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ments of religion, we think it would have tific parts were written by Mr Edgeworth. , world will be determined by our conduct been greater. She has stretched forth a That it may not be inferred, that I require in the present. We do not say that it is powerful hand to the impotent in virtue ; more than could be reasonably expected necessary to inspire into the minds of our and had she added, with the apostle, * In the from the general design of the work, it is children a superstitious dread of the horname of Jesus of Nazareth,' we should al- necessary to say, that the authors profess rors of retributive justice, for we believe most have expected miracles from its to treat of every thing that is important to that mankind are every day becoming touch."
children, as will appear from p. 311. more capable of acting from enlightened Respecting the importance of incorpora- “Though we have been principally atten- principles,-of seeing the reasons why virting religion with morality, he adds the tive to all the circumstances, which can be tue produces happiness, and vice, misery; following remarks. The influence of this essential to the management of young peo- and thus of maintaining a regard for the “ extends to every order in society. It is ple during the first pine or ten years of right, because it is right, instead of acting not the fountain, which plays only in the their lives, we have by no means confined from fear of punishment or hope of reward. garden of the palace, but the rain of heav- our observations to this period alone; but But we see little reason for expecting a en, which descends alike on the enclosures we have endeavoured to lay before parents period—and certainly none for saying it of the rich and the poor, and refreshes the a general view of the human mind (as far has arrived-when we may dispense with meanest shrub no less than the fairest flow- as it relates to our subject), of proper meth- the sanctions, while we inculcate the law.
The sages of antiquity seem to have ods of teaching, and of the objects of ra. The grand christian principle, that, in a believed that morality had nothing to do tional instruction."
future state of existenee, our destiny will with religion; and Christians of the middle. The plain question now is, whether they be determined by our character, and that ages, that religion had nothing to do with have performed this task with any reasona- every one shall be rewarded according to morality. But at the present day, we ac- ble degree of fidelity. By referring to a his works,” is absolutely essential to form knowledge how intimate and important is few chapters we shall find a satisfactory our minds after the image and likeness of their connexion. It is not views of moral answer. The chapter on “Truth” affords God. An external morality, however exfitness, by which the minds of men are at a fair specimen of the moral character of act it may be, which has within it no soulfirst to be affected, but by connecting their the book. Its object is to show by what no reference to God and eternity, cannot duties with the feelings and motives, the methods children may be made to acquire abide the judgment of Him, “who searchhopes and fears of Christianity. Both are the habit of telling the truth. Most of the eth the heart;" and by teaching our chil. necessary, the latter to prompt and invigo- directions that are given, are worthy of at- dren to tell the truth because it is useful, rate virtue, the former to give it the beauty tention. They may do much ; but much without alluding to any other than temporof knowledge and taste. It is heat, that will still remain to be done, unless we ac- al good, we are doing nothing for them, but causes the germ to spring and flourish in company our exertions with other modes to encourage them to live with devotion to the heart; but it is light that imparts ver- and other principles, than are here describ- the world—to seek its good things by the dure to its foliage, and their hues to its ed. The fact, that lying is forbidden by most effectual means, and to be prepared flowers.”
God, is not even alluded to; nor is it inti- to die the death of brutes. If in any work we might expect a distinct mated that integrity is to be preferred to In the chapter on Vanity, Pride, and Amrecognition of the authority of revealed falsehood, because one is in itself virtuous bition, the first two are classed among virtruth, surely none could have higher claims and the other vicious. Indeed we do not tues. They are, however, considered as to it, than a treatise on Practical Educa- find in the book the idea, that any actions vices, when they are excessive, and when tion. Miss Edgeworth obviously saw that are wicked in the common sense of the excited by unworthy objects. I am well an apology would be required for the omis- term. In general, those actions which are aware, that the terms vanity and pride can sion, and she has given the following in the commonly denominated wicked, are disap- be so defined as to denote virtues; but in preface.
proved; but they are not represented as ordinary language, they signify vices. There “On religion and politics we have been opposed to the laws of God nor is their has been so much contention on this subject silent, because we have no ambition to gain effect on the future state any where recog- among metaphysicians, that I must endear, partisans, or to make proselytes, and be- nised.
our to clear away the mist they have raised, cause we do not address ourselves exclu- That truth is to be preferred to false- in order to make myself understood. sively to any sect or to any party." bood, because it is more useful, might be a The desire of receiving the approbation
Had this been given by any one but Miss competent reason, were we always compe- of others, may proceed from benevolence, Edgeworth, it would be regarded as too fee- tent and always disposed to judge rightly of or from self-love. For example; the artisan ble and contemptible to deserve notice. Be- what is most useful. But the simple fact, may be gratified by the praises bestowed on cause it is not her object to make proselytes that the Scriptures reveal sanctions to the his works because he knows them to be to any sectarian dogmas, is the very spirit divine law, proves that our judgment of truly valuable, and loves to have others any life of religion to be disregarded ? Was utility is not always to be trusted. There rightly estimate them. If this be the only it necessary to avoid every allusion to the can be no question, in the abstract, that cause of his pleasure, it would be equal, if Sacred Scriptures as containing the light of integrity of character is more advantageous the works were the fruit of another's skill life, and to draw every motive for good con- than duplicity and falsehood; but whoever and industry. He may be pleased with the duct from merely temporary considerations? has learned how prone his corrupt affec- commendation, because he perceives that The essence of religion is common to all the tions are to blind bis judgment,-how fre- the laudable objects of his pursuit are prochildren of God; and Christians of every de- quently he acts with reference only to the moted, such as the maintenance of his family. nomination may be referred to the Bible as present, and how often the present allures In these cases, it is obvious that his pleasure their spiritual directory, without regard to him by deceptive appearances of utility, arises from the gratification of good affecthe peculiarities of their several views. and causes him to mistake the gratification tions; and no one has any question as to What, but an indifference to religion itself, of evil concupiscences, for the essential the purity of such a love of approbation. can prevent a teacher from doing this ? Lest and eternal good of his soul,—such an one, But the artisan may be gratified by the we make our children sectarians, shall we surely, needs not to be told, that in order praises bestowed on his labour and skill, avoid giving them any religious principles ? to preserve the mind at all times within the because he considers them as distinguisbLest the sanctions of religion should be path of rectitude, it is necessary to impressing him above others,--as magnifying his misused to strengthen some error, or justify it deeply with those truths, which teach us importance; and not from any regard to some bad feeling, shall we utterly forget that there is an all-sceing eye, from whose the good of others. The desire of approor desecrate them?
ken nothing is secret; that we are amena- bation, so far as it proceeds from these selfIt will be seen then that I impute to Miss ble for every thought, affection, word, and ish affections, is commonly regarded as evil; Edgeworth all the faults in the moral char-action to the judgment of an unerring tri- and it is what, in ordinary discourse, we deacter of this work. Only the more scien- I bunal ; and that our state in the future nominate vanity. There is little difference
of opinion on this subject. Every unsophis- whether it should be classed amongst vir- instruction which he bas proposed, that have ticated mind views the expression of selfish tues or vices; that is to say, whether it adds any claim to novelty, may be found in the desires for the approbation of others with to the happiness or misery of human crea- works of Pestalozzi and his followers. They displeasure; and conscience and common tures."
are unquestionably very important, and it is sense infallibly distinguish it as evil.
Nothing is gained by such quibbling about well for the world that they are beginning Pride relates to the judgment we form of the meaning of common language ; but let to be thought so. ourselves in comparison with others. The this pass. A more formidable objection to Miss Edgeworth's talent for arranging light by which we are blessed by Heaven, the passage, is, that she makes that to be the ideas which she collects, and presenting enables us to estimate our own qualities virtue which “ adds to the happiness;" and them in a lucid and beautiful dress, is rejustly; but our self-love often opposes and that to be vice which adds to the misery markably perfect; and the external charms perverts this light,-fills our minds with of human creatures ;” without giving us any of her moral principles combine to produce deceitful imaginations of our superiority standard for determining the ultimate effect a very powerful effect on the mind of the over others, and makes us attach to our of our various passions and sentiments. The reader. It may be asked, how these emiown qualities a value and dignity which christian standard is, that what proceeds nent qualities can be accounted for, without they do not possess. It is because the quali- from love to the Lord, and charity towards supposing that they proceed from a genuine ties are ours, and not another's, that self- our neighbour, and is regulated by truth in love of purity and order. There is certainly love thus exalts and deifies them. This its application to life, is essentially right, is no greater difficulty in accounting for these false estimate of ourselves, proceeding from judicious, and will produce ultimate bappi- than for the beautiful writings of professed self-love, is what is commonly denominated ness. The remark we have already made, infidels. It is not unknown, that "the chilpride.
is illustrated here: Miss Edgeworth does dren of this world are, in their generation, If your readers will excuse the digression, not refer to the principles from which pas- wiser than the children of light.” Their I will say, that what are commonly called sions proceed, but judges of their character minds are less divided. Their thoughts and passions, consist not merely of an affection from their effects. No man is competent at affections are limited to the present world ; of the mind, but they include the immediate all times to do this justly. He is much bet- and it would be strange indeed, if they did expression of such affection. The express- ter able to look within, -to consult his con- not frequently become adepts in their seyion may sometimes be deceitful, but the science, and to ask counsel of his Bible. eral modes of life. Who can board money only way to determine the moral quality of There are a few other passages in the like a Jew, or adorn the natural passions a passion, is to analyze it, and ascertain work, of the same eharacter with those like an infidel? It becomes those who live what is the affection within it, and from upon which I have last remarked; but, in only for the present world, to make the which it proceeds. We may then describe general, the external form of its morals
, best of it; and why should it surprise us, it in synthetical order; and this is the or- like that of the other works of this author, that they learn the arts of self-gratification, der in which it must afterwards be viewed. is very pure, and not unfrequently distin- and can imitate the order and beauty which Now, Miss Edgeworth and infidel writers guished by upcommon beauty. The defect would result from bringing even heavenly do not analyze the passions thoroughly. is,-and it is not a smallone,-the moral prin- principles into actual life. All that is necesThe distinctions they make between good ciples want a soul. They recommend right sary is consistency of character; and who and evil are external; having reference actions ; but the motives from which these was ever more consistent, assiduous, and rather to the immediate expression of an are to proceed, are generally incompetent faithful to any purpose, than Miss Edgeaffection, and the ultimate result of actions, to produce them, and are always destitute worth has been in endeavouring to make than to the affection itself. If it be asked, of that vitality, that reference to God and a life devoted solely to the present world, how we can distinguish good from evil, while futurity, which is necessary to make the ac- comfortable and respectable? S. viewing the very principles of passions, I an- tions good in any other than a worldly, selfswer, that it is by a faculty given by God ish view. It is not a little surprising, that, to every man, and commonly called con- with an education in a christian community, science. Whoever will learn any thing of the language of Scripture and of christian
No. III. metaphysics which will be practically use- writers should have made so little impressful, must acquire the habit of looking within ion on her mind, that she could almost There is nothing in our common gramhimself, and tracing his passions to their entirely divest herself of every thing that mars which defines the true nature and use principles, and of noticing the influence would lead the reader to infer that she had of the adjective. In some works we read of which his affections have upon his thoughts any knowledge of them. I see no reason for substantive nouns and adjective nouns. This and decisions; and whoever will communi- ascribing this to a love of any system, which is very well. What we denominate adjeccate metaphysical knowledge, should view she has formed to herself. There is nothing tives, are only a particular class of nouns, his subject from its essence to the form, of the originality of a system-maker; and, used in connexion with other nouns. Some and not inversely.
indeed, there are few works which have less of them are very frequently used indiscrimiTo return: the meaning which I have claims to original ideas. In this respect, it nately as nouns or adjectives. Others suffer given to the terins vanity and pride, is what seems to me that Miss Edgeworth has been some change of form, when used as adjecI believe them to have in common language. misjudged. She has a wonderful faculty of|tives, in order to make them more readily When, therefore, Miss Edgeworth asks :- selecting the ideas of such writers as Vol. distinguishable; but, in all cases, they should “If we could give our pupils exactly the taire, Rousseau, Helvetius, Darwin, Adam be regarded as a class of nouns, used to excharacter we wish, what degrees of vanity Smith, and Hume; and some affinity of soul press the qualities of other nouns. and pride should we desire them to have?" with Franklin and Priestley. Most of her When Mr Murray tells US,
that“an adjecthe plain answer is, None at all
. What she references are to infidel authors; and nearly tive put without a substantive, with the defidenominates vanity and pride, generally all her metaphysical notions are derived from nite article before it, becomes a substantive in proceed from selfish principles, although them. Whoever has had much acquaintance sense and meaning, and is written as a subthey may proceed from something better; with these, can have no difficulty in tracing stantive; as, Providence rewards the good, and she is answerable for the equivocal use the origin of her principles. It must not, and punishes the bad ;" in this case, we can of the terms. More reverence for the lan- however, be inferred that she directly re-only say, that he talks nonsense. It is guage of Scripture, and more regard for recommends the writings of these authors. proper to speak of substantives being used ligion itself, would have made her avoid this Your readers may perhaps expect me to as adjectives, for this obvious means, that confusion.
concede to Mr Edgeworth the merit of much they are used to express the quality of other “ As to ambition,” she remarks, “we originality in his chapters on the proper mode substantives; but we cannot with propriety must decide what species of ambition we 'of teaching some of the sciences. I know say, that an adjeetive is used as a substanmean, before we can determine whether it not but he deserves it; but this I know, tive, because there is no distinct class of ought to be encouraged or repressed; I that nearly all the principles and modes of words to which the term adjective properly
ON THE COMMON SYSTEMS OF ENGLISH
applies. Even those adjective nouns which, the Album, and, under the guidance of a ponds, which, for any thing that I could ever are used only as such, always imply an idea Mc Farlane, set forward for the Trosachs. learn, would compete in point of diffculties of a substantive noun, and merely express The variations in the aspect of the sky are with any Loch in Scotland. But I contentthat idea under some peculiar modification. among the most remarkable circumstances ed myself with pitying the narrowness of
Besides, the principle given above from that I have had occasion to remark since I their understandings; and saved my breath Mr Murray, does not involve all the cases left Glasgow. The beauty of the morning for better occasions. We landed at the little in which even the terms “good” and “bad” equals that of an October day in New Eng- creek where Ellen's shallop was moored, are used as substantive nouns. When we land; while the aspect of the afternoon bears this being the only place where one can say, “This journey did him much good,” we a striking resemblance to that of one of our conveniently do so. Just by it juts out an use the term good without the definite arti- south-easterly storms. In the course of our old rugged oak, the former shelter of “Dun. cle, but still as a substantive noun. The walk, which was over hills, and through craggan's widowed dame.” From the height term “bad” cannot be thus used; but its bogs, I had many occasions for congratulat- of the island, we had a fine view; behind us substitutes, evil and ill, are frequently used ing myself, that I had relinquished my at- was Coir-nan-Uriskin, the Goblin's cave; in this manner.
tempt the preceding evening. We reached before us, the place where Fitz-James first Many of the words which we call prepo- the change house of Stewart of Alpine (a came in sight of the lake and island. Farsitions are adjectives. Most of these express paltry place, by the way) in very good time ther up was the point of interview, where the quality or condition of one noun as it for breakfast ; after the discussion of which Roderick discovered himself to Fitz-James, relates to another noun. The words above, important concern, we proceeded through &c. &c. I detail these matters to you as í under, over, near, and many others, are of the Trosach to Loch Katrine. The Tro- received them from our guide, who, as the this class. If I say, “A man of integrity sach is a pass between the mountains, which manner is with these people through the is above doing a mean action;" the word surround the lake, and bears a great resem- whole British empire, at least so far as my " above" expresses the quality of the man blance to the Gulf in the Green Mountains information or experience goes, had drilled in relation to doing a mean action; he is of Vermont; the likeness is a miniature one, himself to the repetition of a sort of parrot above it. A thousand examples might be to be sure, but perhaps is more beautiful story, talked of Fitz-James and Ellen, and multiplied, with this and other prepositions, from that circumstance. Through this pass, quoted Scott, without attaching any very
distinct idea either to the names or the to show that they really retain the nature
Like billow with his crest of foam, of adjectives.
Right onward did Clan Alpine come.
poetry. This island has, in more modern We deem these last remarks important, We passed through it, at a moderate pace, for whiskey-distillers and smugglers. After
and less romantic days, served as a retreat as they may lead the scholar to a just view and over a very good road, and at its termi- a reasonable time spent in surveying the of the nature of many terms which are commonly parsed without any analysis of their nation found ourselves on the shore of the prospect, I was set ashore by my Manchesmeaning. But our particular object was to Loch. Here we were surrounded with old ter friends, on the beach opposite the landprepare the way for explaining how those acquaintance; Ben-An, Ben-Voirlich. Ben- ing. We exchanged addresses, and parted, tormentors of grammarians, like, worth, and Venue, and Ben-Ledi, the whole tribe of 1 fatter myself, with mutual regret." They as, should be parsed. The first and second of Benjamin, as somebody calls them, reared proceeded up the lake
towards Tarbet, and their shingly cliffs and craggy summits left me to pursue my route for Callander. these not only express the quality of nouns in relation to other nouns, but they express around us.
Having heard the guide observe, that the something of the abstract, essential quality
Poetic scenes encompassed us around,
road by which we came through the Tro
And still we seemed to tread on classic ground; of nouns; and this circumstance has made
sachs was not the ancient one, I inquired
For here so oft the muse her harp has strung, them so puzzling. When we say, “The That not a mountain rears bis head unsung.
into the matter, and was informed, that the horse is worth ten dollars,” the term worth | We embarked for Roderick's island in a impassable by any wheel-carriage, but it
old path was circuitous and mountainous, conveys some idea of the essential quality of the horse, and also its quality relative skiff, which was as like that of Ellen Doug- might, he added, be passable by foot pas
las' as a bum-boat is like a captain's gig. sengers. to, or compared with, ten dollars. Again :
Upon the faith of this "might “ He looks like a prince ;" *Glass is like Really these boats are horrid to romantic be," and with the temptation which the ice.” In these and similar cases, it is ob- eyes; I gave the boatmen my poor thoughts idea of a difficult path holds out to a pedesvious, that the term like is to be parsed as respecting the matter, suggesting the pro- trian in search of adventures, and armed at an adjective and preposition, and is to priety of a clean clinker-built cutter, with all points against the elements
, I undertook be explained in the manner we have been a light oar for sculling, in the place of the it, and found it sufficient to satisfy the exstating. The term as, when used in sen- anomalous machine, which they had the mis- pectations of any adventurer, whose ambitences like the following: “I esteem him fortune to propel among scenes with which tion does not go the length of perilling life as a friend,” really expresses the quality of it was so little in keeping; but “oh ! cæca or limb. I waded through mosses and bogs, “him,” by placing him” and friends in mens hominum!" they had the impudence to fought through heather and fern, and hopped apposition. It is frequently used somewhat insinuate in return for my endeavours to re- from stone to stone, down the course of differently; but it always, I believe, places lake navigation. By the trident of Neptune his "gallant gray” in such a place, was
fine their ideas, that I knew nothing about brooks. That Fitz-James should have lost two words of some class in apposition, or on an equality, more or less exact. The scholar and the scallop-shell coach of his wife, my matter of no surprise to me, as I passed the should point out what words it thus qualifies, dear friends, I was struck dumb. A Yankee spot where I suppose the event to have bapand he may call it what he pleases, as rea- not understand navigation, whether it be of pened. No horse of these degenerate days sons for terming it an adjective, a pronoun,
ocean, bay, creek, river, lake, or mill-pond. could have got there at all. About this an adverb, a preposition, and a conjunction, Truly I had half a mind to explain to the time the usual rain-storm began to threaten, are pretty nearly equal.
Highland savages the extent of their igno- but did not cominence till I had reached rance and presumption, by giving them to terra firma again, and very fortunately for know that the natives of New England, from me, as I could ill have spared a hand to hold
the first-born of them, who saw the light on an open umbrella, inasmuch as all four ex. No. IV.
board the May-flower, two hundred years tremities generally found full employment
ago, down to the urchins who fish for tom. in these “haunts of the gor-cock and the Edinburgh, September 28. cod in Boston harbor, have an instinctive deer.” The stillness which reigns in these MY DEAR FRIENDS,
admiration and delight in, and a very tolera- Highland deserts is very remarkable. In « Up rose the sun, and uprose”-the ble insight into, the mysteries of all water. the wildest and most barren places in New party at Aberfoyle Inn, on the morning craft, of whatever name or nature; and that England, at least so far as my knowledge ex® after the events commemorated in my 1, even I myself, sinple as I stood there, had iends, one always hears some sound; even in last despatch. We inscribed our names in rowed, sailed, and sculled, and paddled in the calmest weather, the trees and bushes
LETTERS FROM A TRAVELLER.
make a slight murmur, or some animal or the inn were not of the first order, but after / miles, was very beautiful, but I recollect no bird rustles among the dry leaves; but here walking five and twenty miles, one is not object of any great importance. Here I the silence is frequently deathlike, the ferns apl to be critical about such matters. Just crossed the Carron river, and after two and heaths are too low to be affected by a beyond the village are the ruins of Doune miles more, passed under the grand canal, light wind, and there are very few trees, castle, which is not now. in quite so good which connects the Forth and Clyde, and and those small and stunted. This produces repair as it was when king James sallied entered Falkirk early in the afternoon ; something of the same effect on the mind as from it on the morning of the chase.” It this is a very antique looking town, but unthe stillness of night; the excitability of the affords at present a residence for beings of fortunately I was precluded by certain consense of hearing, to speak after the manner a more aerial nature, not ghosts or sprites, sequences of a new pair of shoes, from goof the Brunonians, is accumulated; the sound at least as far as I know, but crows, a sorting about it, or proceeding farther on my of one's own footsteps, the rattling of a stone, of gentry, who, with a taste like that of walk, which was the more troublesome, as which you have accidentally displaced and Sultan Mahmoud's owls, have appropriated this proved to be the first day since I left rolled down a declivity, or any noise, how- to themselves the ruined towers and clois- Glasgow, which was throughout clear and ever slight, strikes it unpleasantly. One ters in this country, wherever they could serene. The following morning, as if to walks or stands, in such circumstances, “ar- find them; they are termed rooks here, and make up for so much extra fair weather, rectis auribus,” and with a sort of feeling of I beg their pardon and yours, for calling was as dull, misty, and muggy as one would expectation that something is about to come them by such an every day appellation as wish to see; and as my walking gear was still of all this. I almost looked to see that of crow; but notwithstanding all my out of order, 1 had the alternative of taking From shingles gray the lances start,
endeavours at the romantic and poetical, the coach for the remaining distance to EdThe bracken bush send forth the dart. the original sin of giving things their right inburgh, or spending the day in a gloomy But nothing was to be seen more lively than names will now and then get the ascendan. inn, which last being little less than a chal. “brackens green and cold gray stone," and cy. From the castle I took my departure, lenge to the blue devils, was rather too great without further adventure, I arrived again with Waverley and Balmawhapple, for Stir- a hazard; and I departed accordingly. Eight in safety at Stewart's. Here I saw, for the ling, a distance of nine miles. It is almost miles from Falkirk, we passed through Linfirst time in my life, a British nobleman; unnecessary to mention that the morning lith-gow, where is the cathedral in which not a sprig of Scotch quality, but a real was beautiful; about four miles from Doune the apparition appeared to king James, beEnglish marquiss, with a travelling tutor; I crossed the Teath, by the bridge of Allan, fore the battle of Flodden, and reached Auld by which sight, as you may well imagine, my and soon came in sight of the object of my Reekie about one o'clock. Notwithstanding plebeian eyes were wonderfully refreshed. destination, which, from its elevated situa- the disadvantage of a stormy day, I was at From Stewart's I marched stoutiy along the tion, is visible for some distance. As I drew once fully satisfied that this was the most banks of Lochs Achray and Vennachar, two near, I enjoyed the view of one of the most beautiful city I had ever seen, and I have had beautifnl sheets of water; passed Lanrick beautiful scenes in Scotland. The road is no reason since to alter that opinion. We mead, the Brigg of Turk and Glenfinlass, considerably above the level of the carse,or, entered it by the way of Prince's street, and and about three o'clock, reached Coilan-, as we should call it, intervale, and one can as the coach was driven along this magnifitogle ford, which is now crossed by means see its whole extent, with the Forth, which cent avenue, the crowds of human creatures of a stone-bridge; just beyond is Callander, we left at Aberfoyle, now swelled to a re- which thronged it, reminded me of the work. where, being " far past Clan Alpine’s ut- spectable size, winding through it. This ing and fighting pismires of Africa, traversing most guard,” I paused for a while, to re-carse is a process, if I may be allowed to the galleries of their wonderful structures. cover a little from the effects of the rain, be professional, of the lowlands, extending The coach on which I was perched seemed which had accoinpanied me during the lat- like a wedge, between the hills on each like a baby-house toy, drawn by a team of ter part of the way. This was the first vil side, and from about the middle of it the little atomies; and when I was set down at lage I had seen since I left Leven; it is eminence on which Stirling is built, arises last with my bundle and umbrella, in iny quite a considerable one for the situation, gradually, and terminates in a precipitous travelling dress, without a single acquaintand contains a thousand inhabitants. Here bluff
, something like a headland which has ance, or letter of introduction,-for I had I entered again upon the Low Country, and been worn by the waves; on the brow of left them with my baggage at Glasgow, I directed my course towards Doune, which this stands the castle, while the town is on felt in its full force the "solitude of a crowd,” was distant eight miles. The evening soon the acclivity, which leads to it. It was on and with Will Marvel, I “ cannot deny, became so dark and misty, that little of the this carse that Mr Jinker's steeds had occa- that I did for some time suffer melancholy country could be seen. About four miles sion to show their mettle, when their com- to prevail upon me, and wish myself safe at from Čallander, I overtook another pedes- mander, like another British leader, on a home." Luckily I happened to have that in trian, and walked along with him the re- later occasion, and in a scene nearer home, my pockets which the people were disposed mainder of the way. He was a native of
so bravely led them on,
to recognise as an acquaintance, and which Stirling, and spoke the abominable patois And spirited the troops to-run.
introduced me to very tolerable acmmodaof that shire. He afforded me much amuse- Crossing the Forth by a stone bridge, I en- tions. Still I was alone, and unwilling, on ment by his abuse of the Highlands, where, tered Stirling: The town presented noth-account of the appearance of my external he informed me, he had sometimes been, and ing remarkable; it looked pleasant enough man, to perambulate the streets of a city; where the people could jabber nothing but in the sunshine. If I had had a companion, I so that I had every prospect of spending the Gaelic, and eat barley-bannocks without a should have staid some time here, examined time between my own arrival and that of grain of white-bread, meaning thereby oat- the fortress, &c., and I dare say, it will seem my baggage, in a manner which none of cakes, -which are about equal in quality and strange to you that I did not ; but if any you will envy. My first step, in these cirflavour to our Indian hoe-cakes
. Just before one of you should ever happen to walk two or cumstances, was to despatch a requisition entering Doune, we passed the seat of Sir three days in succession, through a strange for the aforesaid baggage, the second, only John Murray, the present chief of the Mc country alone, you will wonder less; one's one of you will probably be able to conjecGregor clan. You may perhaps recollect enthusiasm is very apt to cool, unless he has ture, -T-alone will know it by intuition. to have seen in a child's book, called the some friend to participate in his pleasures The only alternative in such cases, as he is Chapter of Accidents, the picture and ac- and troubles ; certainly my zeal for moun- well aware, is the Circulating Library; an count of a tiger rushing upon Monro, and tains, floods, and antiquities, was on the invention which takes rank with that of the wounding him mortally. This Sir John wane ; so I remained here but a few hours, steam-engine or the printing press; thither Murray, as my companion informed me, and then set forward for Falkirk, about a I repaired, and arming myself with Scott's was then present, and slew the tiger, whose mile from Stirling passed the ruins of Cam- last novel, set the azure demons at defiance. head now hangs in his hall. We reached bus-Kenneth Abbey, and one and a half I have thus given you an account of my Doune about seven o'clock, in a dark and further crossed Bannock-burn, near the field journey from Glasgow, and you will perhaps drizzly evening. The accommodations of l of battle. The country, for the next six I think that I have made the most of it; and
THE MURDERED TRAVELLF.R.
like Marvel again, have endeavoured to The aspiring lark up from the reedy river which have given rise to this undue degree make a story of what, if told in proper Mounted, on cheerful pinion; and she sat of vividness. “It is therefore chiefly for the
Casting smooth pebbles into a clear fountain, terms, would be only that the roads were And marking how they suok ;-and oft she sighed purpose of explaining such laws, that the sometimes rough and sometimes dirty, and for him thai perished thus in the vast deep.
present dissertation is written. But I here that the weather “presented the usual vi- She had a sea-shell, that her lover brought enter into a perfectly new field of research, cissitude of rain and sunshine.” Farewell. From the far distant ocean, and she pressed where far greater difficulties are to be en
Its smooth cold lips unto her ear, and thought countered than 1 anticipated. The extent
of them can indeed be only estimated by the
metaphysician.” The laws which govern Around her neck a string of rose-lipped shells,
the vividness of our feelings, Dr Hibbert And coral, and white pearl, was loosely hung, explains in the various transitions which the And close beside her lay a delicate fan,
mind undergoes; 1st. From perfect sleep to When Spring, to woods and wastes around,
Made of the halcyon's blue wing; and when Brought bloom and joy again;
the common state of watchfulness; 2d. From She looked upon it, it would calm her thoughts 'The murdered traveller's bones were found, As that bird calms the ocean,- for it gave
the ordinary tranquil state of watchfulness Far down a narrow glen. Mournful, yet pleasant memory. Once I marked,
to that condition of extreme mental exciteWhen through the mountain hollows and green ment which is conceived to be necessary The fragrant birch, above him, hung woods,
for the production of spectral illusions ; 3d. Her tassels in the sky;
That bent beneath its footsteps, the loud wind And many a vernal blossom sprung,
From perfect and imperfect sleep to dreams Came with a voice as of the restless deep, And nodded, careless, by. She raised her bead, and on her pale cold cheek
and somnambulism. These laws meet with A beauty of diviner seeming came :
very striking illustrations; which, the auThe red-bird warbled, as he wrought And then she spread her hands, and smiled, as if
thor adds, “are not more numerous than His hanging nest o'erhead,
She welcomed a long absent friend, ---and then the treatise requires, as my object is, not And fearless, near the fatal spot,
Shrunk timorously back again, and wept. Her young the partridge led.
only to render the principles which I have I turned away: a multitude of thoughts, Mournful and dark, were crowding on my mind
inculcated, as intelligible as possible, but to But there was weeping far away, And as I left that lost and ruined one,
direct the attention of the reader, less to Aud gentle eyes, for him, A living monument that still on earth
the vulgar absurdities which are blended With watching many an anxious day, There is warm love and deep sincerity,
with ghost stories, than to the important Grew sorrowful and dim.
She gazed upon the west, where the bine sky philosophical inferences, which are fre
Held, like an ocean, in its wide embrace They little knew, who loved him so,
quently to be deduced from them. The Those fairy islands of bright cloud, that lay The fearful death he met, So calm and quietly in the thin ether.
subject of apparitions has, indeed, for cenWhen shouting o'er the desert snow, And then she pointed where, alone and high,
turies, occupied the attention of the learnUnarmed, and hard beset. One little cloud sailed onward, like a lost
ed; but seldom without reference to superNor how, when round the frosty pole
And wandering bark, and fainter grew, and fainter, stitious speculations. It is time, however, The northern dawn was red,
And soon was swallowed up in the blue depths. that these illusions should be viewed in a The mountain wolf and wild-cat stole
And when it sunk away, she turned again
perfectly different light; for, if the concluTo banquet on the dead.
Three long and weary months,-yet not a whispersions to which I have arrived, be correct, Nor how, when strangers found his bones, Of stern reproach for that cold parting! Then
they are calculated, more than almost any They dressed the hasty bier,
She sat no longer by her favourite fountain ! other class of mental phenomena, to throw And marked his grave with nameless stones,
She was at rest forever.
H. W. L. considerable light upon certain important Unmoistened by a tear.
laws connected with the physiology of the
human mind." But long they looked, and feared, and wept,
PHILOSOPHY OF APPARITIONS.
OCCASIONAL ABUNDANCE AND SUPPOSED MIFor joy that he was come.
A popular and very interesting work has So long they looked—but never spied
been lately published by Dr Hibbert, entiHis welcome step again,
Feld-mice appeared in extraordinary Nor knew the fearful death he died
tled “Sketches of the Philosophy of Appa- numbers in Morvern (Scotland) about the Far down that narrow glen.
B. ritions.” The general plan of the work year 1809 or 1810. They were first observed
may be best described in the words of the in the month of August, and disappeared author himself.
during the ensuing winter. They were most THE LUNATIC GIRL.
“ In the first place,” he observes, “ a numerons in the north, on Loch Sunart side Most beautiful, most gentle! Yet how lost general view is given of the particular of Morvern, where the country is wildest To all that gladdens the fair earth; the eye morbid affections, with which the produc- and most rugged, and where there is least That watched her being; the maternal care
tion of phantasms is often connected. Ap- arable land. On the coast of the sound of That kept and nourished her; and the calm light
paritions are likewise considered as nothing Mull, their numbers were comparatively That steals from our own thoughts, and softly rests On youth's green vallies and smooth-sliding waters. more than ideas, or the recollected images trifling. They also infested the districts of Alas! few suns of life, and fewer winds,
of the mind, which have been rendered more Sunart, Arduamurchan, Moidart, Arisaig, Had withered or had wasted the fresh rose vivid than actual impressions." In a second and Ardgour. In Morvern, during the That bloomed upon her cheek; but one chill frost
part of this work he says, “ My object has months of August and September, any spot Came in that early Autumn, when ripe thought
been to point out, that in well authenticated of fine pasture in the hills was cut in roads, Is rich and beautiful,- and blighted it; And the fair stalk grew languid day by day,
ghost-stories, of a supposed supernatural close to the ground. The grass, cut by the And drooped, -and drooped, and shed its many character,--the ideas which are rendered root, lay withered. Bushes were also cut leaves.
so unduly intense as to induce spectral illu- by the root in the same way, and the white 'Tis said that some have died of love, and some, sions, may be traced to such fantastical ob- interior substance gathered into heaps for That once from beauty's high romance had caught jects of prior belief as are incorporated in nests. About the end of October and beginLove's passionate feelings and heart-wasting cares, the various systems of superstition, which for ning of November, in woods and low grounds Have spurned life's threshold with a desperate foot:
ages have possessed the minds of the vulgar." preserved for winter grazing, the grass was And others have gone mad, -and she was one!- In the succeeding, and by far the most con- fonnd cut the same way as in the hills. The Her lover died at sea; and they had selt
siderable part of this treatise, the research bark of young wood was frequently gnawed A coldness for each other when they parted; is of a novel kind. Since apparitions are off, and the ground perforated to such a de But love returned again, and to her ear
ideas equalling or exceeding in vividness gree, in making their subterraneous resiCame tidings, that the ship which bore her lover
actual impressions, there ought to be some dences, that it often yielded to the foot in Had sullenly gone down at sea, and all were lost. I saw her in her native vale, when high
important and definite laws of the mind I walking. These subterraneous residences,
GRATION OF FIELD-MICE.