fifteen feet long which is shod of drawing this vehicle, will show at least


with steel and turns in steel sockets. Poles prothe infancy of the art of travelling in Mex


ject at right angles from the shaft to which the 1814

7,624,105 ico. It measured twelve feet from axle to

horses are harnessed Two ropes are passed 1815

7,042,620 axle, and was drawn by ten mules.

round the drum, and over pullies, supported by 1816


poles twelve feet high and about ten feet apart, and The next day brought our traveller to 1817


leading to the well. As the drum turns, one rope Puebla, one of the few cities, of which the


descends, and the other is wound up, and raises a

1819 location was fixed by the Spaniards. Its


large skin full of ore, or buckets of water, by what 1820

10,406,154 position does credit both to their taste and

the French call a chapelet. At the principal or oc1821

5,916,226 judgment. It is built on the south side of

tagonal shaft, eight malacates were kept constantly a hill, wooded to the summit. It is sur- The XIIth Chapter contains much inter- at work, night and day. Each malacate was movrounded by a highly fertile plain, cultivated esting information respecting the Mexican ed by twelve horses, and drew up, by a succession

of buckets, seventy-eight arrobas (nine hundred with wheat, barley, and Indian corn, and mines. It is not probable that our country and seventy-five quarts) every nine or ten minutes. all the fruits of Europe. This plain is will ever be greatly enriched by her stores Ninety-five thousand arrobas, or thirty-one thoubounded by a chain of hills, presenting by of mineral wealth, nor, perhaps, is it to be sand eight hundred cubic feet of water, might be turns, cultivated fields and rich forests, and hoped that such stores, if they exist, should raised by this means every twenty-four hours. It the view is terminated by the volcanoes of be discovered. But our readers, though the same court where the malacates were at work,

happened to be a sale day (Wednesday), and in Puebla, clothed in perpetual snows. The we cannot hope to reckon among them any we saw three or four hundred people collected; city itself is compactly and uniformly built. proprietors of mines, may be amused and in some exposing the ore to the best advantage, and The houses are all of stone, large and com- structed, not only by Mr Poinsett’s details of others examining its quality. This mine is now modious. Not one is to be seen that de- the mining processes, but by the facts which worked by balves-the workmen receiving one notes the abode of poverty, and yet, adds satisfy him that neither the wealth nor the half of the profits, and the owners of the mine the Mr Poinsett, “We met more miserable morals of the country have much cause for ranging the pieces of ore in paralellograms, compos

other. The workmen were busily employed in arsqualid beings clothed in rags, and expos- gratitude to those treasures of gold and sil- ed of small circular heaps of ore. They,were very ing their deformities and diseases to excite ver, which most nations have envied. careful to place the richest pieces at top, and the compassion, than I have elsewhere seen.”

fairest side ip sight. When all was prepared, the

We continued our ride, and soon after entered salesman placed himself at the head of the first par. Mr Poinsett justly ascribes this degree of the town of Valenciana, which formerly contained allellogram; and the buyers, after examining the mendicity, in part, to the indolent habits a population of twenty-two thousand souls; but it quality of the ore, whispered in his ear the price arising from the extreme fertility of the is now in ruins, and the population reduced to four they were willing to give for it. When all had soil, and to the number of religious houses thousand. We alighted at the house of the admin- made their offers, he declared aloud the highest where alms are distributed to the poor: ligent man, but so deaf that he cannot hear the made of the sale, and the whole party moved to the

istrador of the mine, who is said to be a very intel- bid and the name of the purchaser. A note was He counted a hundred spires and domes in sound of a cannon; of course, we could not profit next parcel of ore, and so on, until the whole was Puebla. In fact, beggary seems the hered by his information. His friends conversed with disposed of. itary privilege of the Mexicans, and exist- bím by signs. He showed us a plan of the mine, There are two sale days in the week, Wednes. ed in the country before the conquest. by which we formed an idea of the extent day and Saturday; and the weekly sales amount “Cortes,” says Mr Poinsett, “ speaks of the and direction of the shafts, galleries, and interior to between five and six thousand dollars.

works. The excavations extend from southIndians begging like rational beings, as an

By law, the property of every mine is divided east to north-west, sixteen hundred yards, and into twenty-four barras, or shares; and few, if any, instance of their civilization.” It is so in eight hundred yards in a south-west direction. of the mines are in the hands of a single proprietor. many respects, for the virtues and vices of There are three parallels or plains, worked on ram. The sales, therefore, always take place; and those a civilized state are necessary to the exist- ifications of the principal vein. The veta madre, who have Haciendas de Plata, send their agents to ence of an extensive system of mendicity. or mother vein, was here found, not more than purchase the ore from mines of which they are The population of this city is given by from the surface of the soil, to the depth of five visit to-morrow. ***

twenty-two feet wide, and without any ramification part owners. These Haciendas de Plata we are to Humboldt at 67,800 ; but Mr Poinsett was hundred and fifty-seven feet; at this depth, it di- 21st November. ---In the morning we were aninformed by the Intendant, that, according vided into three branches, and the entire mass, noyed by the continual crowing of cocks immedito a census taken in 1820, it amounted only from one hundred and sixty-five to one hundred ately under our window. On looking out I found to 60,000. This diminution is probably and ninety-five feet thick; of these three branches, that at least a hundred of them were tied by one a fair specimen of that which has taken not more than one is in general very productive.

leg, and arranged along the pavement on both sides

They have all the same angle (45 degrees), but of the street, as far as I could see. They all beplace throughout the country, since the vary in thickness from nine to forty yards. Four long, we are told, to the commandant of the city, commencement of the revolution.

shafts descend to these parallels, the first called a great amateur, and are to be exhibited at ChristWe are obliged to pass hastily over the San Antonio, of seven hundred and forty-four feet mas. In all the towns and villages in Mexico, account of the interesting remains of Cho- perpendicular depth—the cost of this shaft, was cock-fighting is the favourite diversion of the peolula, and accompany the traveller to Mex- three hundred and ninety-six thousand dollars, ple. Rich and poor, men and woinen, frequent the

The ico. Mr Poinsett introduces bis observa-and ninety-two feet deep, cost ninety-five thousand issue of a battle between two cocks armed with

square shaft of Santo Christo, four hundred pits, and stake sometimes all they are worth, on the tions upon the Capital with a condensed dollars. The hexagon shaft of our Lady of Gua- slashers. It has been very justly remarked, that sketch of its history. The most important deloupe, eleven hundred and thirty-one feet per the inhabitants of mining districts are generally passages in this sketch, and in the subse-pendicular depth, cost seven hundred thousand dol improvident and passionately fond of gambling. quent description of the city, have been so

lars. San Josè, an octagon shaft, of more than This remark is applicable here only to the owners much quoted in the newspapers, as to make eighteen hundred feet, perpendicular, depth, and of mines, and those employed in them. Guanaxu

feet of veta ato is not only a mining, but an agricultural disit unnecessary here to extract them. Muchdre, which is an angle of 45 degraes, cost one niill. trict. The lands are fertile, and are cultivated to interesting information on the state of the ion two hundred thousand dollars

. * * *

the base of the mountains; and the morals of the coinage in Mexico may be found condensed This great work is in some places blasted through inhabitants the country, who are frugal and inin the two tables on pages 62 and 63. The solid rock, and in others, walled up with hewn dustrious, form a strong contrast with those of the first table is taken from Humboldt's Essay The workmen threw bundles of lighted hay down when the mines were in successful operation, were

stone: the masonry is admirably well executed. miners, most improvident and dissipated men, who, on New Spain, and gives a view of the the shaft, which blazed as they descended, and all wealthy and lived extravagantly, and many of amount of the annual coioage of Mexico which we saw fall into the water, now not more I whom are now in abject poverty.

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We set forth after breakfast to visit a Hacienda under stout iron recipients of a bell shape, and the amounted annually to

$680,000 de Plata, belonging to the Conde de Valenciana, in mercury is separated by heat, leaving the silver Powder, tallow, wood, leather, steel and the Canada de Marfil . It is a spacious building, with a small portion of copper, not enough for the other materials, ·

220,000 divided into three large courts; one for preparing usual alloy. the ores, (patio pa. beneficiar) and the others for One of the grinding mills, in which quicksilver

$900,000 horses and mules. The front is two stories high, had been added to the mass, was emptied and At that time there were one thousand eight hunvery neatly built, and forms an excellent dwelling cleaned in my presence, in order to get oat the dred workmen employed in the interior of the mine house. From the house, we walked through the amalgam, which is precipitated and lodges in the --and three hundred men, women and children, first court, where men and mules were treading out interstices of the stones, with which these mills employed without in different ways-making a tomasses of mud, and entered a long range of build are paved. After the floating mass was removed, tal of two thousand one hundred individuals. The ings, where there were thirty-five mills at work these stones were scraped and the crevices empti

: direction of the mine to an administrador, who has grinding the ore.

ed. The contents were put into a wooden bowl under his orders a miner, two sub-miners, and nine This hacienda, in prosperous times, works seven- and washed. This amalgam besides silver, con- master-miners. ty mills. They resemble bark mills. A circle of tains a large portion of gold. The ore of the mine about eleven feet in diameter, is paved with stones of Valenciana contains some gold, which unites

with remarked, by porters, (Tenateros) who receive

Almost all the ore is brought up as I have before set up edgeways, and rubbed down to a smooth sur the quicksilver, and this amalgam being so much twelve and a half cents for every hundred and thirface; in the centre of the circle an upright shaft heavier, is more quickly precipitated. The bars ty-five pounds of ore they bring up. This class of moves in sockets. From this an axle projects and of silver made from these cleanings, contain always workmen cost the proprietors, formerly, five thoupasses through the centre of a millstone that rolls the largest portion of gold, and are kept apart. sand dollars a week. There are always three tenaon its periphery-to the end of this axle the traces On leaving the court yard, we passed through an of the mules that turn it are attached. The first extensive range of buildings set apart for grana- sacks, with a band across the head, and bending

teros to one blaster. They carry the ore in leather process is separating the ore from the stones and ries, and into two large courts where the horses forward they support themselves by a short stick. refuse. Women are employed in this work. They and mules are kept. The whole of this extensive The stairs are at an angle of 45 degrees, and they throw aside the stones that have no ore, and with building is of stone. When we take into calcula- walk zigzag, in order, as they pretend, to breathe a hammer chip off small pieces of ore from those tion the costly works at these mines, the expensive more freely, by traversing the current of air ob that have a little only on the surface. They per process of separating the precious metals trom the liquely, which enters from without. form this

operation with great skill and great des ore, the high wages of all the employés, from the ad- It will be seen, by what I have already observed, patch. The ore is then placed on a thick iron ministrador to the common labourer, the tax of ten that the state of these mines is deplorable. The plate, and is pounded by wooden pestles shod with per cent. which is paid to the government, and the expenses of working them, have already been proiron, and moved by a horizontal shaft furnished very expensive works undertaken on the slightest digiously augmented by the depth of the shafts and with arms, like the movement of the pestles in our indication of silver ore, and which are frequently prolongation of the galleries, and it will require a rice mills. Two men stationed, one on each side, pursued with great ardour to the utter ruin of the large capital to establish forcing pumps to extract draw the ore from under the pestles upon plates undertakers-we shall find, that the whole profits the water. In many instances, it will be impossithat slope down from the top, and are perforated of mining, in New Spain, do not exceed six per ble to employ steam as the moving power, from the with holes so as to sist the ore as it falls on them. cent. on the capital employed. A very intelligent great scarcity of fuel. The large pieces are thrown back under the pestles. Spaniard in the capital assured me, that he had I had brought a letter of introduction to a reve

After the ore is broken into very small pieces, it is watched the progress of the mines for the last twenty rend Padre, who invited us to visit his hacienda. put into the mill, mixed with water and ground to an years, and kept an account, as accurately as he We walked out there in the afternoon, and were impalpable powder. A small quantity of quicksil- could, of the monies expended in abortive attempts not a little surprised to find it a Hacienda de Plata. ver is sometimes mixed with this mass while in the to explore new veins, and that he believed every We passed through a long narrow building, where mill. From the mills, the ore, ground to a powder dollar coined in New Spain, cost the nation one there were about twenty mills at work, into the and moistened, is conveyed to the patio pa. benefi- hundred cents.

yard, where we found the Father busily engaged suciar, the open paved court yard; salt is then ad- In 1803, there were employed, in the mining dis- | perintending the workmen. He very good-naturedly ded in the proportion of about two pounds to every trict of Guanaxuato, five thousand workmen in ex. showed us the whole process over again. There hundred weight of ore. If the mass which is left tracting and amalgamating the ore, eighteen hun was no treading at that hour; that operation ceases untouched for several days, heats too rapidly, lime is dred and ninety-six mills for grinding the ore, and in every hacienda at two o'clock, but I saw here added, which, the superintendant told us, cools it; fourteen thousand six hundred and eighteen mules what I had not seen in the morning. Six women if on the contrary it continues cold, magistral is kept to turn the malacates and arastres, and to tread were seated by as many sloping boards, on each of mixed with it in order to give it the proper temper- the masses of amalgam.

which flowed a small stream of water. A quantiature. The magistral is a copper ore, or more During that period, the mine of Valenciana pro- ty of ore was placed on these boards, and the woproperly a mixture of pyrites of copper and sul duced twenty-seven thousand dollars a week; three men were gently stirring it with their hands, letting phuretted iron, which is toasted in a furnace, cooled thousand one hundred individuals were then em- the water pass slowly off. This process is pergradually, and then reduced to a powder; a small ployed, and the weekly expenses were seventeen formed to prepare the ore for smelting, which is quantity of salt is afterwards mixed with it. A thousand dollars.

only done when it is very rich, or as the miners small quantity of the powdered magistral was put In 1802, the ore of the mine of Valenciana, sold say, when the ores are polvillos ; the inferior sort into my hand and water poured upon it. The heat for

$1,229,631 evolved was so great, that I was obliged to throw Expenses of extrac

are called azogues. After being washed in this

way until little but the metal is left, they are ground it away instantly'; probably owing to the sulphuric tion,


in the manner described, mixed with led ore in acid acting upon the metals and disengaging heat. The next operation is to add quicksilver to the

powder, and the whole melted together in bars.

$285,322 Divided among the lead is afterwards separated from the silver, mass, commonly six times the quantity, it is sup- the proprietors.

in a furnace constructed for that purpose. The posed the mass contains of silver. This mixture

In nine years this mine yielded : · $13,835,380 quantity of silver extracted by quicksilver, is, to of ore ground to a fine powder and moistened, of And the expenses of extraction during

that extracted in this manner, as three and a half quicksilver, muriate of soda, and the sulphates of

that period were

8,046,063 to one. While we were talking with the Padre, iron and copper, is made into an amalgam by be

one of his workmen brought him a large lunap of ing trodden by mules, wbich are driven round for

$5,789,317 amalgam, just extracted from the stomach of a hours together; or by men, who tread the mass with naked feet. We saw both in one mass;

Taking an average of the whole amount of ore mule. The mules that tread the mass, eat the mud twelve mules were trotting round up to their fet extracted from these mines, one hundred pounds of on account of the salt it contains, and after death locks in the mixture--and in another ten men were

ore contains three or four ounces of silver. The they are opened, and a piece of amalgam is genefollowing each other and treading up to their an thousand marks of silver, and sixteen hundred ten pounds. It was as clean and as bright, as that

mean produce of several years gives six hundred rally found in the stomach. This lump weighed kles in it. The superintendant examines the apmarks of gold.

purified by twenty washings. pearance of the amalgam from time to time, by taking up a litile of it in a wooden bowl, and adds

In thirty-eight years, from 1766 to 1803, the The following account of the personage either salt, quicksilver, or magistral, as he finds ne- mines of Guanaxuato, produced one hundred and who has attracted so much notice in recent cessary to complete the amalgamation.

sixty-five millions of dollars in gold and silver.

By a table of Humboldt, it appears that the pro- and lead them to think that Iturbide was This process is repeated every other day until a

Mexican politics, will interest our readers; perfect amalgam is made, when it is conveyed into duce of the mine of Valenciana was, large vats filled with water. In the centre of the

In 1800 In 1801 In 1802 somewhat prematurely pronounced a Washvat there is an upright shaft, furnished with arms

$1,480,933 $1,393,438 $1,229,631 ington. and turned by mules, so as io stir up the ore and Expenses 977,314 991,981 944,309

I was presented to His Majesty this morning mix it well with the water. It it left to subside,

On alighting at the gate of the palace, which is an and the water is let off gently, carrying with it a

$503,619 $401,457 $285,322 extensive and handsome building, we were receive portion of earth, and leaving the amalgamn, which To form some idea of the enormous expense of ed by a numerous guard, and then made our way is precipitated : this process is repeated until the working this mine, it will be sufficient to remark, up a large stone staircase, lined with centinels, to amalgamation is freed from all extraneous matter. that the wages of miners which were from fifty cents a spacious apartment, where we found a brigaIt is then moulded into triangles, which are placed to a dollar a day, masons and other workmen, dier general stationed to usher us into the presence.


The emperor was in his cabinet and received us plains of the Genossee Country, has began to The only difference between them is, that the cawith great politeness. Two of his favourites were pour forth, through her canal, into almost cique does not work at all. By a law passed since with him. We were all seated, and he conversed with us for half an hour in an easy unembarrassed every market on earth. Mr Poinsett states the revolution, they are declared, together with

all manner, taking occasion to compliment the United that the coarse cotton cloths of the United the castes,

to be possessed of the same rights as the

whites. The tribute is abolished: but tbey will States, and our institutions, and to lament that States are in great demand in Mexico, for be, as a matter of course, subject to the alcabala, they were not suited to the circumstances of his their superior strength and durability; and or tax on the internal commerce, from which they country. He modestly insinuated that he had whenever the tariff of the country is so re- were heretofore exempt. This declaration will yielded very reluctantly to the wishes of the peo- vised as to levy a duty on an article in pro- produce

no alteration in the character of this class ple, but had been compelled to suffer them to place the crown upon his head to prevent misrule and portion to its value, the manufactures of of the population. Measures must be taken to edthe United States will become an important fore they can be considered as forming a part of

ucate them, and lands distributed among them, be. anarchy.

He is about five feet ten or eleven inches high, article of commerce. The native manu- the people of a free government. stoutly made and well proportioned. His face is factures of Mexico have diminished one The titled nobility are white Creoles, who, saoval, and his features are very good except his half during the progress of the revolution, tisfied with the enjoyment of large estates, and with eyes, which were constantly bent on the ground or averted. His hair is brown with red whiskers, and and their annual product has sunk from the consideration which their rank and wealth con

fer, seek no other distinction. They are not rehis complexion fair and ruddy, more like that of a eight million dollars, at which it is given markable for their attainments

, or for the strictness German than of a Spaniard. As you will hear his by Humboldt, to four million. This fact of their morals. The lawyers, who, in fact, exername pronounced differently, let me tell you that shows how different is the character of the cise much more influence over the people, rank I will not repeat the tales I hear daily of the char. that of our own revolutionary war. you must accent equally every syllable, L-tur-bi de contest now going on in that country, from next to the nobles. They are the younger branches

Our of noble houses, or the sons of Europeans, and are acter and conduct of this man. Prior to the late in the service of the Royalists, and is accused of great rapidity during the revolutionary the former are not sufficiently numerous to form a successful revolution, he commanded a small force manufactures of every kind sprang up with remarkably shrewd and intelligent. Next in im

portance are the merchants and shop-keepers; for having been the most cruel and blood-thirsty per- struggle, and but for the abundance in separate class. They are wealthy, and might possecutor of the Patriots, and never to have spared a which foreign fabrics were furnished by sess influence, but have hitherto taken little part prisoner. His official letters to the viceroy sub- our privateers, would even then have reach in the politics of the country-most probably stantiate this fact. In the interval between the de

from the fear of losing their property, which is in feat of the patriot cause and the last revolution, he ed a good degree of maturity. That no

a tangible shape. l'he labouring class in the cities resided in the capital, and in a society not remark- common obstacles were allowed to check and towns includes all castes and colours; they are able for strict morals, he was distinguished for his the spirit of manufacturing is sufficiently industrious and orderly, and view with interest immorality. His usurpation of the chief authority plain from the first essays at making what is passing around them. Most of them read; his exercise of power arbitrary and tyrannical shears out of old iron hoops. has been the most glaring, and unjustifiable ; and nails, which were literally cut by a pair of and, in the large cities, papers and pamphlets are

hawked about the streets, and sold at a cheap rate With a pleasing address and prepossessing exte

to the people. The labouring class in the country rior, and by lavish profusion, he has attached the

The general character of the population is composed, in the same manner, of different castes. officers and soldiers to his person, and so long as of Mexico may be seen in the following They are sober, industrious, docile, ignorant and he possesses the means of paying and rewarding extract.

superstitious; and may be led by their priests, or them, so long will he inaintain himself on the

masters, to good or evil. Their apathy has in

It is difficult to describe, accurately, a nation some measure been overcome by the long struggle throne ; when these fail he will be precipitated from it.

composed of such various ranks, and of so many for independence, in which most of them bore a

different castes as that of New Spain. The inost part; but they are still under the influence and diThe following sketch is necessary to important distinction, civil and political, was found-rection of the priests. They are merely labourers, complete the picture of this mushroom ed on the colour of the skin. Here, to be white

, without any property in the soil;

and cannot be royalty.

was to be noble; and the rank of the different casts expected to feel much interest in the preservation

is determined by their nearer or more distant rela- of civil rights, which so little concern them. The Paid a visit this morning to the Prince of the tion to the wbites; the last on the scale being the last class, unknown as such in a well regulated soUnion, the father of the emperor, a respectable direct and unmixed descendants of the Africans or ciety, consists of beggars and idlers-drones, that old man, upwards of eighty years of age. He is Indians. simple in his manners, and must find his honours The character of the Indian population, which to lose, are always ready to swell the cry of popu

prey upon the community, and who, having nothing very burdensome. We were presented at the same exceeds two millions and a half, remains very lar ferment, or to lend their aid in favour of impetime to her Imperial Highness, his daughter-a much the same as that of the lower class of natives rial tyranny. The influence of this class, where plain good sort of a woman, dressed in a dark is described to have been at the time of the con- it is numerous, upon the fate of revolutions, has striped calico gown. I could scarcely restrain a quest. The same indolence, the same blind sub- always been destructive to liberty. In France, smile, when I gave her the “ tratamiento(high- mission to their superiors, and the same abject mis- they were very numerous; and the atrocities which ness) due to her rank. These people can have no ery are to be remarked. The forms and ceremo- disgraced that revolution, are, in a great measure, idea, how ridiculous this miserable representation nies of their religion are changed, and they are to be ascribed to this cause. In Mexico, these of royalty appears to a republican.

perhaps better pleased with the magnificence of people have been kept in subjection by the strong

the catholic rites than with their foriner mode of arm of the vice-regal government; but it is to be The excursions of Mr P. in Mexico and worship. They take a childish delight in forming leared, that they will henceforward be found the the neighborhood, furnished him with a processions, in which they dress themselves most ready tool of every faction. The priests exercise great fund of various observation, on the fantastically : and the priests in many parts of the unbounded influence over the higher and lower orcondition, manners, and pursuits of the peo- country have found it necessary to permit them to ders in Mexico; and, with a few honourable exple, and on the appearance of the country, mingle their dances

and mummeries with

the cath. ceptions, are adverse to civil liberty. It may not, to which it would be vain to attempt to do den under foot by their emperor and caciques; and Huence of the clergy as confined exclusively to the olic ceremonies. They were oppressed and trod

perhaps, be altogether correct, to consider the injustice by any abstract. The chapter on ever since the conquest, they have been oppressed upper and lower orders of society, but, certainly, Commerce, Manufactures, Revenue, Popu- by laws intended to protect them. For the most a very large proportion of the middle class are lation, and Military force, will be read with part, they are distributed in villages, on the most

exempt from it. Unfortuuntely, too many, who interest at the present day, when the revo

barren and unproductive lands, and are under their were educated in the forms of the catholic church, lution is opening to the commerce of the own caciques, who are charged with the civil gov: have emancipated themselves from its superstitions

ernment, and with the collection of the tribute, a only to become sceptics and infidels. world the sources of Mexican wealth. We tax of about two dollars on each male from ten to think our author entirely right in differing fifty years of age.

Our limits do not permit us to accomfrom Humboldt on the possibility that the The castes, that is to say, the mestizos, descend- pany Mr Poinsett on his return from MexMexicans may bereafter undersell us, in ants of whites and Indians ; mulattoes, descendants ico to the coast at Tampico, nor to make breadcorn, in the markets of the West Indies. of whites and negroes; samboes, descendants of In addition to the causes mentioned by Mr try as labourers, or live in the towns as artisans

, the revolution, and documents contained in

negroes and Indians-are scattered over the coun- any use of the valuable historical sketch of Poinsett, we may add, that whatever suc- workmen or beggars. There are some Indians, the Appendix. For these, and much intercess attend the struggle for independence, who have accumulated property, and some few of esting and important matter contained in the whole frame of society in Mexico must the castes may be seen living in comfort and re: the body of the work, at which we have

spectability, undergo vast improvements

, before the pro- these instances are rare. From the cacique, or not glanced, we must refer to its pages ducts of her lofty table lands will rival in Indian magistrate of the village, to the most abject themselves. They will, even to the general cheapness those which New York, from the lof his fellow sufferers, they are indolent and poor. reader, reward à perusal; and to those

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whose inclination or duty inclines them to mine, how greatly would the obedience of the be good; and kindness enough to show him
become well acquainted with the rising young christian's pilgrimage be facilitated, and its favour by way of anticipation.
states placed to the south of us on this con- peace ensured !--I love to dwell on the memory of

The object of this part of the book, is to
that honoured woman My earliest recollection
tinent, they are indispensable.

of her is in the act of teaching me to pray,-when show the writer's views, and the views of

she every evening took me on her knees, and clasp- Unitarians, as a body, in relation to conThe Recollections of Jotham Anderson, Min- ing my little bands

, made me repeat after her my version, and what are termed revivals of ister of the Gospel . Boston. 1824. 12mo. expression of her maternal eye, and feel the kiss

; the result of Anderson's observations, that childish petitions. Methinks I still see the beautiful religion." It his opinion, and is stated as

full of affection and piety, with which she closed revivals are attended by more evil than Our readers will wish us to say no more of the service. At such times, she would explain to publications on controverted topics in the the good Being, who gave me father and mother, book, is to show that an intimate acquaint

me the purposes of prayer, and teach me to love good.”. Another object of this part of the ology, than to state the subjects of which and made me happy. It was her practice also, to ance with the private character of persons they treat, and to estimate their literary seize the moments when my young heart was over of different religious sentiments, is the merits. We cannot enter into a minute howing with cheerfulness and good will, to remind most effectual method of preserving the examination of their arguments, nor at- me of the Father above, and direct my gratitude to mind from bigotted and exclusive senti

. my tempt to defend the cause of any party; thoughts, will all that was gladsome and delightful; ments and feelings; this is certainly not but we will endeavour to promote free and with every satifaction and every enjoyment. It only true, but a most valuable truth. humble investigation, fairness and good was mingled with all my remembrances of mater- We come now to the college life of Mr temper, and, as literary reviewers, to ren- pal fondness; and the love of God grew upon the Anderson. Here his religious principles

same branch with the love of my parents. ! der to every man his due. It is not necessary for the reader to be sought to please him, I feared to offend to him, I were nearly subjected under the tempta,

loved to speak of him, and to him, in the innocent tion of literary eminence. But Heaven lieve that the writer of this book is named openness of my young heart, and to regard him, in never more kind than in inflicting chastiseJotham Anderson, nor that he is, as he all respects, as I did my parents. Thus there was ments--suffered his efforts to overcome his tells us, three score and twelve years old; nothing of severity, or gloom, or dread, in my health, and reduced him to that state, in but it may be necessary to state, that more early religious feelings.

which, if ever, we value the things which than a year ago, some one wrote these

There are other parts of the first chap- regard our eternal welfare. His bodily and Recollections for the Christian Register, ter equally interesting and valuable; and his mental disease were however both curand published them weekly in short num- we must here rernind our readers that it is ed: and on returning to his studies, he bers. They are now collected, and, with one of the principal objects of the book, to learned from experience a most important slight alterations, made into a book. It show the importance of adopting this meth- fact,—that the service of the Lord is not embraces several objects, of which the od in giving religious instruction to chil. inconsistent with any thing that can really general one is stated to be the promotion dren. We are not quite sure, however, promote even our temporal happiness; for of “ personal religion.” The particulars that our own feelings on this subject, do he now performed his tasks with greater will be disclosed, as we proceed with a reg- not make us give the book credit for some- ease, because uninfluenced by the anxiety ular discription of the work.

thing more than it contains. The salutary of personal motives; and actually attained Jotham Anderson, a clergyman in a effects of this method on his own character to higher literary rank than he before excountry town, is now far advanced in life; is a theme on which the author dwells in pected, without making it the ruling object and having no children to inherit that por-all the fulness of gratitude. It will natu- of pursuit. tion of wisdom which he has made his own, rally be asked whether, in describing his After leaving college be prepared for and that personal character, which, as a

own religious character, there is no dis- the ministry with his father. He was then man, he would love to have perpetuated, he play of self-complacency. We answer in sent twenty miles from home, with a letter has resolved to bequeath to the public honesty—there appears a little though but of introduction to Mr Carverdale, one of some important observations, which he has little of this fault.

those venerable clergymen, who, having made during his long pilgrimage. His

His mother died when he was in his devoted a long life to the high and holy father was a clergyman in one of those ob- thirteenth year, and from that time his office of turning many to righteousness, scure country villages, where, sixty years father faithfully discharged the double du- show in their last days, that the fires of ago, a mild sort of Arminian orthodoxy ties which devolved upon him. Previous eternity are kindled within, and seem alwas found living in simplicity and in peace. to going college it became necessary to ready to radiate their warmth and living The storms and whirlwinds of controversy teach a school for a short time; and this light. On the following day Mr Anderson were unknown; their religious atmosphere necessity brought a severe trial of the preached his first sermon, and Mr Carverwas redolent of social love; they dwelt, strength of his religious character. He dale administered the sacrament, which "every man under his own vine and his was exceedingly bashful

, knew little of was his last labour, as he died on the folown fig-tree, having none to molest or make society, was thirty miles from home, and lowing evening. them afraid;” and he who feared God and was expected for the first time to act as a This part of the volume contains the sekept his commandments, was regarded as He found himself in the midst of a rious reflections of a young man on comone who neglected no point of religious du- Calvinistic society in the season of a "re- mencing the work of the ministry; dety. His mother was one of the best of vival.” The influence produced on bis scribes the character of this venerable paHeaven's best blessings; and her charac- mind by all the circumstances of the agi- triarch, his instructions to the young minter and instructions form some of his most tated scene around him, and by the zeal ister, and their influence in after life; the pleasing and most important Recollections. displayed for his conversion, is very natu- manner of his death, and the lively sepse They are so happily expressed, that we can- rally portrayed. He was not prepared to of his worth manifested by his parishioners. not but extract a part of them.

give a reason for the hope that was in him, In a literary view, these descriptions are I cannot remember the time when I had not a nor to oppose the doctrines which were eminently beautiful. We have seldom sense of religion, and a fear of God; and I have now declared essential. But before allow- read the expression of any sentiments with no doubt that it is owing to my early and habitual ing himself to depart from the doctrines in more pleasure, and never have found our impressions, which became interwoven in my soul, as a part of its very fabric, or constitution, that i which he now found that he had been edu- minds less willing to admit, that what we have enjoyed such quietness and steadfastness cated, he resolved to examine the Scrip- read was not literally true.

We are unthroughout a long pilgrimage. Little do parents tures faithfully: and this examination con- willing to abridge these chapters, but we consider, while they are forming their infants' firmed his belief in his former opinions. His have not room to insert them entire, and hearts and characters upon other principles, and associates, a few excepted, treated him our readers must be satisfied with a short teaching them to act by other motives, how diffi. cult they render

a subjection to religious motives coldly, and regarded him with distrust or extract. The ninth chapter describes afterward, and how they subtract from the sum of aversion. There were, however, some who him administering the sacrament of the suptheir religious enjoyment! Were all mothers like had hope that he would at some time or other per.


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