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Account of John of Ravenna. to the testimony of Sicco*, one of the He was not more conversant with the most celebrated of his scholars, he not ancients than Petrarch; and, as far as only taught the Roman Eloquence, but I know, left no works behind him. By also the fcience of Moral Philosophy, with his excellent genius, however, and, as such success and applause, and improved Leonardus Aretinus says, by the particuhis scholars so much by his life and ex- lar dispensation of God, he was the preample, that, according to universal opi- ceptor of this Leonardus, of Petrus Paus nion, he far excelled all the profeffors of lus Vergerius, of Annebonus de Padua, those sciences who had ever before ap- of Robert Rossi, of James Angeli of peared. That he was here of confidera-. Florence, -of Poggius and Guarino of ble service in reviving the study of the Verona, of Victorinus, Sicco, and other Latin language, and of the works of the men of less note, whom he incited to ancient Romans, was acknowledged by the study of better knowledge, and to all his scholars, and is confirmed by the imitate Cicero, if he could not form following teftimony of Blondus t: them or instruct them completely."

“ About the same period, Ravenna " About the same time Manuel Chryproduced that learned grammarian and coloras, a man as virtuous as learned, rhetorician Johannes, of whom Leonar came from Constantinople to Italy, and dus Aretinus used to say, that he first in. instructed in the Greek language, partly troduced into Italy, after a long period at Venice and partly at Florence and of barbarism, the study of the Latin lan. Rome, all the before mentioned scholars guage and eloquence, now fo flourishing; of John de Ravenna. After he had conà circumstance which deferves to be en tinued this instruction for some years, larged on in the present work. Those those unacquainted with the Greek lanwell acquainted with Roman literature guage and the ancient Greek writers, know, that after the periods of Ambrose, were considered, in Italy, as more igno Jerom, and Augustin, there were none, rant than those unacquainted with the or very few, who wrote with any ele- Latin. A great many young men and gance, unless we add to these good writ. youths were inflamed with an enthusiastic ers, St. Gregory, the venerable Bede, and desire for the works of the ancient Greeks St. Bernard. Francis Petrarcha was the and Romans. At the time of the council first who, with much genius and still of Constance, in the beginning of the greater care, recalled from the dust the fifteenth century, many of my countrytrue art of poetry and of eloquence. He men endeavoured, by searching the neighdid not attain to the flowers of Cicero- bouring cities and convents, to discover nian eloquence, with which many are some of the Roman manuscripts which adorned in the present century, but this had been lost. Poggius firft discovered was owing rather to want of books a complete copy of Quintilian, which was than of talents. Though he boasted of foon followed by the letters of Cicero to having found at Vercelli Cicero's letters Atticus. . As our youth applied to the to Lentulus, he was unacquainted with study of these works with the utmost dithe books of that great Roman De Ora- ligenee, that celebrated grammarian and tore, Quintilian's Inititutes, the Orator, rhetorician, . Cafparinus de Bergamo, the Brutus and other writings of Cicero. opened a school at Venice, superior to Joh; de Ravenna was known to Petrarch the former, and in which young persons both in his youth and in his old age. were encouraged to study the ancient lan

guages and writers. About the same time * Adolefcens tum ego poetas, et instituta flourished Petrus Paulus Vergerus, LeoTullii audiebam. Legebat tunc hac in civitate nardus Aretinus, Robert Rosli, James Padua, literarum nutrice, Jobannes Ravennas Angeli, Poggius and Nicolaus de Mevir er fanctimonia morum, et ftudio isto ex- dici, whom Aretin had long initructed. cellens, atque fi poteft fine invidia dici, ce Guarinus also had begun to instruct teris, qui magiftri artis hujns in terra Italia many at Venice, and VičForinus at Man. ufquam deçerent et ductissimi haberentur, tua, when Philip III. Duke of Milan, quantum recordari videor, omnium judicio recalled Cafparinus as his subject, from præferendus. Hoc namque a præceptore non Venice, to Padua and Milan. The eneloquentia modo, quam ex ordine legeret, led creating study of ancient literature was muies etiam, ac quædam bere honete que much promoted by Gerard Landriano, vive di ratio cum doctrina, cum exemplis Bishop of Lodi, discovering under fome discebatur.--Sicco Polentorus, Ap. Mehus 1. c. P. 139.

ruins an old copy of Cicero, written in # Blondi Flavii Forliviensis Italia illustra. characters scarcely legible, which, among Bas. 1559. fol. p. 346.

other rhetorical writings of that great


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Account of John of Ravenna.

103 Roman, contained the whole books De testimony is necessary to establish his claim Oratore, with his Brutus and Orator. to celebrity This saved Cafparinus the trouble of After John de Ravenna had taught at supplying the books of Cicero De Ora- Padua, he removed for the like purpose tore, as he had attempted to supply the to Florence, where, as appears, he inworks of Quintilian. As no one was structed young people, for some time, found in all Milan, who could read this without being expressly invited by the old manuscript of Cicero, an ingenious government, and without being publicly. young man of Verona, named Casmus, paid for his labours. In the beginning was fo fortunate as first to transcribe the of his residence at Florence, he feems to books De Oratore, and to fill all Italy have been recommended by Colucius to with copies of a work which was univer- the learned Charles de Malatesta. " There sally fought for with the utmost avidity. lives here at present," says Colucius, in I myself, in my youth, when 'I went to one of his letters, “a teacher of great Milan, on the business of my native city, merit, John de Ravenna---he is,” contranscribed, with as much ardour aš tinues he," of mature age; irreproachfpeed, the Brutus of Cicero, and fent co- able in his manners, and so disposed in pies of

my transcription to Guarinus at general, that if you receive him, as I hope Verona, and to Leonard Justiniani at Ve- and wish, among the number of your in nice, by which means, this work was timate friends, you will find him an soon dispersed all over Italy. By these agreeable and incomparable assistant to new works eloquence acquired new fire; you in your labours and studies. What and hence it happens, that in our age, can be more desirable to you than to people speak and write

better than in the possess a man who will lucubrate and latime of Petrarch. The study of the bour for you; and who, in a short time, Greek language, besides the abundance can communicate to you what you could of new and useful knowledge which it not obtain by your own exertions with, disclosed, was attended with this great out great difficulty. I do not know advantagę, that many attempted to tranf- whether you will find his like in all late Greek works into Latin, and there-, Italy; and I therefore wish, that, if you by improved their style much more than confide in my judgment, you will rethey could have done without that prac- ceive John de Ravenna in the room of .tice. After this period, schools for your late learned friend, James de Aleteaching the ancient languages increased gretti.” It is not known, whether John in Italy, and flourished more and more. de Ravenna went to reside with Malatesta Most cities had schools of this kind; and or not. It is, however, certain that the it gives one pleasure to observe, that the former, in 1397, (the same year in which scholars excelled their masters, not only Manuel Chrysoloras came to Florence) when they left them, but even while they was invited thither by the magistrates of were under their tuition. Of the scholars that city, with the promise of an annual of John de' Ravenna, two of the oldeft, falary, to instruct young people in the Guarinus and Victorinus, the former at Roman language aud eloquence; that Mantua, and the latter at Venice, Vero- John de Ravenna, at the period when he na, Florence, and Ferrara, instructed an entered into this honourable engagement, immense number of pupils, and among was forty-five years of age; and that the these, the Princes of Ferrara and Man- scholars of John de Ravenna were, at the tua. George of Trebifonde, when he same time, scholars of Chrysoloras. Salectured at Rome, had, for his auditors, luratus Colucius, in all probability, was belides Italians, many French, Spaniards, the cause of this invitation; as he was and Germans, among whom sometimes' acquainted with the services of John de there were men of rank and eminence, Ravenna, and knew how to appreciate Franciscus Philelphus, who had been them. " We know,” says he, in one taught at Constantinople by Chrysoloras of his letters to John de Ravenna, “and bimself, instructed a great many young all who respect you know also, that men and youths in the Greek and Latin none of the moderns, or even ancients, languages at Venice, Florence, Siena, approached fo near to Cicero as you; and Bologna, and, last of all, at Milan.” that to the most wonderful beauty and In the above quotation, the share which powers of speech, you join the deepest John de Ravenna had in revising and dif- knowledge." Johnde Ravenna, like Chryfusing a knowledge not only of the Ro- foloras, and most of the teachers of the man, but also of the Grecian literature, Greek and Roman languages in the beis so clearly represented, that no farther ginning of the fifteenth century, was,




Condutt of the Bank Direttors. no doubt, engaged, at first, only for a jeeted by a committee of Bank Direttors, few years; when these were elapsed the though it was the unanimous opinion of engagement was renewed, perhaps for himself and Mesrs. Berne, Fittler, the last time in 1412, and he was bound, LowrY, SHARP, and BARTOLOZZI, befides teaching the Roman eloquence, that the specimen presented by Mr. Tilto read publicly, and explain in the ca LOCK was not copyable by any known art thedral, on festivals, the poems of of engraving. Dante*. John de Ravenna did not long It appears too, from Mr.LANDSEER'S furvive the above renewal of his engage- communication, that, notwithstanding the ment; for an anonymous writer, who, infamous stile in which the notes of the in 1420, finished “ A Guide to Letter-, bank are executed, the engraver to the kuriting, according to the Principles of John bank reckons himself an artist superior to de Ravennat,” speaks of his preceptor any of the above gentlemen; fór he atas of a man not then in existence.

tempted to copy Mr. Tillock's specie T. P. I. men, though such artists had declared it beyond their

power to do it. Whether is To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the modesty of the Directors in setting

up their opinion in direct opposition to SIR,

that of the artists, or that of their EnTHE in December last, I am happy to

graver in attempting what they declared see, has excited some attention. It is a

beyond their


most to be admired, matter that very much concerns the pub

an the present occafion ?

Is such consummate folly, not to say lic, and, I hope, the answers that have already appeared, will tend to call forth criminality, to receive no check? Are further information on the fubject.

there min to have the power of determinA Private Banker has, in your lait, ing finally on a matter of such import. doubted the possibility of the Bank Di ance, and to the decision of which they re&tors' refusing a plan to prevent forgery, members of the community still to be sub

are so completely incompetent? Are the recommended in the manner I formerly ftated; while at the fame time he allows, jected to lolles and frauds, and the ignotiiat, if it should turn out that they had, commission of a crime which the Bank,

rant and vicious to be tempted to the die knows no language that can do justice to their demerits. I am not surprized

had the power of preventing? that he should hesitate in crediting such a

The Bank Directors have a facred trust fact; for the arguments advanced by

committed to their care; and they ought him to thew the improbability of their bunal of public opinion, there is a tri

to recollect that, independent of the triacting a part so unaccountable---so culpable---are fuch as would have deterred

bunal in this country that has a power any set of men of common understanding

to call them to account for the neglect of from adopting the conduct that has been a duty so important as that of preventing manifefted, on this accafion, by the Bank forgery. If they continue to leave the Directors. But, whatever may have been public at the mercy of every bungling his doubts on this point when he last engraver's apprentice, when they have the wrote to you, they must have been com

power of securing them against forgers, pletely removed by the letter that ap- rited men, who have power and influence

it is to be hoped that some public-spipeared in your last from Mr. LAND- sutficient, will step forward, and get this

That artist answers the queftion business properly investigated. I had put to him, by stating, in positive terms, that a plan had been offered to the

That a plan which, by increasing the
Bank by a Mr. TILLOCK, which was re-

difficulty, would diminish the number of
forgeries, has actually been offered to the

bank, the public has already been in-
* Mehus quotes from a Florentine docu- formed, by Mr. LANDSEER, an artist of
ment of the year 1412, the following paffage. the first eminence, and engraver to his
Quum vir doctissimus D. Johannes de Mal-
paghinis de Ravenna hactenus in civitate Flo Majesty.. In a matter of so much mo-
rentiæ pluribus annis legerit, et diligentiffime ment, it is to be hoped every one who has
docuerit rhetoricam, et auctores majores, et

the means will give what further inforaliquando librum Dansis, et multos instruxerit, mation he may have in his power, through &c.

the medium of your Magazine. The + Seguendo la dottrina dell'eloquente ed other artists, and the author of the plan, onorevole maestro Gioanni Battista nel suo' owe it as a duty to inform the public tempo principe della rettorica facultade, &c. what has been done in this affair, and, I


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Welsh Poetry of Cyveilioc.

105 persuade myself, will need no further ar. Dygyzwyn, genad, gyvyl mordwy gwyrz, guments to induce them to come forward. Gozyar ei gylgwy; The public, or those whose immediate Dywan, er traian tramwy; duty it is to watch over their interests, Dywed y döwn Ardudwy. will then know how to proceed in a mat. Dygyzwyn genad, gain dervyn y wlâd ter that demands such a serious invefti A wledygwys Mervyn ; gation. Could I hope that this business Dôs i weit ar Nêit Nevyn; would receive that attention which it Dywed an dyved Leyn. merits from all concerned, I might then Dygygwyn, genad, o gyly dragon llary promife myself that I should never in fu Lliosawg ei galon; ture be

Dôs, yarçawg arvawg, Arvon ;

A dywed an dyvod Vôn.
Teulu Owain hael hawl diolaith Lloegyr.

Lliofawg am anraith,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. A enir wedy hir-daith:

A anwn ni yn Rhôs norwaith?
N the foregoing numbers of your va: Dôs, was, y genyv, ac nag annerg nêby
luable Magazine, I have given trans-

Oni byz vy ngorzerg; lations of the poetry of Hywel ab Owain; Dywan ar vuan vein-ers ; cotemporary

with him was Owain Cyr- Dywed an dyvod Lanerç. eilióc, another chieftain of Wales, distinguished for being a poet, and a great

Dygyçwyn, genad, gadyr ardal teulu

Teilwng mêz o vual, patron of the bards. But we can boast A dywan Dyno Bydwal; only of having preferved two of his com

A dywed an dyvod lậl. positions ; one of which, called the Hir. las

, has been given to the public, though Cygwyn i'w thervyn, pathawr eu hoewez not sufficiently faithful, by the late Rev; Dywan dyw calan lonawr ; Evan Evans, in his Dissertatio de Bardis;" Dywed an dyvod Vaelawr. the other is given here, and is on the Dấs, wâs, na oluz, na olaith dy lwrw, custom of the Welsh princes' making

Dy luziaw nid hawz-waith; their periodical circuits at the three great Dywan o Vaelawr vawr-daith; festivals of Christmas, Easter, and Whit- Dywed an dyvod Gynllaith. suntide. These circuits constituted one

Dôs, was, â çynghor, na gyngain an torv, considerable means of support to them,

Val teuluöz byçain ; as the different officers of their establish- Dywan dwg rybuz hyzwain ; ments were also entitled to be received, Dywed an dyvod Vegain. according to their ranks, amongst the Teulu Owain rwyv rhwyktrafam wladoz : vaffals, as may be seen by the various

Poed gwlâd nêv ein adlam! regulations in the Laws of Hywel, upon Cyrę cyvrwyz, cyvlwyz, cyvlam, the subject.

Cylg Cymru cymmerasam. Englynion a gant teulu Owain Cyveiliog i Gylgau Cymrie.

Verses sung by the Family of Owain Cyveiliec to TEULU Owain lary, lluoz anhun trais

the Circuits of Wales. Yn eu traws arovun, Fyrz cyrz cyvezau dịun,

The family of Owain the mild, whom the Pa forz yz awn i Vortun?

re&less hosts of violence frowardly threaten,

on the paths of songs and social feasts, which Dôi, was, yn ebrwyz, heb rozi geirda

way thall we repair to Mortun? I'r gwrda y sy yndi;

Go, youth, quickly, without greeting the Dywan wân, trywan trwyzi;

good man there, take thy course; penetrate Dywed an dyvod i Geri.

through it; say that we shall come to Ceri. Dôs, wâs, o Geri, ac arcovn wrthid,

Go, youth, from Ceri, we request of thee, Rhag an llîd-an lloçi

for fear of our wrath, and the end we have in Diwez y doetham i ti;

store to bring upon thee; say that we come Dywed y down Arwystli.

to Arwyfli.

Messenger, be setting off, before an illusDygyçwyn, genad, gan vawrrydig dorv,

trious band, to the confines of Ceredic; take i dervyn Ceredig;

thy course wildly on an arrow's wing; fay Dywan ar wyllt ar wallt pîg;

that we shall visit Penwedic. Dywed down Benwedig.

Go from Penwedic, messenger of honourDós o Benwedig, boen ovyz genad,

able toil, since no disgrace belongs to thee; Ganyth wna cywilyz ;

range, and, with encreased eloquence, say that Dywan ar gynan gynyz ;

we shall visit Meirion. Dywed y döwn, Veirionyz..

Messenger, be Tetting off, approaching the MONTHLY MAG. No. XXVIII,




" He


Account of John of Ravenna. ingly scarce: the materials also are, in and treated him as if he had been his own general, lo fcattered, many of them in fon. In a letter to John de Certaldo *, books now almost forgotten, and buried Petrarch highly extols him, not only for under the dust of libraries, that it would his genius and talents, but also for his require a considerable share of time and prudent and virtuous conduct. patience to collect them. Should ever a possesses," says he, “ what is very rare in history of this kind, however, be at our times, a great turn for poetry, and a tempted, no one would deserve a more noble desire to become acquainted with conspicuous place in it than John de Ra- every useful and ornamental part of venna, the scholar of Petrarch, who, knowledge. He is favoured by the though he left no works behind him to Muses, and already attempts verses of attest his merit, may be justly considered his own ; from which one can foretel, as one of the first revivers of the Greek that, if his life be spared, and if he goes and Latin languages in the fourteenth on as hitherto, fomething great may be and fifteenth centuries. This learned expected from him.” man taught with as much success as his Not long, however, after this panegymaster, Petrarch, wrote; and, by the ric was written, young Malpaghino conoral inltruction which he gave in the ceived an insuperable defire to see the principal cities of Europe, contributed world; and, notwithstanding all Pegreatly to the support of that revolution trarch’s remonstrances, persisted in his rein the arts of teaching and learningsolution of quitting him. Petrarch's which Petrarch, by his example and paternal care and regard for his pupil apwritings, began. Without him, the pear, on this occasion, in the most falight which Petrarch had kindled would, vourable light, as may be seen in his in all probability, have been either ex- letters to Donatus ; and his whole betinguished, or at least obscured : and had haviour, though the young man insisted he not excited in Italy a desire of being on leaving him, without alligning a sufacquainted with the treasures of Roman ficient reason for his precipitate and unliterature, Manuel Chryfoloras would grateful conduct, does as much honour not have been invited to that country, to his head as to his heart. and the Greek language would not have The precipitation with which John de been cultivated so early, and with so much Ravenna carried his plan into execution ardour.---As little, in general, is known was not likely to make it answer his exrespecting the life and character of this pectations. He departed without taking friend to letters, the following account with him letters of recommendation which of him may, perhaps, not be unaccepta- Petrarch offered him to his friends. He, ble to those fond of historical researches --- however, pursued his journey over the

John Malpaghino, commonly called Appenines, amidst continual rain, giv. John de Ravenna, from the place of his ing out that he had been disiniffed by birth, was born in the year 1352, of a Petrarch ; but, though he experienced family distinguished neither by riches nor from many a compassion to which he was nobility. His father, however, committed not entitled by his conduct, he now behim to the care of Donatus, the gran- gan to awaken from his dream. He promarian, an intimate friend of Petrarch, ceeded, therefore, to Pisa, in order to who at that time taught the Latin with procure a vessel to carry him back togreat applaute at Venice. Donatus wards Pavia; but being disappointed, thought he discovered such happy dilpo- while his money wasted as much as his fitions in young Malpaghino, that he re- patience decreased, he suddenly resolved commended him to Petrarch, not only as to travel back across the Appenines, an excellent affiftant to facilitate his la- When he descended into the Liguriau bours, by reading or transcribing for plains, he attempted to wade through a him, but as a youih of the most promif- river in the district of Parma, which was ing talents, and worthy of being tormed much Iwelled by the rains, and being carunder the inspection of the greatelt nian ried by the force of the stream into a of the fourteenth century.

whirlpool, he would have lost his life, had It appears from some of Petrarck's ' he not been faved by some people who letters, for it is from tiefe.chietly we can were accidentally passing that way. Atter obtain information respecting John de escaping this danger, he arrived, pennyRavenna, that he fully answered the expectations formed of him; and that he * Better known under the name of Boceven gained the farcur and affection of caccio or Boecace. Certaldo was the piace of his patron so much, that he loved him his birth

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