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that the heat is, in a considerable degree, in proportion to the height of the situation, or to the warmth imbibed by the surrounding atmosphere from the objects in contact.

303. As the rays of light are turned out of their course, or refracted half a degree when they enter the atmosphere, the sun's rays, when they reach the earth, represent him a degree higher than he is; and, as he is a degree in diameter, he appears just above the horizon, when, in reality, his upper edge is just touching it. So it is at his setting; and with his

appearance and disappearance in the polar regions; and also, with the moon, and all the heavenly bodies.

304. The denominations of various parts of the earth are derived from the phenomena produced by the sun in the earth's descent and ascent in its orbit. All these are given beneath, and they should not forgotten.

North Pole, 90 degrees from the Equator.

Frozen Zone
-Arctic Circle, sixty-six and a half degrees.

Temperate Zone.
- Tropic of Cancer, twenty-three and a half deg.

Torrid Zone.
EQUATOR or MIDDIE.

Torrid Zone.
— Tropic of Capricorn, 23 and a half degrees.

Tenperate Zone.
-Ant-artic Circle, sixty-six and a half degrees.

Frozen Zone. South Pole, 90 degrees from the Equator. 305. The space between the tropics, twice 23} degrees wide, is called the Torrid Zone, from its extreme heat; the spaces within 23į degrees of each pole are called the Frozen Zones, from the length and frigid

Earth's Axis.

nature of their winters; and the two spaces between the hot and cold zones, are called the Temperate Zones.

306. Such are the divisions of the earth, arising from the phenomena and effects of the sun, the source of light, heat, and life. They give rise to all the varieties of climates, productions, colour, and habits of man ; and are, therefore, the key to a further and more correct knowledge of his habitation, the Globe the Earth.

GEOGRAPHY. 307. The natural divisions of the earth into lands and waters have already been noticed. The other great divisions, founded on local views only, are called EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA, and AMERICA, commonly called the four quarters of the globe; each quarter is divided into kingdoms; and each kingdom into provinces, principalities, or counties.

308. This last division gives national denominations to men ; but the climates or zones fix their colour or character. These divide man into at least six varieties, produced by habit, and the effects of heat and cold during a series of ages.

I. The dwarfish inhabitants of the polar regions;
II. The flat-nosed, olive-coloured tawny race;
III. The blacks of Asia, with European features ;
IV. The woolly-haired negroes of Africa;

V. The copper-coloured native Americans, with black hair and flat noses ;

VI. The white European nations. 309. Man is at the head of the animated creation

; and unites all the advantages of strength, beauty, and structure, which are but partially possessed by other animals. His CREATOR has also endowed him with the faculty of reasoning, and with the power and will to adapt all the single contrivances of other animals, to his own wants and luxuries.

traffic was carried on in these poor people, who were torn from their country to work in the sugar-plantations of the West Indies; but, happily, the slave-trade carried on by American and British merchants, has been abolished. There is also now a prospect that other nations, particularly the Spanish and Portuguese, through the intervention of Great Britain, will shortly abolish this nefarious trade.

323. These simple people inhabit all the coasts and interior of Africa between the tropics, and have been retained in a barbarous state by the effects of the slavetrade; which induced their tribes and nations to make war upon each other, for the purpose of stealing the people, and selling them for slaves to Europeans.

AFRICANS.

[graphic]

HOTTENTOTS.

[graphic]

324. The next distinct family of men, are the native American Indians, spread in small tribes over the whole of that vast continent. They are of a dark copper-colour, have black hair, and small black eyes, high cheek-bones, and frequently flat noses.

As the Europeans advance, the natives retire, and form the inhabitants of what are called the Back Settlements.

[graphic][subsumed]

325. The sixth variety, or the European race, are the English, the French, the Germans, Italians, Spaniards, and other modern nations. These had their origin partly from the Scandinavians, (Swedes and Goths,) characterised by light hair and blue eyes; and from the Celts, distinguished by black eyes and black hair.

The Swedes, English, Irish, Scotch, and Germans, are very fair; but the Italians, French, and Spaniards, are swarthy,

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326. The clear complexion of the European is best adapted to express the passions of the soul and the health of the body; while the energy of their understandings, and the vigor of their corporeal frames, qualify them to carry all the arts to perfection and to raise man to that scale of eminence, to which he seems to have been fitted and destined by his CREATOR.

327. Such are the natures and the varieties of men, as scattered over the face of the earth. Their numbers united are supposed to be nearly eight hundred millions : of whom in Europe, every square mile contains 34, in Asia, 36, in Africa, 6, and in America 3 individuals.

The whole number of human beings being renewed every 32 years, on the average, 25 millions must dei

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