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Counties. Chief Towns. Counties. Chief Towns.
Limerick Clare Ennis Tipperary
Cork Waterford Waterford Obs.--For the particulars of the British Empire, see Goldsmith's British Geography.
339. Asia includes countries the most populous and fertile of any on the globe. It was, besides the first peopled, the residence of our first parents, the scene of scripture-history, and in Canaan, JESUS CHRIST worked his miracles, and promulgated the doctrines of revelation and a future state.
340. Modern Asia contains Siberia, Tartary, China, Birmania, Malacca, Hindostan, Thibet, Persia, Arabia, Syria, Turkey in Asia, besides the vast islands of Japan, Borneo, Sumatra, Ceylon, New Holland, the Philippines, Formosa, &c.
341. The internal seas of Asia are the Red Sea, the Persian Gulph, the Caspian Sea, the Japanese Sea, and the Yellow Sea. Its coasts are washed besides, by the Great Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Chinese Sea, the Northern Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, and the Arabian Sea.
342. Its great rivers are the Ganges, the Euphrates, the Indus, the Amur, the Kian Ku, and the Hoan Ho; and the mountains where these rise, are the Uralian, the Gauts, those of Caucasus Taurus, and Thibet.
343. British India, or countries governed by England in India, are those immense and fertile districts watered by the Ganges called Bengal, of which Calcutta is the capital; nearly the whole of the coasts of the peninsula of India, and the island of Ceylon.
Where sacred Ganges pours along the plain,
And teeming plenty empties all her store, 344. China is at once the most ancient, the most extensive, the most populous, and best regulated empire in the world. In it are more than 300 millions of people; and its laws and government have subsisted, with very slight changes, for upwards of 3,000 years.
345. It is covered with canals, and every acre of its soil is cultivated. To secure it from invasion, it is separated from Tartary by a wall 1,500 miles long, and so thick, that five horsemen may every where ride
abreast on it; yet the Tartars conquered China about 150 years ago, and still retain its government.
346. The chief cities of China are, Pekin, Nankin, and Canton, each of which contains more inhabitants than London, and they are rather more extensive. Canton is the only port where foreigners are allowed to trade; and from hence, the English and Americans bring teas and other Chinese commodities for the supply of Europe and America.
347. The Birman empire, of which the capitals are Ava and Pegu, separates China from India. Persia, celebrated in ancient history, has for many years been torn in pieces by civil wars, Arabia is famous for the exploits of Mahomet ; and for the still wandering character of its inhabitants.
O'er Arabia's desert sands
The patient camel walks :
The fell hyena stalks.
Coffee-shrubs and tam'rinds grow:
Down the fruitful dells below.
Perfume the passing gale :
O’er towers the peopled vale.
Hover in the darken'd air;
Bringing famine and despair :
The stifling hot winds fly:
The gasping cattle die.
Pitch their tents and wander free;
Poor-yet blessed with liberty. 348. The land of Canaan, now called Syria, has been for four centuries in the hands of the Turks
; and, like other parts of their empire, has become almost a desert. Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and the places recorded in the Old and New Testaments, are now supported chiefly by pilgrims from Catholic countries, and there are still chapels for their reception.
349. The following is a summary of the great divisions of Asia:
Nations. Chief Cities. Population.
Pekin and Nankin, 300 do.
Mecca and Medina, 10 do.
350. AFRICA is that quarter of the world which lies, for the chief part, within the torrid zone ; and is, consequently, burnt up by extreme heat, which engenders also ferocious wild beasts, and every kind of noxious reptiles. It is therefore unhealthy; and in every respect unfavorable to the civilization of man.
351. In ancient times, it was the site of Carthagethe rival of Rome, and for ages the mistress of the commerce of the world ; and through all history, Egypt has been famous as the nursery of the sciences, and the emporium of commerce. At present, Carthage lies in ruins; and Egypt is a prey to civil anarchy.
352. The northern coasts are inhabited by the Moors, at whose head is the despotic emperor of Mo
The piratical states of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli, are also on these coasts. At present, the cape of Good Hope, the southern promontory, and an English settlement, is the only part of Africa adapted to the enjoyment of man.
353. From the northern coasts to the Cape of Good Hope, the whole of this immense continent is inhabited by innumerable tribes or nations of Blacks; many of them in a state of absolute barbarism, and few possesssing any considerable degree of civilization.
354. The chief rivers of Africa are,—the Nile, the Niger, and the Senegal. The mountains are those of Atlas and the Moon. The islands are-Madagascar the Cape Verd, and the delightful Canaries, in one of which is the losty Peak of Teneriffe.
355. The following is a survey of those parts of Africa which are perfectly formed : Nations. Chief Cities.
do. Savage Tribes,
50 do. 356. Till the discovery of the powers of the magnetic needle, navigators dared not to venture out of