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languages; and why slioald we not give and define the exact meaning and use of 1 The funeral train has long past on, them as high a rank as the four mixed every word. We advise such instructers to

And time wiped dry the father's tear! tenses which we now adopt? The Arauca- learn first to define every word in the situa

Farewell, lost maiden!-there is one nian, a language more regular in its forma- tion in which stands, and to parse it first by

That mourns thee yet, and he is here.

H. W. L. tion, and more copious than almost any itself; let the scholar be taught to do the other, has nine tenses formed by established same; and then we care not how many variations of the verb itself. We can trans- combinations and groups are formed, nor

THE RESTORATION OF ISRAEL. late all these into English, as easily as we whether any thing more is done than to Mountains of Israel!' rear on high can translate the Latin tenses; but this decide to what part of speech a whole book

Your suinmits crowned with verdure new, furnishes no reason for making nine English belongs.

W. And spread your branches to the sky, tenses, while our verbs cannot express them

Refulgent with celestial dew..

O'er Jordan's stream of gentle flowi by regular variations of their form.

And Judah's peaceful vallies smile, All our grammarians contend that the

And far reflect the lovely glow first and great division of tenses is into pres


Where ocean's waves incessant toll. ent, past, and future; but they go on the false principle of making metaphysical tenses, or


See where the scattered tribes return; tenses of sense, instead of verbal tenses, or O thou, whose awful wings unfurled

Their slavery is burst at length, those formed by variations of the verb it- Across the waste of darkness brood,

And purer flames to Jesus burn, self. If this general division be adopted,

And sweep along the subject world

And Zion girds on her new strength: while auxiliaries are required to express the

With desolating progress rude!

New cities bloom along the plain,
Why wend'st thou on thy dreary slight

New temples to Jehovah rise, future tense, authority is certainly given for So swiftly down the stream of years,

The kindling voice of praise again forming an infinite number of tenses as sub- Dark in thy course as death and night,

Pours its sweet anthems to the skies. divisions. We are aware that we shall be And heedless of thy victini's tears.

The fruitful fields again are blest, considered as inordinately heretical in re

Sweep on,--sweep on! thine awful course

And yellow harvests smile around; jecting the future tense; but we will ac

Soon, soon sball end in fearful gloom,

Sweet scenes of heavenly joy and rest, knowledge our error, when it shall be

And thy last echoes wild and hoarse

Where peace and innocence are found ! shown, that English verbs have any form Be heard o'er nature's final tomb!

The bloody sacrifice no more for denoting future time. The considera- Then must thou curb thy daring wing,

Shall smoke upon the altars hightion, that the cominon division of time is

And furl thy pinions in dismay;

But ardent hearts, from bill to shore
Creation's dying shriek shall sing

Send grateful incense to the sky! into present, past, and future, has satisfied

The dirge, that tells thy fading day. grammarians, that our verbs must mark this

The jubilee of man is near, division ; but they might with equal pro- Child of eternity! once more

When earth, as beaven, shall own His reigo; priety have decided, that our verbs have Shalt thou take refuge in its breast,"

He comes, to wipe the mourner's tear, 255674 tenses, because that is the number And on that undistinguished shore

And cleanse the heart from sin and pain. of days in a man's life, who lives three score

Thy glories and thy power shall rest?

Praise him, ye tribes of Israel! praise Lost in the wild and boundless sea

The king that ransomed you from wo: and ten years. If we are to estimate the

That ne'er may feel or tide or flow,

Nations! the hymn of triumph raise, number of tenses by the number of imagin- What hope shall then remain to thee

And bid the song of rapture Now!

E N. able periods of time in which an action may Stretched by the latest tempest's blow. be done, how many shall we bave ?

Secure from thee and all thy powers
It is not necessary to add to these re-
Shall man pursue the endless years;

marks on tenses, for every one is compe- When bliss shall crown his glorious hours,
tent to apply the principle which we have Or darkness whelm him with her fears.
stated, by rejecting from his system of pars- Eternity of joy shall bloom

LORD BYRON. ing, all combinations of terms, whether they Throughout His boundless, endless reiga ;

Since our previous notices of this noblebe of the same or of different names, and

E'er hell shall ope ber central gloom,

man, Mr Hobhouse has published a pamphlet

A long eternity of pain ! parsing every word by itself. If the scholar


in contradiction to many circumstances in understand the meaning of his sentence, he

Capt. Medwin's book, and in a “Narrative will always know whether the time de

of Lord Byron's Voyage to Sicily, Corsica, scribed or implied be present, past, or for DIRGE OVER A NAMELESS GRAVĚ. and Sardinia, in 1821, in the Mazeppa.” It ture, and will generally have occasion to By yon still river, where the wave

is melancholy to observe how little faith mark it with even greater precision ; but Is winding slow at evening's close, can be put in any thing published to gratify let him not be taxed with the vain effort to The beech, upon a nameless grave,

public curiosity. Mr Shelley, who is redetermine the time by the conjugation of

Its sadly-moving shadow throws.

ported to have been converted in a storm the verb. The simple form of the verb or O'er the fair woods the sun looks down at sea, on board Lord Byron's yacht, “the indefinite present, is to be distinguished Upon the many-twinkling leaves,

Mazeppa," is proved never to have been at from the declension or indefinite past; and

And twiligin's mellow shades are brown,

sea with Lord Byron in his life; Lord the present and past participles are to be

Where darkly the green turf upheaves,

Byron never to have had a yacht called distinguished in the same manner. What

The river glides in silence there,

“ the Mazeppa”-and, moreover, no yacht is called the compound perfect participle, And hardly u aves the sapling tree : whatever at the time mentioned. and all the compounded tenses and parti- Sweet flowers are springing, and the air Capt. Medwin makes Lord Byron say, ciples should be entirely rejected.

Is full of balm,-but where is she !

“ I have been concerned in many duels as In closing these remarks, we will antici

They bade her wed a son of pride,

second; but only two as principal; one was pate one objection which will be felt by And leave the hopes she cherished long : with Hobhouse, before I becaine intimate many teachers, even if they do not choose She loved but one, -and would not hide with himn.” Mr Hobhouse declares he nevto express it. In order to parse in the man

A love which knew no wrong.

er fought a duel with Lord Byron; and ner we have recommended, every term must

And months went sadly on.--and years:-

not only that, but that Lord Byron never be well understood, and this will require a And she was wasting day by day:

fought a duel with any body. The above measure of knowledge rarely possessed. To At length she died,--and many tears may serve as specimens of flat contradiccast several words into a group, and give Were shed, that she should pass away. tion. them a name which will denote only the

The story told by Lord Byron to Capt. use which they serve collectively, is the

Then came a gray old man, and knelt
With bitter weeping by her tomb:

Medwin, concerning the duel between constant resort of those who are too igno

And others mourned for him, who felt

Capt. Stackpoole and a Lieutenant, has also rant or too lazy to analyze the sentence That he had sealed a daughter's doom. been publicly contradicted by some friend

Chitty's Pleadings. New edition, with the lights of heaven, and a capacity of re- which will enable the attentive and indusNotes, &c. by Edward D. Ingraham, Esq. ceiving rich modifications and improve- trious student to trace with precision,

A Digest of the Reports of the Courts ments of those feelings in return. We are pleasure, and profit, the great variety of of the United States. By T I. Wharton, Esq. convinced that there is more mind, more principles, which, like the muscles of the

The American Dispensatory, containing soul about us, wherever we look, and wher- body, spread themselves through the Engthe various substances employed in Medicine, together with the operation of Pharmacy, &c. &c. ever we move ; and there is—for we have lish language. Sixth edition. By John Redman Coxe, M. D.

imparted both to the material world; there It is to be regretted that 30 few fully unThe Tourist's Companion, being a guide is no longer any dullness or death in our derstand the grammatical and accurate to the Lakes, Canada, &c.

habitation; but a sweet music, and an in- construction of their own language. There Memoirs of Richard Henry Lee of Vir- telligent voice, are forever speaking to our is a fashion already too prevalent in our ginia, By his grandson, Richard Henry Lee, Esq. secret ear, and the beauty of all visible country, which has long obtained in EngIn 2 vols. 8vo with a Portrait.

things becomes their joy, and we partake land, particularly among the superior classA new edition of Horace Delphini.

in it, and gather from the confiding grati- es of society, and which has by no means A new edition of Virgil Delphini. tude of surrounding objects, fresh cause of been conducive to a general and extensive

The Private Correspondence of Lord praise to the Maker of them all.” cultivation of the English language. The Byron with his Mother, from the original MSS.

For sale by Cummings, Hilliard, & Co. subject of allusion is an extravagant predi1 vol. 12mo.

High-Ways and By-Ways, or Tales by Boston; William Hilliard, Cambridge; lection for the study of foreign languages, the Road-side. picked up in the French Provinces Gray, Childs, & Co. and J. W. Foster, to the neglect of our own, a language by a Walking Gentleman. Second series. 2 vols. Portsmouth; B. Perkins, Hanover; W. which by us should be esteemed the most 12mo.

Hyde, Portland; Bliss & White, and Car- useful and valuable of all. This extrava Collection of English Literature, edited vill, New York; A. Small, and Cary & gance has been justly censured by Mr Walby Washington Irving, Esq. (Goldsmith's Works, Lea, Philadelphia ; E. Mickle, Baltimore; ker in the following remark. “We think," 4 vols. published.)

Pishey Thompson, Washington; and S. says he, "we show our breeding by a knowl.
Babcock & Co., Charleston, S. C.

edge of those tongues (the French and ADVERTISEMENTS.

Italian), and an ignorance of our own." ENGLISH TEACHER AND EXER

A knowledge of other languages is truly POETICAL WORKS OF WILLIAM


desirable, and the acquisition of them WORDSWORTH.

ought, in a proper degree, to be encouragCUMMINGS, HILLIARD, & Co. No: 134 Washed by all friends of improvement; but it is Just published, the Poetical Works of ington street [No. 1 Cornhill], have for devoutly to be wished, by every friend to William Wordsworth, complete in four sale, new editions of these neat and valua- the interests of our country and of English volumes. ble School Books.

literature, that American youth would show This edition is beautifully and correctly The English Teacher contains all the a zeal, in this respect, exemplified by the printed, and afforded at less than half the Rules, Notes, and important Observations matrons of ancient Rome ; and, like them, price of the London copy.

in Murray's large Grammar, which are in- suffer not the study of foreign languages to Extract from the North American Review. troduced in their proper places, and united prevent, but strictly to subserve the culti

“The great distinction and glory of with the Exercises and Key in perpendico- vation of their own. Wordsworth's Poetry is the intimate con- lar collateral columns, which show intui. It is confidently believed that the Engverse which it holds with nature. He sees tively both the errors and corrections lish Teacher and Exercises are excellently her face to face ; he is her friend, her con- through all the exercises in Orthography adapted to produce a radical improvement fidential counsellor, her high priest; and Syntax, Punctuation, and Rhetorical con in this very important department of Enghe comes from ber inmost temple to reveal struction.

lish education. With these aids, individu to us her mysteries, and unravel those se- The Exercises form a neat 18mno volume als and pupils, with a little instruction in cret influences which he had always felt, of 252 pages, on good paper and neat type, parsing, may alone become not only profibut hardly understood. It is not merely for the particular use of pupils in schools; cients, but skilful and just critics, io one of that he admires her beauties with enthusi- and being a counterpart to the Teacher, the most copious and difficult of all lanasm, and describes them with the nicest corresponds to it in design and execution.guages, our own. accuracy, but he gives them voice, lan- | The Key is left out of this volume for the Feb. 1. guage, passion, power, sympathy; he causes purpose of giving the scholar an opportuni. them to live, breathe, feel. We acknowl. ty of exercising his judgment upon the apedge that even this has been done by gifted plication of the rules, without a too ready

The Publishers of this Gazette furnish, bards before him; but never so thoroughly and frequent reference to the key.

on liberal terms, every book and every as by him; they lifted up corners of the The Promiscuous Exercises in each of periodical work of any value which America veil, and he has drawn it aside; he has the four parts of False Grammar, in both affords. They have regular correspondents, established new relationships, and detected volumes, bave figures, or letters of the al- and make up orders on the tenth of every hitherto unexplored affinities, and made the phabet, introduced, referring to the partic- month for England and France, and freconnexion still closer than ever between ular rule or principle by which nearly eve- quently for Germany and Italy, and import this goodly universe and the heart of man. ry individual correction is to be made. from thence to order, books, in quantities Every person of susceptibility has been Great care and vigilance have been exer- or single copies, for a moderate commisaffected with more or less distinctness, by cised to prevent defects of the press in

sion. Their orders are served by gentle the various forms of natural beauty, and the these editions, as well as to correct the nu- men well qualified to select the best ediassociations and remembrances connected merous errors which have found their way tions, and are purchased at the lowest cash with them by the progress of a storm, the into the various editions of these works prices. All new publications in any way expanse of ocean, the gladness of a sunny now in circulation. There can be no haz- noticed in this Gazette, they have for sale, field,

ard in saying, that there is no American or can procure on quite as good terms as The silence that is in the starry sky, edition, either of Murray's Exercises or those of their respective publishers. The sleep that is among the lonely hills. Key, so correct as the English Teacher,

CUMMINGS, HILLIARD, & Co. Wordsworth has taught these sentiments and the Boston “ Improved Stereotype Ediand impulses a language, and has given tion of the English Exercises."

CAMBRIDGE : them a law and a rule. Our intercourse These very neat and handsome school with nature becomes permanent; we ac- manuals will perform much service, save

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, quire a habit of transierriog human feel- much time, and furnish teachers, private ings to the growth of earth, the elements, I learners, and schools with those facilities HILLIARD AND METCALF.




Published on the first and fifteenth day of every month, by Cummings, Hilliard, & Co. No. 1 Cornhill, Boston.-Terms, $5 per anmum, payable in July.
BOSTON, MARCH 15, 1825.

No. 24.

the coast, are either inconsiderable in the volume roll in vain for us. We can neither plough,

of their waters, or too rapid and rocky to be navi- nor sow, por make baskets, nor throw the The publication of No. 3 was so much gable far from their mouths. The river Magdalena, Lazo,-and, therefore, however agreeable, delayed by unexpected impediments, that it however, which descends longitudinally above 700

miles through the valleys of the Andes, is navigable useful, and even necessary we may be to our was thought best to date it May 15th, instead to the Port of Honda, 550 miles from its entrance loving countrymen, the time is not come of May 1st. There is, therefore, no num- into the Atlantic. The Cauca, which descends when our labours can be appreciated and ber bearing this last date, and, to complete through the province of Antioquia and the Atracto remunerated in Colombia. # The learned

through thai of Choco, are considerable rivers, the twenty-four numbers of the first volume, whose banks, as well as those of the Magdalena, professions," says Colonel Hall, and surely within the year, two numbers are published, are covered by the luxuriant forests which distin our profession is one that ought to be learn

guish the rivers of the plains, and indicate a soil of ed, " are clearly out of the question.” Now both dated the 15th of March, 1825. unlimited fertility; but the climate is burning, and if these Colombians, whom we cannot look

EDITOR. the life of man is not only rendered precarious by upon, if the Colonel is correct, in any other

disease, but his daily comfort is destroyed by swarms light, than that of barbarians, are willing to
of insects and venomous reptiles.

The second, or mountainous zone, presents a very

as poor Mr Hadoway used to say, withdifferent scene. At the height of 4,000 feet above out the advice of the three learned facul

the level of the sea, the climate becomes mild, ties,” what chance can there be for reviewColombia: Its present State, in respect of vegetation continues uninterrupted through the ers. Actum est with regard to the whole

Climate, Soil, Productions, Population, year, leguminous plants, wheat, and other produc- tribe, whether they be quarterly, or monthly, Government, Commerce, Revenue, Manu- tions of temperate regions, are abundant, and of the

semi-monthly, and miscellaneous, like onr factures, Arts, Literature, Manners, Edu best quality; venomous insects and serpents are cation, and inducements to Emigration. edges the grateful salubrity of a temperature fitted kindred of the folio family. We trust our

rarely met with; and the human frame acknowl- own quarto, or weekly and daily, like our With Itineraries, partly from Spanish alike for enjoyment and labour.

readers will excuse this digression, which is Surveys, partly from Actual Observation.

Our first idea, on perusing the account so little in keeping with the usual sedateness By Colonel Francis Hall, Hydrographer of this last portion, was to prepare for im- of our habits, in consideration of the circumin the service of Colombia, Author of mediate migration, especially when we cast stances; we are not stocks and stones, and Letters from France," and of " A Tour our eyes abroad, and considered the mixture must be allowed to curvet a little now and in British North America, and the United of snow, rain, and mnd, the half winter and then, and snuff the breezes of a fairer clime, States.” Philadelphia. 1825. 12mo. pp. half spring, which it is our lot to enjoy for provided we in general jog on with a quiet 131.

nearly one third of the year, in this our da- and steady pace, and diligently and faithThe territory of the republic of Colombia tive New England, where six or eight fully tread out, for the good of the public, is considerably more extensive than that of weeks, out of the fifty-two, of unexception the two grains of wheat, which so many authe United States, extending from the mouth able weather, is all that we can expect, and thors are pleased to bury in two bushels of of the Oronoco to the Pacific Ocean, and to balance which, we must broil in July, and chaff. But to return to Colombia. from the Gulf of Mexico to the Marapon. be stewed in August; be hung with icicles in

The climate continues mild and agreeable to the It is the Eldorado of the sixteenth century, December, and thawed out in January; have height of 9,000 feet when it becomes cold; the sky and, if we may place confidence in Colonel our pores hermetically sealed in February, is usually cloudy, and vegetation slow in growth Hall's description, has no small claim to that and drilled out again, as it were, by the and stunted in appearance. At the height of 15,700 appellation, so far as its natural qualifica- searching blasts of March. We fancied feet it ceases altogether: no living creature passes tions are concerned, at the present day. It ourselves for a moment in that happy land, this dreary limit, where sterile sands, naked rocks, enjoys every variety of climate, and is capa-afar from the thousand torments,

that beset fogs, and eternal snows, mark the reign of uninter

rupted solitude. From the level of the sea to the ble of affording almost every production of the bousekeepers of this realm, in the shape height of 4,800 feet, the thermometer of Fahrenheit the known world.

of fire-places, grates, stoves, and flues, at one varies from 770 to 1150, from thence to 8,000, it The great differences of climate are oc- season, or in thatof blinds, verandas, summer- varies from 50° to 77o. casioned by the Cordilleras of the Andes, houses, or refrigerators at another. There

The third zone comprehends the immense tract which traverse the province in various no sudden south-wind plunges the pedestrian eastward, from the base of the Andes to the neigh

of level country which spreads itself southward and directions, lifting their heads, crowned with mid-leg deep in spow-water, where he but bourhood of the river Amazon, and the mountains eternal spows, under the very equinoctial. yesterday shivered through an icy drift, which border on the Oronoco. These prodigious The province is, in fact, divided into three and no chilling eastern breeze condenses savannahs are watered by the numerous streams zones, characterized by their respective on his thin garments, the moisture which the which form the Meta, the Apure, and finally the soils, climates, and productions." glowing sun of a summer morning has sucked Orinoco; the periodical overflowings of which con

vert the whole country, during four months of the The first of these is the tract of conntry included up to load it; we enjoyed in imagination the year, into an immense lake or inland sea, on which betwixt the Cordillera and the Atlantic and Pacific fervours of the eternal summer of the tropics, the villages and hatos, or cattle farms, raised upon oceans. The climate here is invariably hot, almost diluted, if we may be allowed the express- small banks and elevations, appear as so many islets. always unhealthy, the soil luxuriantly abundant, ion, by the effects of an elevation of four When the floods retire, the whole plain is covered wherever it is sufficiently irrigated by rivers of thousand feet. Alas! it was but an imagin- with luxuriant pasture ; on which herds of cattle periodical , parched these are deficient, as is sometimes the case from ation, and a brief one. The cruel fates have were raised, previous to the war, in numbers almost

defying calculation. Nor are these plains less rich the peculiar situation of the mountains, which ren- bound us to these ungenial climes. There in agricultural advantages. The banks of the rivers der the falls of rain locally precarious; while the are few readers in Colombia, and these our are covered with primeval forests of the most prerivers, for wamt of supplies, dry up or lose

them- periodical strictures would probably be of cious kinds of woods for dyes, forniture, and buildBelysse in sandy desert sou 'hes the province of Coro fered in vain to the public

of those favoured ings

, and exhibit, when cleared, a soil capable of , and

rendering abundantly , coffee, other parts of the coast are exposed to similar regions. That public, unfortunately for us, indigo, tobacco, and generally every species of tro droughts, though in a less degree. The rivers which is not a reading one, and the sands that roll, pical produce. "All the energy of nature, in the prodescend from the mountains, at a short distance from mingled with gold, into Rip Hacha, would / duction both of animal and vegetable life, is here


We pre


brought into action; and wild beasts, venomous their general character is diversified by local cir: they do; but the Colombian government reptiles, and tormenting insects, enter equally into cumstances, we may observe that the inhabitants of are not, therefore, to be considered so absoa system which man vainly imagines constructed the coast line, and especially of the principal seafor his peculiar use and convenience. The climate, port towns, are the most refined and intelligent: lutely devoid of common sense and prudence though hot, is neither so unhealthy nor debilitating that the inhabitants of the interior and mountain as the Colonel supposes. They might find as that of the seacoast, the air being refreshed and country, particularly of New Grenada, are the most in the doings of other American congresses, purified by the strong breezes blowing constantly simple in their habits, the least crafty in their dis- which are admitted to be the wisest in the over this grassy ocean, which extends not less than positions, buit ignorant, timid, selfish, and inhospit

: world, some enactments on a principle not 300 miles in every direction betwixt the Andes and able. The inhabitants of the plains form a totally very different from their own. the Orinoco.

distinct class, whose characteristics, as their mode Of the vegetable productions of this coun- of life, are peculiarly their own. Nothing is, ac- sume, moreover, that Colonel Hall has try it is unnecessary to speak. It is obvious, cording to an European view of the subject, more heard of such things as corn laws in his that there are few, which might not find a likely to engender ferocity or military habits ; it is regard to which the imperial parliament it

pacific than the life of a herdsman, nothing less native land, as well as other matters, in congenial soil in some part of this exten- sufficient, however, to have once witnessed the self is somewhat in the rear of the march of sive territory. Among the precious animal mode of tending cattle in South America, to form a products are the pearls of Margaritta and different opinion. The immense herds raised in political science. boundless and unenclosed plains, are gatbered,

This work will be most interesting to Goagira, the fisheries of which are now penned, or conducted, as change of pasture may emigrants, for whose use indeed it is more monopolized by a British company. The require, by half-naked horsemen, each armed with particularly intended. It will, therefore, be mineral treasures are gold, silver, platina, a lance, whose rapid movements

, shouts, and wild

more valuable in Great Britain than it can and emeralds.

demeanour, suggest the idea of a body of Tartar cavSo much for the country, which, it must alry. The untamed nature of the cattle themselves, be in this country, for few, we imagine, will


attacks of wild beasts to which they are exposed, be so Quixotic as to leave a land like ours, be admitted, is a fairer land than our own. We have next to inquire concerning its in: quently to be led, with a variety of circumstances residence in the semi-barbarous republics

the deep and rapid rivers over which they are fre- whatever may be its disadvantages, for a habitants and government, and here we shall essential to the mode of life of the Llaneros, or of South America. To the indigent agrifind the superiority no longer visible. The Plainsmen, all require and produce those habits by character of the former is various, and is which they are distinguished; besides being the culturists of many portions of England,

breeders and keepers of the cattle, they are also Colombia will doubtless have charms, and thus described by our author.

their butchers, both from necessity and amusement. another century will probably find, on the Long habits of slavery, and oppression, partially Their chief, we may say their only, pastime, is fertile plains of Venezuela and New Grencounteracted by a feverish interval of liberty, ill drawn froin this source : to throw a Lazo, orada, other men and other principles from understood and imperfectly enjoyed; the almost coiled rope, round a bull's horns while at his speed, total want of education, and absence of that moral to pierce him in the spine, or hamstring him till those which have so long disgraced and stimulus, which, under the name of honour or char- they have occasion to kill him; to flay, quarter, and abused this garden of the world. acter, forces every respectable individual of Euro- divide his quivering carcase with all the technicality Many in this country, we suppose, will be pean society to a line of conduct conformable with of our old European huntsman, is the pride and al- curious to learn more particulars of the his situation; all these circumstances have produced most the sole enjoyment of their lives. The revo- actual state of the South American prov. a negativeness or debility both in thought and ac- lution thus found them a ready made body of irreg. inces, than we have been able to give in tion, which renders them troublesome to deal with, ular cavalry, i popular cher sprang unito anive this short sketch; and they will find in the and unfit to be relied on. It is, in fact, impossible impetus and direction to their native spirit, and a to calculate their behaviour except you could be very short time beheld them excellent Guerillas, account of Colonel Hall, a great deal of incertain of the last idea which has occupied their and not less expert thieves and cut-throats—in their formation, which cannot, as far as we know, diately present is pretty generally decisive of their ral cruelty of the Colombians. There is not, per: a very interesting character. We shall conimagination, for the feeling of interest most imme. favour we must revoke our negation as to the natu- be found any where else, and much of it of conduct. Does a merchant contract with a planter haps,

in the world, a race of people who shed hu- clude this article with an anecdote, which for a quantity of coffee or cocoa at a certain rate? man blood with more indifference or with slighter in vain would he suppose the bargain concluded, temptation ; it is difficult to say by what good illustrates the nature of the care which the should another purchaser appear ind offer the qualities, if we except courage, and a strong love Holy Inquisition exercised over the morals slightest advance of price. The readiness with of independence, their defects are redeemed or of the subjects, under the ancient regime. which they break a promise or an agreement, can qualified; pacific virtues they have done ; it is only be equalled by the sophistical ingenuity with fortunate, however, that the

natural abundance of Garcia,

had two paintings from which he used to

"A painter in Bogota, of the name of Antonio which they defend themselves for having done so.

to their dispoIn this respect they seem a nation of lawyers, who, sition towards a life of savage marauding; were it study-a Hercules spinning by the side of Omphale, with ease, twist' words and meanings as they otherwise, the Llaneros would be to Colombia, what and Endymion sleeping on the breast of Diana: the please . As the reproach of being a liar is the last the Moors of the Nubian desert are to Egypt and circumstance on the

ground that the pictures were

Commissary of the Inquisition was informed of the insult which can be offered or endured among free the interior of Africa ? men, so is the term lie the last to be used in decent

indecent, searched his cabinet, and bad them cut in

The government is framed according to pieces, which the owner was allowed to keep.' conversation; here, on the contrary, not only is the expressioni a good one, and adapted to the meridian the central system, and is much better in of the genteelest society, but the reproach of being theory than in practice. The distance of a liar may be safely cast on friend or foe

with as the capital from the various provinces, the Missionary Journal and Memoir of the little offence given or taken as the term Rake' or difficulty of travelling, but above all, the Rev. Joseph Wolf, Missionary to the • Prodigal would cause in a fashionable London circle. It is indeed a truth worth a thousand character of a people just emerged from the Jews. Written by himself._Revised and homilies in defence of liberty, that without it there most degrading slavery, will probably long edited by John Bayford, Esq. F. S. .4. can be no virtue. prevent any government, and much more a

New York 1824. 12mo. pp. 332. The most pleasing trait in the character of the republican one, from possessing that effi- | THERE are few things in which sensible Colombian Creoles is good nature. It is easy to ciency, which is necessary for protecting and conscientious men differ so much as in live with them if you require little of them: they individual rights against the encroachments their views of the utility and tendency of have little or no active benevolence, because such of craft or power. Indeed, as our author missions. Different minds may, and as they must from reflection. But they are not vindictive, for revenge observes, the forms of government in the are impressed with different convictions

, is both a strong and a permanent feeling ; nor are South American provinces must be consid- must have different opinions of the characthey cruel, although this assertion may seem para- ered as yet, as experimental

. Liberty, edu- ter and amount of the good and evil from doxical to those acquainted with the history of the cation, and the emigration of foreigners, which they spring, and which they effect. revolution, distinguish . ries which are the fruit of a savage nature, and such will

, in time, enable them to establish one But this difference of opinion must be con

that shall be better adapted to their circum- fined to their use as religious missions; for as weakness itself may give birth to, when Roused up to too much wrath which follows o'er- stances than any which has hitherto been their influence upon the interests of litera

in operation. Colonel Hall criticises some ture will receive unqualified acknowledge Neither are they in general proud or assuming, ex: with severity, supposing them to evince an these interests of value. In estimating

of the prohibitory regulations of the congress ment and commendation from all who deem cept when they have obtained place or power, on which occasions they are apt to verify the musty ignorance or contempt of the clearest prin- their efficacy and importance with respect proverb, "Set a beggar on horseback. As far as I ciples of political economy, and doubtless I to religion, many considerations should be

grown fears.

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taken into view ; for, while all admit that mano, with the intent of becoming a mem- | walk eight or nine hours. In the first month of my tares are sown with the wheat, who re- ber of the Propaganda. Society, Before stay in that seminary, I went with the others to see member that the missionaries, and they long he became convinced that popery was VII, and I considered the canonization not as a

the canonization of Alfonsio Maria Ligori by Pius who send them, are subject to human frail

. not the best form of the religion of Christ; beatification and sanctification, but only as a repreties, and do not believe that the mere send- he suffered some petty persecution in Rome, sentation, or a description of the grace of God ing or going on this errand purifies from left the papal court in disgrace, and arriv- working in the individul; but I found afterwards, all error,-it is no less true that the Word ed in England in 1819. He was recom- that my idea was not according to the Romish sysof God is thus scattered abroad among the mended to the London Society for Promot- tem. In Rome, they divide the canonization into nations, and light from Heaven made to ing Christianity among the Jews, and by second Sentificazione: both acts cost the family of

two acts, calling the first act Beatificazione, and the penetrate the darkness.

But they who them was sent to Cambridge, and afterwards the saint a great price. The words beatificazione believe that these religious missions are in to the Missionary College at Stansted, in and santifiazione correspond entirely to the Latin efficient as to their principal purpose, or Sussex, at which places he remained two words, beatum facere, and sanctum facere aliquem. that they call into exercise bad passions as years, employed in studying the oriental But how can I believe that a pope can make saints ?

since Rome herself confesses that popes may burn well as good ones, and help to propagate languages

. In the summer of 1821, he left in hell. mischievous error, will still admit that their England for Gibraltar; thence he proceed- In November, the Exercitia Spiritualia (wbich influence upon literature is decidedly bene ed to Malta, Alexandria, to Jerusalem and always precede the public lectures, and every ficial, whether they suppose this good ef. different parts of Palestine; at the close of solemn festival) began; a strange clergyman, or fect to be dearly or cheaply purchased. the next year he returned to Malta, and some monk, is invited at such a time to preach to These remarks were suggested to us by soon after went to Palestine a second time, lege are obliged to observe a strict silence two days,

the pupils about their duty. The pupils of the col. Mr Wolf's Journal. It exhibits a young with two missionaries from this country, and are ordered to meditate and to go every day man of bright intellect, acquiring by his The bulk of the volume is filled with the three times into the chapel

, to hear the sermons or own efforts almost a “gift of tongues," that narrative of his first visit to Palestine, exhortations of the missionary: The act begins he might be fit for the missionary work. which is contained in his Journal and let with holy song, Veni Sancte Spiritus, reple tuorum He is then engaged in collating the Scrip-ters. Our limits will not permit us to corda fidelium, et tui amoris ignem in eis accende,

emitte spiritum tuum et creabuntur, et renoyabis tures and commentaries upon them in va- make an analysis of this Journal,-- which, faciem terræ.' I heard sometimes, but not often, rious languages, in scrutinizing them rigor- we believe, most readers would find inter- sermons very fine, and according to the Gospel, ously, in disputing upon the remote deriva- esting. It exhibits the character of Mr especially when Prince O., the Stolberg of Rome, tions of words and obscure shades of mean- Wolf in a very favourable light, and proves preached to us in the seminary. He unites the zeal ing, and labouring to understand the pre- him to be possessed of uncommon talents of Elias and true Christianity, with great worldly cise force and purport of expressions, and and attainments. Mr Wolf's sincerity can. and love for the Gospel, the character of a man of

possessions; and adds to an unquestionable zeal to translate them exactly from one tongue not be doubted; and his representation of learning and philosophy. into another,--and all this with a zeal and the state and disposition of the Jews in va- The lectures upon Church History occupy four industry, which, were he a mere scholar, rious parts of the world, encourages the years, and yet they only come down to the fourwould ensure bim great fame. But we belief, that a spirit of inquiry, a willing teenth century; Dissertations about celibacy, the may leave the instance before us, which ness to know the doctrines

and evidence of holy wars, and the infallibility of the popes, and

reconciling the fallibility of Pope Honorius with has many parallels, and advert to a few the christian religion is beginning to mani- the doctrine of infallibility, take up the greatest part facts of common notoriety. For almost all fest itself among them.

of the history. The professor's prudence surprised that we know of the twelve hundred dia. We do not know that any part of the me, when he lectured on the history of Henry IV. lects of North America, we are indebted work interested us more than those pages the latter against the emperor, he did it; but when

and Gregory VII. So long as he was able to defend to missionaries. Marshman and Morrison of Mr Wolf's own memoir, which disclose he came to facts mentioned of the pope which he have brought the Chinese language and the actual condition of the papal court, could not defend, he merely read the history, and literature within reach of European schol- and makes us acquainted with the internal left us to form our own judgment. I only found ars; the obscure and almost forgotten Cop- economy, the customs, purposes, and prac- one amongst the pupils of the Seminary, who had a tic language is made to yield up its ele- tices of the seminaries and societies of spirit of tolerance, and knowledge of the Bible. ments to the uses of philology; the anoma- Rome. The following extracts are from

I frequently heard the noise of a crowd of people lous signs and exponents of the Chinese this part of the work.

flocking to the church called Rotunda, and exclaimwords are brought to illustrate the hiero

I entered the Seminario Romano the fifth of ing, "The mother of God opens her eyes and works glyphics of Egypt; and there is scarcely a September, 1816, being twenty years of age. I miracles.". The clergy send soldiers to guard the corner of the earth so remote or so obscure, received a long violet blue garment, and a triangu- image which represents the Virgin; and to deceive that something of its peculiar dialect may time the vacations of the schools took place, which collects money for the mother of God. It is true

lar bat like the other pupils of that college. At this the people, one priest reads mass, and another not be known by him who wishes to learn continued till the month of November: and I found the greatest part of the clergy said to me that this it. Of oriental literature it is peculiarly not so much edification in the Seminario Romano, was only the fanaticism of the people; but why true, that the study of every department of as in the shops of the German artists. The Semi- does the pope approve such an idolatrous fanatiit is facilitated by the means which mission- nario bas, besides the master and vice-master, a cism, and why do they send soldiers to the altar of ary efforts have wr ht out, and which, prefect also, who was a priest like the former, but a that image, and why do priests collect money for the but for these efforts, would not probably day in their

walks, and when they assist any bishop the altar of that image, to show respect and hon

man of no talent. He accompanies the pupils every support of that image, and to celebrate mass before have existed. Again, missionary societies or cardinal, or the pope, in any ceremony. He calls our to it? The vicar-general, in a printed declarahave established presses among the princi- the pupils every day for the rosary prayer, and tion, approved the miracles, said to be wrought by pal heathen nations. What incalculable closes the door of the pupils' room in the evening, the image of the Virgin. advantages may be expected from this ! and calls them up in the morning. This is the In the month of October, 1819, all the pupils Why may not Asia profit by the exercise month, and his board. When the prefect opens try-house. I saw there the villa of Mæcenas, the

whole duty; he receives for it two crowns per went to Tivoli, where they have a very fine coun. of this wonderful art, almost as Europe has the doors, and awakes the pupils, one of them is grotto of Neptune, the ruins of the barracks of the profited by it? At all events, it is a great obliged to recite the Litany of the Virgin Mary, army of Trajan, and the ruins of the temple of the thing to have put so powerful an instru- and they are all obliged to cry, Ora pro nobis, Sybil; and I read Horace's poetry in one of his ment into operation.

which they do mechanically, and without devotion! own country houses. I went one day, with the Joseph Wolf was born in 1796, in Wei- After that, they go into the private chapel, and read other pupils, to the church of the Friars of that lersbach, in Bavaria. His father was a Segneri, which contains some good things, together St Franciscus Assissi. a meditation taken from the book of the Jesuit town. They were then celebrating he festival of

AU the monks of Rome Rabbi; and intending his son to be a very with Mohammedan notions and abominable super are accustonied to preach sermons on the day of orthodox Jew, he educated him according stitions. The description of hell and paradise here their patriarch, which they call Panegyrica. I ly. But Joseph was disposed, while yet

a given, is the same 1 once read in a superstitious heard the panegyricum of si Franciscus of Assissi, boy, to become a Christian; when seven. After meditation they go to hear mass in another all the miracles of St Franciscus, and all the pains

Rabbinical book, and in a surah of the Alcoran: composed by a Franciscan friar! He enumerated teen years old he was baptized, and three private chapel, and then breakfast; and in the days of his body, where they observed the five wounds years after he entered the Seminario Ro- ) when public lectures are given, they are obliged to of Christ. And, after the accommt of these mira

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