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We must stop here, pressed both by time lisbed variations of the verbs of that lan-, tion. Every auxiliary does it in the same space. It is with feelings of regret that we guage.

degree. Some of them require the omission have thus performed our duty to the public Our grammars inform us, that “ Mood is of the particle to, but it is still understood in exposing the waste of time, paper, and a particular form of the verb, showing the or implied in the sense of the verb, whether printers' iok, consumed in these works. It manner in which the being, action, or pas expressed or not. is with feelings the reverse of aught un- sion is represented.” Mr Murray attempts Now it is certain that the above examfriendly, that we beseech Mr Fairfield to to explain the nature of a mood, by saying, ples and a great number of others, do not write no more verses. Can it be probable, that "it consists in the change which the come under the definition of any of the five that he will ever gain fame by it, and is it verb undergoes, to signify the various in- moods; and yet they are as distinct in their not squandering what little talent he may tentions of the mind, and various modifica- character as important in their signification, possess in a pursuit worse than vain? iftions and circumstances of action." and of as frequent occurrence, as those which there be any thing that he can do of use to

A moment's consideration will show any are included under the common enumeration himself and society, let him turn himself to grammarian, that English verbs are not va of moods. If the reader will pursue this inthat ere it be too late; a poet, we may sure- ried to express these varieties of intention quiry, he will find that the five moods defined ly say, without exposing ourselves to a and action. The verbs of many other lan. in our grammars, do not express half of the charge of presumptuous prophecy, he will guages are varied. but in English, they ad-* various intentions of the mind," and he never be, until his intellectual nature be mit of scarcely any change. To save the cannot fail of remarking, that the verb wholly changed.

trouble of proving this, we request those undergoes little or no change in expressing who are interested in the inquiry, to go any of them.

through the conjugation of a regular verb, In the next place, we say, that modes of ERRORS OF THE PRESS.

and to mark all the changes which it admits. action are not denoted by the five moods of

In naming the second person singular, we the verb. I walk, walk, I may walk, if I In the first column of the article upon recommend that the familiar style be sub- walk, to walk, express po modes of the acBuchanan's Sketches of the North American stituted for the solemn, or Quaker style. tion of walking. This is so plainly a matter Indians, in our last number but one, the word The only variation which has any claim to of fact, that every grammarian must see it.

be called a mood, is in the termination of The "modifications and circumstances of ac“Miltiades” is printed for “ Mithridates.” | the third person singular of the indicative tion” are commonly expressed by adverbs

, We may mention, as an amusing coincidence, present; where we say, he lovelh or loves, or by nouns and prepositions: as I walk that precisely the same mistake occurs on

instead of love. Let the abettors of the fast, I walk with rapidity; he speaks fuent

present system make the most of this soli- |ly, he speaks with energy; he lives in a very the 66th page of the American edition of tary variation; it will furnish them but an unhappy situation. Medwin's Conversations of Lord Byron. incompetent and ludicrous reason for all Our last assertion was, that the changes In that instance, Byron is supposed to be their display of the conjugation of the verb and modifications of being, intention, and speaking of the individuals, and converts through five moods.

action, supposed to be expressed by either

If it were true that the five moods, as of the five moods, as formed by the common the Athenian commander into the Pontic formed with the help of auxiliaries, express auxiliaries, are frequently expressed by the monarch, by the same error, which, in our all " the various intentions of the mind,” other moods with equal precision. We might

and all “ the various modifications and cir- add, that they are still more frequently dereview, miscalls Professor Adelong's great cumstances of action;" or if they expressed noted by other forms of expression, which work.

nearly all these circumstances of intention do not come under the definition of either of We would also notice the omission of the and action, leaving only trifing exceptions; the moods.

we should then admit that they ought to be Take, for example, the following senproper signature, “j,” to “The Gladiator,” retained in treatises on philosophical gram- tence. I think that I shall walk. Īhis is in the same number. mar. But the more we seek for any ground in the indicative mood; but it is equally

, in the philosophy of language for this divi- well expressed by the infinitive, I espect

sion into moods, the more apparent it will to walk, or I purpose to walk, or I intend MISCELLANY.

be, that no such ground exists. If the reader to walk. So the imperative, walk, is exwill be patient enough to follow us in the in- pressed by the indicative, you shall walk;

quiry, we shall endeavour to show that very by the infinitive, I command you to walk; ON THE COMMON SYSTEMS OF ENGLISH few of the common modes of intention and and by the potential, you must walk in

action are definitely expressed by what are stuntly. These examples might be multi

termed the five moods of verbs; and that plied indefinitely. In like manner, I can No. IV.

those modes of intention and action which walk signifies no more nor less than, I hart In a previous number, we promised to either of the several moods of verbs is sup- the ability to walk ; the verb is the same in resume the subject of moods and tenses. It posed to denote, are very frequently ex- both cases; and can it be pretended, that was our intention to offer some criticisms pressed by the other moods with equal pre- the use of different auxiliaries changes the on the systems advanced in our grammars, cision. In the first place, let us inquire, mood, while the sense and form of the verb encyclopædias, and philosophical treatises; whether the various intentions of the mind remain the same? If so, what is the meanbut a critical examination of them, which are designated by the several moods of verbs. ing of mood ? we made some time ago, afforded so little Take, for example, the verb walk. By which We do not see that any thing needs to useful information, and so few principles of the moods are the following dispositions be added against the common division and which we could esteem as correct, that our of the mind expressed ? I desire to walk; I definition of English moods; for, if we misJabour of reading was followed by a degree expect to walk; I am afraid to walk; I think take not, we have analyzed them fairly, of disgust which we know not how to over- of walking; I hope to walk. These are par- and shown, that English verbs have no come, and we feel incapable of repeating ticular affections, dispositions, and intentions moods in forrus, that is, by variations of the the drudgery with any advantage to our of the mind, in relation to the action, signi- verh, and that the ideas and intentions which selves or others. The most, therefore, that fied by the term walk; and they are dis- verbs express, have an almost infinite num. we shall attempt, will be to illustrate and tinctly expressed by the aid of auxiliaries. ber of modes, which are not comprehended apply the principle which we formerly In the first example, for instance, the verb under the definition of any of the five moods. stated,- thai the number of moods and desire is the auxiliary; and why is it not as We shall leave the subject bere, till we tenses which should be recognised in the suitable an auxiliary as can or may? It may learn some good reason for resuming it;grammar of any language, is so many as be said, that desire changes the verb to the reserving our remarks on tenses for another are expressed by the regular and estab. infinitive mood. But this is a mere decep-number.

W.

GRAMMAR.

PARTY SPIRIT.

а

The Mysteries of Trade, or the Great Source we refer to the preparation of certain

MISCELLANY. of Wealth : containing Receipts and Pa- varnishes and lacquers. tents in Chemistry and Manufacturing ; Among the details most likely to be usewith Practical Observations on the Useful ful, we may point out those, which relate Arts. Original and Compiled. By David to the method of proceeding in the manu- The number of those, who habitually

Beman. Boston. 8vo. pp. 182. facture of beer, bread, vinegar, and cider, look at the bright side of objects, is small. The object of this book is to enable every and the explanation of the chemical prin. of trouble, we may truly say, “A little man to become his own brewer, his own ciples, upon which the success of these leaven leaveneth the whole lump.” It is vintner, and his own baker; it teaches us operations depends. The method of cleans- true, that they, who look only at the bright to imitate rum and brandy, to make wine ing silks, woollens, &c. without damage, is side, will be disappointed in their calculafrom parsnips, sugar from hemp and rags, simple and very valuable, if really as ef- tions, that their hopes will be blighted, and and bread from Iceland moss; directs us in fectual as it is represented to be.

their plans frustrated; but, though others, what manner to restore the colours of an- We expected to find, among the economi- who look at both sides, may experience the cient paintings, detect the adulteration of cal receipts, one or more relating to the same evils, yet they will neither suffer só tea, and mix our own blacking. Now, though preservation of an important perishable ar- often, nor so intensely. That men will not we are of opinion, that, on the whole, it is ticle of household economy; we refer to overlook altogether and entirely the bleak quite as well to allow every man to do his eggs, the price of which is so variable, be- and barren spots around them, is not the own work, yet it may not be amiss to have ing at one season, nearly or quite double subject of complaint,—but that the number some general notion of the manner in which what it is at another, that an unfailing of those who regard equally their advanparticular trades are conducted; since there method of preserving large quantities, for tages and disadvantages, is so very small. are few points of knowledge, which may not, a length of time, is a matter deserving se- If the mass of mankind paid more attention in some circumstances of a man's life, be- rious attention. By the following recipe, to the good effects of causes and the good come a source either of advantage or enter- they may be preserved in the greatest per-qualities of objects, if they devoted more tainment. fection for two years.

time to tracing the remote blessing and in. In one point we disagree with the com- Take of quicklime, one peck;

vestigating the latent good,—and declaimpilers of works of this sort; we mean in

cream of tartar, two ounces;

ed less about immediate and apparent regard to the economy of their processes.

common salt, eight ounces. evils,—they would make fewer complaints There is one valuable article, wbich they After slaking the lime, put the whole in of men and things, they would form juster rarely take into account, and that is, time; a vessel, with as much water as will render estimates and more correct views of human we find calculations of the value of ingredi- the composition of such a consistence, that life, and might be more happy. ents, &c. proving mathematically, that, by an egg will swim in it, with its top just above It is owing to this perverse attention to following the directions of the author, we the surface. Immerse in this liquid as many the present, this unphilosophical disregard shall obtain various necessaries or luxuries eggs, as the vessel will contain, or as you wish of the future, this ready disposition to dwell of life at a much cheaper rate than they can

to preserve. It will be necessary io supply upon the evil and overlook the good, that be purchased; but the time employed in the waste, or disappearance of the water, party spirt is the subject of such general processes of this sort, even when conducted from time to time, to prevent the com- detestation. The ill effects of party spirit with that expedition which is the result of position acquiring such solidity as would being more obvious and more immediately experience only, is much; and when they obstruct the occasional removal of the felt than the good,-men forget that the are attempted in the tedious and bungling eggs.

evils to which it gives rise, are temporary, manner of those who work by book, it is a

The following account of a practice, said and seldom affect any but the violent men of very large, and, we may add, costly ingre- to prevail in bake-houses, was new to us, party, whilst its blessings are eventually dient.

and perhaps will be so to the majority of felt by the mass whom it actuates, and desNot to dwell longer on the question of our readers.

cend to their posterity. the general utility or entertainment of It is well known, that, in order to be able to supply

Party spirit seems to be closely allied books of this kind, on which opinions must the public with fresh bread for breakfast, bakers are and almost identified with that principle of necessarily differ; we shall consider the in the habit of working all night. About eleven the buman mind, which urges every man to v manner in which the design, whether ad- o'clock at night, they make the sponge or dough, promulgate and propagate his own opinions, vantageous, or not, has been executed in which, of course, must have some time for fermen- and defend his own doctrines and asserthe work before us,

As far as a limited tation ; whilst this is taking place, the baker, who tions. In conversation, this principle proacquaintance with the subject, and a some- himself now; and as he is fearful of not awaking

has perhaps slept little during the day, indulges duces various effects :-it urges some to be what hasty perusal, will enable us to judge in time to work the sponge into loaves, and of perpetually leading debate or provoking (for these books are not the most interesting baking it in the oven; he hits upon the following controversy upon favourite topics :-upon to one who merely reads them through), we ingenious but pernicious expedient. He knows others, its effects are less powerful; these should consider the execution good in the that the dough in the trough is every minute be

never start any subject, but only contribmain. The details appear to us to be suffi- coming more spongy, from the incessant action of

the ferment

. This enlargement of bulk will, of ute occasionally some few remarks; they ciently minute, and the principles and ex,

course, raise or resist any weight placed upon the make good seconds, but fail altogether as planations correct. We were not perfectly douch; consequently the lid of the trough, and any principals :-upon others, it produces still satisfied with the selection; the factitious weight laid upon it, will be elevated, when the fer different effects; these will endure neither wines, for instance, occupy rather too mentation has arrived at that point, at which it may opposition nor contradiction, they will conlarge a portion of the work. They are sidering a similar elevation of his own body as a The varieties of character produced by par

be divided into loaves. The baker, therefore, con- descend neither to argue nor persuade. but ordinary trash at best, and we think suficient check on somnolency, lays himself down it quite as well, and much more econom- to sleep on the lid of the trough; the consequence ty spirit are similar to these, with which we ical to abstain from wine, than to manu- is, that he is certainly aroused from his unhealthy meet in conversation and derive their orifacture it from parsnips, birch sap, or gilli- slumbers at the required period.

gin from the same cause. Both in domesflowers.

The compiler of this work objects to this tic circles and public assemblies, we meet There are other receipts, which are not kind of incubation, on the ground of its per- with professed disputants, humble partizans, likely to be attempted by any but the manu- nicious effects to the sleeper; it is probable and confirmed bigots. facturer, who acquires his knowledge of these that other objections will occur to the more That parties should exist can not surprise processes by an apprenticeship or by oral fastidious of the buyers and consumers of reflecting men. The difference in the haband practical instruction, and as these are the article, which is thus

its, organs of sensation, and intellectual canot accompanied by any explanation of the

contrived a double debt to pay, pacities of individuals, necessarily causes rationale of the operations, there seems the

A bed by night, a quartern loaf by day. diversity of opinion ; and this diversity is less necessity for their introduction here;

greater or less in proportion to the quantity

REVIEW

of knowledge. Where the quantity of judice and bigotry; then it forms a particu- | writing. The brightest geniuses on bith sides of knowledge is small, the matter of disagree- larobnoxious character of the opposite party, the Atlantic are engaged in this kind of literary ment is small. In every country where which it associates with every individual be- labour. Besides the many works called Reviews, there is any degree of freedom, where con- longing to it, and invents odious epithets all scientific or literary journals are made up of ar science is not fettered, where the lips are which it applies indiscriminately to all its ticles upon books, and all newspapers which have not sealed, and where the press is not opponents; this often leads to rash and un- a due regard to respectability of character devote shackled, there will parties, both political reasonable decisions, and to determinations a column or two occasionally to this most dignified and religious, always be found.

founded only on presumptions. Party spır. species of composition. The scarcity of new books, The wants and limits of human life are it

, when it thus degenerates, operates even in this prolific age, is already felt and lamentsuch, that it is impossible any individual mostly upon the leaders of the parties and ed as a sore evil by all writers and readers of liteshould examine for himself the truth of all their most ignorant followers, “men of rary journals, and that sad day may not be afar off, the opinions and doctrines advanced by such poor, narrow souls, that they are not when reviews can no longer be written, because all others. Men, who have neither opportuni- capable of thinking upon any thing, but men write reviews, and the art and mystery of ty nor capacity to do this. are biassed to with an eye to whig or tory.” The more one party or another by some prepossession enlightened, --whose eyes are not blinded day, and doubtless the wits whom it will overshad

book-making is forgotten. Sad indeed will be that or accidental motive; they then attach a by the mists of prejudice, whose judgments certain degree of reverence to the leader are not warped by the prepossessions of ow, will regard it.-to use the metaphor of a faof their party, which causes them to regard bigotry,—discern clearly and decide ra. Cimmerian darkness. But reviews are already be

mous English minister,--as the dawn of more than his opinions as correct, and consequently tionally. to adopt them with unreserved confidence.

Power, among parties, constantly chang- ginning to turn one upun the other, and the preceIt is in this way that the mass

of mankind es from one to another. If the predomi- dent of the three respectable gentlemen who earnbecome party men. The enlightened few nant party, in the exultation of triumph, ed a good living by stealing from each other, affords examine for themselves, and decide differ- become uncharitable and rancorous, their a comfortable hope, that they may mutually, or ently according to the depth of their inves- very malignity produces a reaction, and rather reciprocally, supply an amount of aliment tigation and the perfection of their powers. experience soon teaches the wisdom and sufficient for the subsistence of the whole. At all In the dominions of ignorance and despo- advantages of sobriety and tolerance. By events, whatever be the end of the present system, tism, party spirit is never found, -for igno- the alternations of party spirit from indiffe.. it will last my day, young though I am. The conrance removes all cause of difference. Even rence to excitement, from excitement to sciousness of genius burns within me, and urges the votaries of learning and science will indifference, the tone of society and gov- me to bigh endeavours ; therefore I must review. appear harmonious, if deprived of freedom ernment is kept up, and upon the whole, I have tried ;—and with what success, you must of speech and liberty of the press, for they approximates to a higher standard ; " old judge, as modesty forbids my expressing an opinion want a medium to convey their opinions. things pass away, and new ones take their upon that point. I offer to your acceptance the fol

Such is the attraction of party, that al-place-” opportunities are given for aban- lowing article, in which I have laboured to realize most every man ranges himself on one side, doning antiquated principles and exploded the beau ideal of a modern or the other, in religion and politics; and doctrines, for substituting new measures, there is hardly a science whose devotees and adopting more philosophical maxims. have not, at times, been divided into par- Party spirit is a visible demonstration of Mother Goose's Melodies. Third Amerities—so perfectly natural is it for men to the power of the people-it stimulates the

can edition, from the thirteenth English disagree. This division of men into parties great and good to deeds of patriotism-and edition. Boston. 1824. 24mo. pp. 27. produces, in every case, beneficial results. if it sometimes ignorantly raises the un. It awakens the attention, it calls forth gen-worthy to influence and power, it as cer- AMONGST the literary productions of antiius and talent, it arouses the spirit of inqui- tainly hurls them down again from their ill- quity, none have been so universally adry, it leads to deep and thorough investiga- gained elevation, to rise no more. Party mired, none have enjoyed a reputation so tion, it brings the truth to light, and spreads spirit, then, is the quickening energy, the permanent, as those masterpieces of epic it with more celerity, with greater effect, very vivida vis of free governments ;-it is poetry, the Iliad, Odyssey, and Æneid. and throughout a wider range than it would the angel which troubles the waters of lib-Their fame is certainly merited, and it otherwise have been diffused. In religion, erty to preserve and increase their healing were sacrilege to question it.

We should knowledge has led to a difference of opin- and salutary influence.

be ashamed to own ourselves insensible to ion, difference of opinion to variety of sects, Whilst the spirit of liberty retains its the excellencies that concentrate here, and variety of sects to the discovery and activity,—whiist diversity of intellect pro- and proudly profess to be ardent admirers propagation of truth, and to the confusion duces variety of opinion, whilst there is a of the splendid machinery, the rich invenand overthrow of error and superstition. “ pride in debate, and a joy in victory,"— tion, the fire and sublimity of Homer; as In politics, we march by similar steps from party spirit will exist, and, with few eviis, well as of the elegance, dignity, and tenslavery and degradation to freedom and conter inany blessings on mankind. They derness of Virgil. But though ever ready to independence. And both in religion and who never consider reinote and latent award to the classic age its due, we cannot politics, party spirit preserves what it as- effects, but confine their views solely to refrain from censuring that blind venerasisted to gain.

what is present and obvious, will regard it tion for antiquity, which has been so prevaThe good effects of party spirit are great with detestation, and endeavour to procure lent of late years, and seems to be invariaand lasting. The evils which it produces for it the ignominious shroud of public op bly attended with a groundless prejudice are confined and temporary; they are mis- probrium :-whilst the patriot and philoso- against modern productions. representation, falsehood, libel, and calum- pher will bless its existence, and pray for

These remarks were suggested by the ny. There may, at first view, seem to be a its continuance, since “ without parties, perusal of the valuable work of which the contradiction between the evil and good of cemented by the union of sound principles, title is prefixed to this article.

It is not, party spirit; but it may be reconciled by evil men

and evil principles cannot be suc- as many of our readers may, know, a new considering that the evil effects are expe- cessfully resisted.”

W.

work, but a recent edition gratifies us with rienced by a few individuals in their char- Cambridge, Jan. 1825.

the opportunity of giving a particular acacter and reputation; the good effects are

count of its very interesting contents. more confined to the mind, though they

Perhaps we cannot present a more imparaffect both measures and men; the ill ef- It seems to me, Mr Editor, that no stronger tial and satisfactory view of their characfects are limited almost exclusively to the proof can be offered of the remarkable intellectual ter, than by selecting and illustrating at existing generation, the good extend to illumination of the present age, than that which length some poem which may be a just posterity.

may be drawn from the universal recognition of the specimen of the whole. The very first Party spirit too often degenerates into pre- truth, that reviewing is altogether the best mode of that offers itself, as we open the volume,

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affords such a literary banquet as is seldom, ing essential to Epic unity. In this respect He put in his thumb and pulled out a plum! given to the intellectual epicure. It is not our authoress has been beautifully definite, What a noble lesson does Mrs Goose long, and we will take the liberty of print. confining her hero to the narrow precincts thus happily and forcibly convey! What ing it entire.

of a corner. This limited sphere of action a sublime virtue is here exhibited ? How Little Jack Horner sat in a corner

must have been adverse to the free opera- great and pointed is the moral! Never was Eating a Christmas pye;

tion of his elbows, and greatly heightens so splendid an instance of disinterestedness He put in his thumb, and pulled out a plum, the difficulty of his undertaking, and in and devotion, as displayed by Mrs Goose’s And cried, “ What a good boy am I!" creases proportionably our interest and ad-hero in liberating this unfortunate plum We consider this beautiful production as miration. But the ininor excellencies of from its awkward and distressing situation! a perfect gem. A poem written in the this poem are so numerous, that time would But our limits compel us to hasten on. Attic dialect, as we may say, of our lan- fail should we attempt to do justice to them

A rapid review of the excellencies comguage, and possessing every qualification all. We shall, therefore, content our- bined in this inimitable poem, may serve to requisite 'to insure it a place in the highest selves with a cursory glance at its more render our estimate of its merits more comrank of Epic composition. A quarto edi- prominent features.

prehensive and correct. The subject is tion of this work has been extensively cir- The scene now opens a little wider, and important, highly instructive, and justifies culated, and the literati thus furnished with active operations commence.

the magnificence of its apparel. The inevery facility for appreciating its worth.

Little Jack Horner sat in a corner

cidents are happy; the characters and deBut a groundless partiality for the an

Eating a Christmas pye.

scription remarkably fine. These, howcients, and a deep-rooted hostility towards the fame of more recent writers, still blind

It is necessary to remark, that, with re-ever, are secondary virtues, when compartheir eyes to its merits, and we rejoice that spect to this passage, there exists an im- ed with the plot, which unites in perfection

those indispensable requisites, unity and it is proposed to publish a stereotype edi- portant difference of opinion; it is not cer.

A becoming dignity is pretion in a cheap and popular form. One of tain that the line was written as it is print. greatness. the first and most important objects with ed, and many annotators insist upon the served throughout, and Mrs Goose seems the masters of the Epic, has been to select insertion of " Thanksgiving” in lieu of the to have been well aware that the Epic

" abhors the ludicrous.” With regard to some remarkable personage for a hero. word“ Christmas.” It seems to us that there This contributes incalculably, not only to are few even plausible argunents in favour the principal personage, he is made to disthe unity, but to the interest of the tale. of such a change, and we have retained play that happy medium of character, the text reading for the following, among the bounds of probability. His passions

which reduces all his achievements within Let us examine how the work before us corresponds with this rule. Our poem com

other powerful reasons, which we cannot mences in a manner perfectly original and now enumerate. In the first place, the are lofty, and at times incontrollable. He highly impressive. The ordinary circumlo- word Thanksgiving is highly injurious to is not exempt from the common frailties of cutory method is discarded, and we are im. the metre, as the smooth and rapid flow of human nature; and thus we behold bim mediately made acquainted with

the dactylic rhythm is not suited to the dig- yielding to the irresistible temptation of

nity of the subject. Little Jack Horner

fered by the Christmas pye, from whose duSecondly, Christmas

is an occasion vastly more important than rance vile he was soon to rescue, by force Vitiated indeed must be the taste, and the former, and far more consistent with of thumb, an innocent and sweet being. corrupt the judgment, that can be insensi- that sober solemnity which prevails through

This temporary transgression is perfectly ble to the beauties exhibited in the intro- out the poem. We trust that we have been final exploit

, the merit of which is incalcu

natural, and very judiciously precedes his duction of this personage.

John Horner's influenced to prefer the present reading: Tably augmented by the contrast. origin was probably obscure, and conse- principally by these considerations. Stiil

His quently attended with circumstances that it is but fair to acknowledge that our de- failings, compared with his good qualities, could be neither important nor interesting. cision may have been partially biassed, by

are as drops in the bucket. The dark side Moreover, a celestial or fictitious descent religious prejudices; for we are staunch of the picture is relieved by some of the for a modern hero, are equally out of the churchmen. The question, however, is a noblest virtues that can adorn the human

mind. question. Nothing, therefore, could be complicated one, and every reader, it is

“ The magnanimous man,” says more happy than the sententious brevity presumed, will exercise bis own judgment. Aristotle, “is one, whose character, being and artful reserve of the authoress in this But we haste to the execution of our task. of great worth, is estimated by himself at

its full value.” exordium. A rigid investigation of pedi

Let us see how the phiLittle Jack Horner sat in a corner, gree might have degraded the lofty opin

Eating a Christmas pye;

losopher's definition will apply to our hero. ion which Mr Horner's capital exploit is so He put in his thumb

After a laborious and successful exertion of well calculated to inspire, and to support

his physical powers; after an exploit that which ought to have been the writer's prin- most distressing solicitude on account of “universal emancipation,” Mr Horner is

The plot thickens. We already feel al- might well be regarded as the embryo of cipal aim.

After this graceful introduction to the our hero, who is gradually involving him- represented as retiring from notice, with chief character, we are promptly and hap- intricate adventure.

self, unconscious of danger, in a dark and that modest confidence in his own worth

The greatness of the which forms the most prominent characterpily conducted to the scene of his beroic

emergency rejects all digression or ampli. istic of genuine magnanimity. Such is the achievements.

fying, and calls for the utmost rapidity of concluding sentiment; and this truly great Little Jack Horner sat in a comer.

narration and thought. Here, then, we man retires from the stage, content with With regard to chronology, the precise are left to conjecture that the hero soon exclaiming “What a good boy am I!". period, at which the events of the plot becomes aware of his responsible situation ;

C. took place, is not directly specified ;-a and the critical moment has arrived that most ingenious artifice of the writer to se. is to develope the energies of his soul and cure that freedom and license which others body. He espies a beautiful and innocent LETTERS FROM A TRAVELLER. enjoy amidst the impenetrable fog of anti-being, suffering under the thraldom of a

No. V. quity. The time occupied by the action callous pye-crust. The incidents have been itself, was doubtless short; for it is obvious gradually concentrating to the proper fo

Edinburgh, October 27, 18that the hero would have suffered no concus. Every circumstance has contributed My dear FRIENDS, sideration to retard him in the prosecution to heighten the intensity of the interest I bave now been, for nearly a month of a design which must have engrossed all produced, and our expectations are now comfortably situated in my winter estabhis faculties. But this is unimportant. wrought up to the highest pitch. They are lishment, waiting, or, as the Scotch say,

With regard to place, however, the case fully and immediately gratified by the unity wearying for the commencement of the is different, topographical minuteness be-i and greatness of the catastrophe. session, and filling up the intervals of more

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serious pursuits by making bread-seals and good hexameter or pentameter verses. But the Calton and Costorphine hills, all comlearning to play on the bagpipe. The site this is a digression.

mand the most charming prospects, and of this city is the most irregular that can

Doctors of all kinds abound here, Doc- there is a mixture of wildness and cultibe imagined One may walk through a tors of Divinity and Physic, Horse Doctors, vation, which is altogether different from street, called the South-Bridge, and see and Cow Doctors; 1 observed a sign the any thing I have ever met with. A walk people traversing the Cowgate twenty or other day, which informed the public that of very few minutes round Arthur's seat thirty feet beneath him—and for crook- the proprietor was a “sooty man and smoke brings one into the most perfect solitude ; ed streets, it can only be equalled by Bos- Doctor.” In this particular the “gude and there are several places, to which, if ton itself. The Old Town is built princi- town” equals a certain village in the neigh- a man were conducted' blindfold he would pally upon a hill, which bears some general bourbood of Boston, where I once heard a no more imagine himself in the immediate resemblance to the one I have mentioned at little Miss ask a lady with great naïveté, neighbourhood of a great city, than if he Sterling, the castle being situated on its if “ there were any men in C-, as she were in Juan Fernandes. There is bebrow. Owing to this irregularity, the ef- had seen only doctors.” Every calling is tween Salisbury and St Leonard's crags fect produced by the lamps, on a dark night, here subdivided, “ Jacks of all trades” a dell of this description, where at noonday is very remarkable; and if a stranger seem to be unknown. One man sells nee-one rarely sees any thing living, except a were dropped down in Prince's street, in dles, and another thread. If you ask a few sheep; and from whence you may walk guch a night, the only possible conclusion Bookseller for paper, he will send you to a in less than ten minutes into the Canonhe could arrive at would be, that he was Stationer, and you must get your pens of a gate, where you will be jostled, at every situated on the main-land of Laputa, and quill-cutter.

step, by men, women, and children gentle that the lights of the Old Town were in I think the most sociable affairs, that and simple, exquisites and blackguards, the floating island.

have fallen under my observation in Edin- bareheaded varlets and barebottomed HighThe accounts we have of the height of burgh, are the funerals. Soon after I landers. some of the houses are very little exag- arrived here, I observed a troop of peo- I have made hardly a single acquaintgerated; it is a consequence of the ine- ple passing my window, with black crape ance as yet in this place, having deliverquality of their foundations. For you can pendants to their bats, and white cuffs, ed but one introductory letter; and when easily imagine that if the roofs of the such as the ladies wear with us. They I called for this purpose, and asked the buildings in Somerset street, for instance; were marching along in a crowd, talking servant girl if her master was at home, sbe were all nearly on the same level, as they and smiling; without tolling of bell, or replied, “ Yes, sir, he's at home, but he's usually are here, those at the bottom of the any resemblance to a regular procession. no in, he has not yet come from the counstreet would have twelve or thirteen stories. And if I had not, after some amazed scru- try;" which mode of expression may be You must not suppose however that such an tiny, discovered a coffin, which some of them Scottish for aught I know, although it edifice is but one house, in our sense. Each supported upon two poles or handspikes, 1 savoured strongly of the other side of the story is a separate domicil, to which you sbould have been utterly at a loss to ac- Irish Channel. enter from a winding stair, which is public, count for this unusual posse. Since then, 1 Tomorrow the session begins, when I exand in point of fact, is a street or lane, set have noticed several of the same character. pect the scene will be changed, and I hope, up on end. Such houses as we inhabit are The nonchalance of the mourners is inimita among other pleasures, to see B—'s homehere called self contained.

ble; their dress is uniform, and I should ly face-not homely in our base sense, The shops in Edinburgh look very suppose that some of them were hired for "s a fico for the phrase”—but homely, as the beautifully in the evening, being illumin- the occasion, but that they would probably kindly Scotch dialect has it. In the mean ated by gas lights, disposed in a va- look more lugubrious, if they were paid for time I have lived the life of an anchorite riety of fantastic forms. Near the town it.

in respect to company, and in the midst of are large manufactories of this gas, which We were wont to laugh at Boston notions a metropolis am in danger of forgetting is conveyed through it, by means of pipes and the eagerness, with which our fellow the sound of my own voice-since, like running beneath the pavement, and from citizens run after every strange tish” that Triangle of facetious memory, with the exwhich proceed smaller copper tubes lead- claims their attention, but to judge from the ception of my landlady, I converse with ing to individual shops or houses. The public prints, motley is a very good wear in none but the dead. The liberal tax upon stream, thus obtained, is suffered to jet out this island. I observed the other day a no- light and air forbids my apartment to have through holes, about large enough to admit tice of a man, who, a few years since, col but one window; fortunately it is a large a large pin, and arranged, according to the lected an enormous assemblage of people, one and looks towards the west, at which I fancy of the occupant, in circles, fleurs de in the very capital of one the most cul. am as well pleased as a good mussulman is lis, &c. Some of the streets are also lighted tivated nations of the world, to see him sail to have his house face towards Mecca—his in a similar manner, and the difference be- down a river in a tub drawn by four geese, orisons (that is, if he lives on the Barbary tween the effects of this method and the and ride back in a car drawn by as many shore) dy over the great desert of sand, “ darkness visible” of oil lamps is prodigious. white lom-cats ! Head of Confucius! and mine over the great expanse of waters.

Edinburgh abounds now, as well as in the " Mais c'est un sage peuple, s'amuse bien.” Farewell. days of Monkbarns, with bookstalls. At

I saw to-day a very beautiful display of a mean looking establishment of this kind archery, as I was walking through a public I picked up the other day Barclay's Argenis, promenade, called the meadows and resem

POETRY. a book, which you may have

seen, but prob-bling our mall. The archers were dressed ably have never read. This copy was in a handsome plaid uniform. I was much printed at Oxford in 1534, is perfectly entire, surprised at the distance at which they and stoutly bound. It has afforded me much shoot, and was told that the American In- When winter winds are piercing chill, amusement, as one of the great storehouses dians, who were here some years since, and And through the white-thorn blows the gale, from which the incidents and tricks of later who shot with great precision at short dis

With soleion feet I tread the hill, novels have been borrowed. When the tances, were confounded, when, on being

That over-brows the lonely vale. heroine's eyes are red with weeping, she re- invited by the Archers' company to shoot O'er the bare upland, and away moves the colour by a little cold water, with them, they beheld the distance at

Through the long reach of desert woods, " admota gelida,” and hides her blushes which the target was placed.

The embracing sunbeams chastely play, under a violent cough, “ violentam tussinn.” There are probably more pleasant walks And gladden these deep solitudes. Mistakes, disguises, subterraneans, and all in the vicinity of this city than in that of any

On the gray maple's crusted bark the machinery of modern romance writers other whatsoever. In almost every direc- Its tender shoots the hoar-frost nips; abound, and, like Mrs Radcliffe's, the dram- tion, one meets with some new and roman- Whilst in the frozen fountain--hark ! atis personæ now and then spout poetry, in tic scenery. Arthur's seat, the Pentland's, His piercing beak the biuers dips.

WOODS IN WINTER.

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